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Encyclopedia > Discrimination against atheists

Discrimination against atheists is a negative categorical bias against atheists or secularism. Such prejudice and discrimination is a type of religious intolerance. In nations where freedom of belief is biased towards established religions, the issue becomes persecution of atheists. The Out Campaign and Brights movement are efforts to counter the feelings of discrimination and raise a positive public awareness about atheism and naturalism. Image File history File links Portal. ... Atheist redirects here. ... This article is about secularism. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Affirmative action in the United States Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity... Religious intolerance is either intolerance motivated by ones own religious beliefs or intolerance against anothers religious beliefs or practices. ... The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ... Many atheists have experienced persecution, mainly from Christians and Muslims. ... Symbol of the brights The brights movement was started by Paul Geisert and Mynga Futrell in 2003 to provide a positive-sounding umbrella term, bright, to describe various types of people who have a naturalistic worldview, without casting that worldview as a negative response to religion (as the terms atheist... Naturalism is any of several philosophical stances, typically those descended from materialism and pragmatism, that reject the validity of explanations or theories making use of entities inaccessible to natural science. ...

Contents

International examples

Denmark

Even though religious freedom is guaranteed in the Danish constitution some laws exists that are considered discriminatory against non-religious citizens. The Constitutional Act of the Kingdom of Denmark (Danish: Danmarks Riges Grundlov) was introduced on June 5, 1849 and effectively put an end to the absolute monarchy which had been introduced in 1660. ...

  • The state church is partially subsidized by public funds. The state pays for the salaries and pensions of bishops, the pensions of priests and provost, 40% of the salaries of priests and provosts and all expenses concerning the conduction of church services in Ertholmene. Furthermore the state pays at least 14 000 000 DKK each year for the restoration of churches, historical church interiors and historical grave sites.[citation needed]
  • The monarch is required to be a member of the state church by the Danish Constitution.

Ertholmene, sometimes called Christiansø, is a small archipelago situated approx. ... ISO 4217 Code DKK User(s) Denmark, Greenland, Faroe Islands 1 Inflation 1. ... The Constitutional Act of the Kingdom of Denmark (Danish: Danmarks Riges Grundlov) was introduced on June 5, 1849 and effectively put an end to the absolute monarchy which had been introduced in 1660. ...

Egypt

Egypt introduced new identity cards in 2004 which identifies each citizen of Egypt as one of three religions: Muslim, Christian or Jewish. No other entries are possible, nor is it possible to leave the space for religion blank. If atheists are unwilling to lie about their religion, they are denied many basic human rights. Egyptian atheists cannot obtain birth certificates, death certificates, marriage or divorce certificates or passports. Without identity cards they have no access to medical treatment, cannot vote, cannot be employed, cannot do business with banks, not even to withdraw money from their own bank accounts. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... German identity document sample An identity document is a piece of documentation designed to prove the identity of the person carrying it. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


Germany

Religious freedom is constitutionally guaranteed, yet the state collects a church tax ("Kirchensteuer") from all registered members of the Evangelical and Catholic Christian faiths. De-registering oneself costs up to €50, depending on the federal state (as of 2000, has increased in the meantime).[1] Payment is not required when switching between the two "taxed" faiths.[citation needed] This fee is required, too, if the person who wants to leave the church doesn't have any own income, in cases of someone who is 14 (the legal age in Germany at which a person can chose his religion without the parent's consent), or in cases of someone who is unemployed. In an article in a German atheist magazine, a telephone conversation with a German civil servant about this is reported. When he was asked how the fee was compatible to the Grundgesetz (the constitution of Germany, that includes religious freedom in §4), the civil servant replied: "It's just the way that this case has not been considered by the legislator".[2] Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution[1] of Germany. ...


Norway

In 2007, the European Court of Human Rights ruled in favor of Norwegian parents who had sued the Norwegian state. The case was about a subject in compulsory school, kristendomskunnskap med religions- og livssynsorientering (Teachings of Christianity with orientation about religion and philosophy), KRL. The applicants complained that the refusal to grant full exemption from KRL prevented them from ensuring that their children received an education in conformity with their atheist views and philosophical convictions. A few years earlier, in 2004, the UN Committee on Human Rights in Geneva had given its support to the parents.[3] European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), often referred to informally as the Strasbourg Court, was created to systematise the hearing of human rights complaints against States Parties to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, adopted by...


Sweden

In Sweden, generally considered one of the most secularized countries in the world,[4] there exist laws that could be considered discriminatory towards atheists:

  • The king of Sweden must according to the law be a Christian. This is seen as an endorsement of Christianity by many atheists.[5]
  • Until 2000, Sweden had an official state church. Even after the law was changed, there is a special law that regulates the church and its affairs.[6]
  • In many public schools, the commencement after each semester is held in a church and a priest delivers a sermon. Sometimes schools go to church to celebrate holidays. When atheists have objected to this "tradition", politicians have defended it. On 26 October 2006, the Swedish minister of schools, Jan Björklund, stated that "We should not have any general rules in Sweden that you may not continue to have school commencements or ceremonies in a church any longer. There will definitely be no change on that issue."[7]
  • In October 2006, the Swedish Humanists filed a complaint to the ombudsmen of parliament[8] and The Chancellor of Justice[9] about sermons arranged by the parliament because, the Humanists claimed, it was contrary to secularization, and thus discriminating against non-Christians, including atheists. Both the ombudsmen and the chancellor concluded that they had no jurisdiction over the issue and chose not to comment further on the case. Thus, these sermons will continue.
  • There is special funding to religious NGOs, "trossamfund", Lag (1998:1593) om trossamfund. According to Swedish law, in order to register a trossamfund one must organize divine services. Thus secular and/or atheist organisations who fill the same purpose as religious groups are discriminated from this funding. There is no equivalent funding for secular groups [10]

is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Swedish Humanist Association (Swedish: , the Humanists) is the largest humanist/rationalist organisation in Sweden with over 4,000 members. ... For the Canadian television series, see Ombudsman (TV series). ...

Victorian Britain

Charles Bradlaugh

In Victorian Britain the atheist Charles Bradlaugh was elected MP for Northampton. His request to be allowed to affirm on taking his seat was denied, and he was also prevented from taking the (religious) oath as an alternative. During the lengthy dispute, he was fined and even briefly imprisoned, despite being repeatedly elected to his office. Ultimately he was able to get a bill passed securing the right of affirmation. Image File history File links Charles_Bradlaugh. ... Image File history File links Charles_Bradlaugh. ... The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... Charles Bradlaugh (26 September 1833 _ 30 January 1891) was a political activist and one of the most famous English atheists of the 19th century. ... Northampton is a large market town and a local government district in the English East Midlands region. ...


United States

In the United States, there is widespread disapproval of atheists. For example, according to motherjones.com, 52% of Americans claim they would not vote for a well-qualified atheist for president.[11] More recently a 2007 Gallup poll produced nearly identical results.[12] A 2006 study at the University of Minnesota showed atheists to be the most distrusted minority among Americans.[13] Notwithstanding such attitudes, atheists are legally protected from discrimination in the United States. They have been among the strongest advocates of the legal separation of church and state. American courts have regularly, if controversially, interpreted the constitutional requirement for separation of church and state as protecting the freedoms of non-believers, as well as prohibiting the establishment of any state religion. Constantines Conversion, depicting the conversion of Emperor Constantine the Great to Christianity, by Peter Paul Rubens. ...


Rob Sherman controversy

At a Chicago press conference during the 1988 U.S. presidential campaign George H. W. Bush, at the time a Republican candidate for the presidency, reportedly stated, "I don't know that atheists should be regarded as citizens, nor should they be regarded as patriotic.", according to Rob Sherman of the American Atheist Magazine. When asked specifically about his opinion on the separation of church and state, Bush was reported to have replied: "I support separation of church and state. I'm just not very high on atheists." This story has been taken up by several atheist groups.[14][15] However, this statement appears impossible to verify. The only original source for it is Rob Sherman himself.[16] The United States presidential election of 1988 featured an open primary for both major parties. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... The separation of church and state is a legal and political principle derived from the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, which reads, Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof . ...


Kevin Drum from the Washington Monthly comes to the conclusion that "apparently it's correct that no other reporters have ever corroborated the exchange" of George H. W. Bush with Bob Sherman.[17] Nonetheless, Sherman has pointed to an exchange between Jon Garth Murray, then President of American Atheists, and White House Counsel C Boyden Gray in 1989 over the said comments which Sherman believes corroborates his version of events. In the exchange, Gray refused to deny that Bush had made the said comments, noting that "the President is a religious man who neither supports atheism nor believes that atheism should be unnecessarily encouraged or supported by the government."[18] Sherman's explanation of this is that "If [Mr Gray's] client, Mr Bush, had not made those statements to me, Mr Gray would have denied that they were said rather than trying to justify the statements. If Mr Bush wanted to distance himself from the statements, Mr. Gray could have tried to create doubt about whether Mr. Bush had made the statements."[19] The Washington Monthly is a monthly magazine of United States politics and government that is based in Washington, DC. Its founder is Charles Peters, who started the magazine in 1969 and continues to write columns occasionally. ... The American Atheists logo, based on the atomic model. ...


Court cases

In the 1994 case[20] Board of Education of Kiryas Joel Village School District v. Grumet, Justice Souter wrote in the opinion for the Court that: "government should not prefer one religion to another, or religion to irreligion." [21] Everson v. Board of Education established that "neither a state nor the Federal Government can pass laws which aid one religion, aid all religions, or prefer one religion over another". This applies the Establishment Clause to the states as well as the federal government.[22] However, several state constitutions make the protection of persons from religious discrimination conditional on their acknowledgment of the existence of a deity, making freedom of religion in those states inapplicable to atheists. These state constitutional clauses have not been tested. Civil rights cases are typically brought in federal courts, so such state provisions are mainly of symbolic importance. Holding --- Court membership Case opinions Laws applied --- Board of Education of Kiryas Joel Village School District v. ... Holding The Establishment Clause of the First Amendment is incorporated against the states. ... See also: List of deities Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In the Newdow case, after a father challenged the phrase "under God" in the United States Pledge of Allegiance, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals found the phrase unconstitutional. Although the decision was stayed pending the outcome of an appeal, there was the prospect that the pledge would cease to be legally usable without modification in schools in the western United States, over which the Ninth Circuit has jurisdiction. This resulted in political furor, and both houses of Congress passed resolutions condemning the decision, unanimously.[23]. On June 26, a Republican-dominated group of 100-150 congressmen stood outside the capital and recited the pledge - showing how much they disagreed with the decision.[23] The Supreme Court subsequently reversed the decision, ruling that Michael Newdow did not have standing to bring his case, thus disposing of the case without ruling on the constitutionality of the pledge. Holding A noncustodial parent did not have standing in federal court to allege that his childs school violated the Establishment Clause by leading students in the recital of the phrase one nation, under God in the Pledge of Allegiance. ... The Pledge of Allegiance is a promise or oath of allegiance to the United States and the its national flag. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Rev. ...


Several private organizations, the most notable being the Boy Scouts of America, do not allow atheist members. However, this policy has come under fire by organizations who assert that the Boy Scouts of America do profit from taxpayer money and thus cannot be called a truly private organization, and thus must admit atheists (along with gays, and others currently barred from membership). An organization called Scouting for All,[24] founded by Eagle Scout Steven Cozza, is at the forefront of the movement to expose perceived hypocrisy on the part of the Boy Scouts of America. Cozza and others allege that when the BSA wants to discriminate, they act as a private organization; when they want money or the use of publicly-funded buildings, venues, or property, they act as a public organization. For the Boy Scouting program within the BSA, see Boy Scouting (Boy Scouts of America). ... Scouting For All is a non-profit organization founded by Eagle Scout Steven Cozza and Dave Rice, which is trying to eliminate the Boy Scouts of Americas policies on not allowing members in their organization who are gay/lesbian, non-theist, and/or girls/women. ... An Eagle Scout is a Scout with the highest rank attainable in the Boy Scouting program of the Boy Scouts of America (BSA). ...


State constitutions

Part of a series on
Atheism

Concepts
Religion · Nontheism
Antireligion · Antitheism
Agnosticism · Humanism
Metaphysical naturalism
Weak and strong atheism
Implicit and explicit atheism
Atheist redirects here. ... Nontheism is a term that covers a range of both religious and nonreligious attitudes characterized by the absence of—or the rejection of—theism or any belief in a personal god or gods. ... Antireligion is opposition to some or all religions in some or all contexts. ... Antitheism (sometimes anti-theism) is active opposition to theism. ... Agnosticism (Greek: α- a-, without + γνώσις gnōsis, knowledge; after Gnosticism) is the philosophical view that the truth value of certain claims — particularly metaphysical claims regarding theology, afterlife or the existence of God, gods, deities, or even ultimate reality — is unknown or, depending on the form of agnosticism, inherently unknowable due to... Secular humanism is a humanist philosophy that upholds reason, ethics, and justice, and specifically rejects the supernatural and the spiritual as warrants of moral reflection and decision-making. ... Metaphysical naturalism is any worldview in which nature is all there is and all things supernatural (which stipulatively includes as well as spirits and souls, non-natural values, and universals as they are commonly conceived) do not exist. ... Strong atheism is a term generally used to describe atheists who accept as true the proposition, gods do not exist. Weak atheism refers to any type of non-theism which falls short of this standard. ... Implicit atheism and explicit atheism are subcategories of atheism coined by George H. Smith (1979, p. ...


History
History of atheism
Enlightenment · Freethought
Although the term atheism originated in the 16th century, based on Ancient Greek ἄθεος godless, denying the gods, ungodly[1] and open admission to positive atheism in modern times was not made earlier than in the late 18th century, atheistic ideas and beliefs, as well as their political influence, have a... The word Enlightment redirects here. ... Freethought is a philosophical viewpoint that holds that beliefs should be formed on the basis of science and logical principles and not be compromised by authority, tradition, or any other dogma. ...


Arguments
Against religion · For nontheism
Against god · Criticism
An atheist sign criticizing religion by the Connecticut Valley Atheists in Rockvilles Central Park, Vernon in December 2007. ... Religious belief refers to a faith or creed concerning the supernatural, sacred, or divine. ... Criticism of atheism is made chiefly by theistic sources, though some forms of atheism also receive criticism from nontheistic sources. ...


Demographics
Atheism · Irreligion
Famous atheists · State atheism
Discrimination · Persecution It is difficult to quantify the number of atheists in the world. ... This section does not cite its references or sources. ... Percy Bysshe Shelley, author of The Necessity of Atheism This is an incomplete list, which may never be able to satisfy certain standards for completeness. ... State atheism is the official promotion of atheism by a government, often accompanied by active suppression of religious belief and practice. ... Many atheists have experienced persecution, mainly from Christians and Muslims. ...

Atheism Portal · v  d  e 

Some state constitutions in the US require a religious test as a qualification for holding public office or being a witness, though a unanimous 1961 U.S. Supreme Court decision in Torcaso v. Watkins held that the First and Fourteenth Amendments to the federal Constitution override the state requirements.[25] The states which still have religious tests on the books include: Holding Government cannot require a religious test for public office. ... “First Amendment” redirects here. ... Amendment XIV in the National Archives The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (Amendment XIV) is one of the post-Civil War amendments (known as the Reconstruction Amendments), first intended to secure rights for former slaves. ...

  • Arkansas' Constitution of 1874 (Article 19, Section 1) states: "Atheists disqualified from holding office or testifying as witness. No person who denies the being of a God shall hold any office in the civil departments of this State, nor be competent to testify as a witness in any Court."[26]
  • North Carolina's Constitution of 1971 (Article 6, Section 8) states: "Disqualifications of office. The following persons shall be disqualified for office: First, any person who shall deny the being of Almighty God...."[27]. This was challenged and overturned by Voswinkel v. Hunt (1979).[citation needed]
  • South Carolina's Constitution of 2006 (Article 6, Section 2) states: "Person denying existence of Supreme Being not to hold office. No person who denies the existence of the Supreme Being shall hold any office under this Constitution."[28]
  • Tennessee's Constitution/Bill of Rights (Article 9, Section 2) states: "No person who denies the being of God, or a future state of rewards and punishments, shall hold any office in the civil department of this state."[29]
  • Texas' Constitution: The Bill of Rights (Article I, Section 4) last amended on September 13, 2003 states that an official may be "excluded from holding office" if she/he does not "acknowledge the existence of a Supreme Being."[30] Overturned by O'Hair v. Hill (1978-84).[citation needed]
  • Maryland's Bill of Rights:[31]
    • Article 36: "That as it is the duty of every man to worship God in such manner as he thinks most acceptable to Him, all persons are equally entitled to protection in their religious liberty; wherefore, no person ought by any law to be molested in his person or estate, on account of his religious persuasion, or profession, or for his religious practice, unless, under the color of religion, he shall disturb the good order, peace or safety of the State, or shall infringe the laws of morality, or injure others in their natural, civil or religious rights; nor ought any person to be compelled to frequent, or maintain, or contribute, unless on contract, to maintain, any place of worship, or any ministry; nor shall any person, otherwise competent, be deemed incompetent as a witness, or juror, on account of his religious belief; provided, he believes in the existence of God, and that under His dispensation such person will be held morally accountable for his acts, and be rewarded or punished therefore either in this world or in the world to come."
    • Article 37: "That no religious test ought ever to be required as a qualification for any office of profit or trust in this State, other than a declaration of belief in the existence of God; nor shall the Legislature prescribe any other oath of office than the oath prescribed by this Constitution."
    • Overturned in Torcaso v. Watkins.[32]

is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Holding Government cannot require a religious test for public office. ...

Typology

The first attempts to define or develop a typology of atheism were in religious apologetics. These attempts were expressed in terms and in contexts that reflected the religious assumptions and prejudices of the writers. A diversity of atheist opinion has been recognized at least since Plato, and common distinctions have been established between practical atheism and speculative or contemplative atheism. Apologists are authors, writers, editors of scientific logs or academic journals, and leaders known for taking on the points in arguments, conflicts or positions that are either placed under popular scrutinies or viewed under persecutory examinations. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ...


Practical atheism was said to be caused by moral failure, hypocrisy, willful ignorance and infidelity. Practical atheists were said to behave as though God, morals, ethics and social responsibility did not exist; they abandoned duty and embraced hedonism. Maritain's typology of atheism[33] proved influential in Catholic circles; it was followed in the New Catholic Encyclopedia.[34] He identified, in addition to practical atheism, pseudo-atheism and absolute atheism (and subdivided theoretical atheism in a way that anticipated Flew). For an atheist critique of Maritain, see Smith (1979, Chapter 1, Section 5).[35] The Catholic Encyclopedia, also referred to today as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in 1913 by The Encyclopedia Press. ...


According to the French Catholic philosopher Étienne Borne, 'Practical atheism is not the denial of the existence of God, but complete godlessness of action; it is a moral evil, implying not the denial of the absolute validity of the moral law but simply rebellion against that law.'[36]


According to Karen Armstrong (1999): Karen Armstrong (b. ...

During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the word 'atheist' was still reserved exclusively for polemic… In his tract Atheism Closed and Open Anatomized (1634), John Wingfield claimed: 'the hypocrite is an Atheist; the loose wicked man is an open Atheist; the secure, bold and proud transgressor is an Atheist: he that will not be taught or reformed is an Atheist'. For the Welsh poet William Vaughan (1577 [sic]–1641), who helped in the colonization of Newfoundland, those who raised rents or enclosed commons were obvious atheists. The English dramatist Thomas Nashe (1567-1601) proclaimed that the ambitious, the greedy, the gluttons, the vainglorious and prostitutes were all atheists. The term 'atheist' was an insult. Nobody would have dreamed of calling himself an atheist.[37] This article is about the country. ... Sir William Vaughan (1575 – August 1641) was a Welsh writer and colonial investor. ... Motto: Quaerite Prime Regnum Dei (Latin: Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Capital St. ... Thomas Nashe (November 1567–1600?) was an English Elizabethan pamphleteer, poet and satirist. ...

On the other hand, the existence of serious, speculative atheism was often denied. That anyone might reason their way to atheism was thought to be impossible. The existence of God was self-evident, and (apparently) necessary for the proper functioning of society. Thus, speculative atheism was collapsed into a form of practical atheism, and conceptualized as hatred of God or a fight against righteous social mores. This is why Borne finds it necessary to say, 'to put forward the idea, as some apologists rashly do, that there are no atheists except in name but only practical atheists who through pride or idleness disregard the divine law, would be, at least at the beginning of the argument, a rhetorical convenience or an emotional prejudice evading the real question.'[38] Martin suggests that practical atheism would be better described as alienated theism.[39]


Other pejorative definitions

When denial of the existence of speculative atheism became unsustainable, atheism was nevertheless often repressed and criticized by narrowing definitions, applying charges of dogmatism, and otherwise misrepresenting atheist positions. One of the reasons for the popularity of euphemistic alternative terms like secularist, empiricist, or bright is that atheism still has pejorative connotations arising from attempts at suppression and from its association with practical atheism. During the Cold War, U.S. politicians often characterized their foreign opponents as Godless Communists, and godless is still used as an abusive epithet today. This article is about secularism. ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... Symbol of the brights The brights movement was started by Paul Geisert and Mynga Futrell in 2003 to provide a positive-sounding umbrella term, bright, to describe various types of people who have a naturalistic worldview, without casting that worldview as a negative response to religion (as the terms atheist...


Mynga Futrell and Paul Geisert, the originators of the term bright, made this explicit in an essay published in 2003:

Our personal frustration regarding labels reached culmination last fall when we were invited to join a march on Washington as 'Godless Americans'. The causes of the march were worthy, and the march itself well-planned and conducted. However, to unite for common interests under a disparaging term like 'godless' (it also means 'wicked') seemed ludicrous! Why accept and utilize the very derogatory language that so clearly hampers our own capacity to play a positive and contributing role in our communities and in the nation and world?[40]

Gaskin (1998) abandoned the term atheism in favor of unbelief, citing 'the pejorative associations of the term, its vagueness, and later the tendency of religious apologists to define atheism so that no one could be an atheist...'[41]


Despite these considerations, for others atheist has always been the preferred name. Charles Bradlaugh once said, in debate with George Jacob Holyoake, 10 March 1870: Charles Bradlaugh (26 September 1833 _ 30 January 1891) was a political activist and one of the most famous English atheists of the 19th century. ... George Jacob Holyoake ( April 13, 1817 - 1906), English secularist and co-operator, was born at Birmingham. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

I maintain that the opprobrium cast upon the word Atheism is a lie. I believe Atheists as a body to be men deserving respect... I do not care what kind of character religious men may put round the word Atheist, I would fight until men respect it.[42]

See also

The Boy Scouts of America, the largest youth organization in the United States, has policies which prohibit atheists, agnostics, and known or avowed homosexuals from membership in its Scouting program; both youths and adults have had their memberships revoked as a result. ... The precise origin of the phrase There are no atheists in foxholes, coined some time during World War II, is uncertain. ...

References

  1. ^ Internationaler Bund der Konfessionslosen und Atheisten / International league of non-religious and atheists: FAQ Kirchenaustritt, 7. (German)
  2. ^ Internationaler Bund der Konfessionslosen und Atheisten / International league of non-religious and atheists: Kirchenaustrittsgebühren (German)
  3. ^ Human-Etisk Forbund
  4. ^ see e.g. the Inglehart Values Map
  5. ^ The Act of Succession
  6. ^ Lag (1998:1591) om Svenska kyrkan]
  7. ^ Kammarens protokoll - Riksdagen
  8. ^ Registration number 4882-2006
  9. ^ Registration number 6726-06-21
  10. ^ Lag (1998:1593) om trossamfund]
  11. ^ Faith in the System
  12. ^ Hotline On Call: USA Today/Gallup: Watch Out Old Divorcees
  13. ^ "Atheists As “Other”: Moral Boundaries and Cultural Membership in American Society" (April 2006). American Sociological Review 71 (2). 
  14. ^ The National Secular Society: George Bush on atheists as citizens or patriots
  15. ^ Positive Atheism: Can George Bush, with impunity, state that atheists should not be considered either citizens or patriots?
  16. ^ Rob Sherman Advocacy: Vice President Bush Quote Regarding Atheists.
  17. ^ Kevin Drum, "Political Animal", April 2, 2006., see also: Kevin Drum, "Political Animal", March 23, 2006.
  18. ^ Documents Prove Bush Questioned Citizenship of Atheists
  19. ^ Documents Prove Bush Questioned Citizenship of Atheists
  20. ^ FindLaw
  21. ^ Cornell Law
  22. ^ About Atheism
  23. ^ a b CNN
  24. ^ Scouting For All
  25. ^ FindLaw for Legal Professionals - Case Law, Federal and State Resources, Forms, and Code
  26. ^ § 1. Atheists disqualified from holding office or testifying as witness
  27. ^ Article Vi
  28. ^ S.C. Constitution Article VI Officers - www.scstatehouse.net-LPITS
  29. ^ Tennessee Constitution - Article Ix. Disqualifications - Hosted By Tncrimlaw
  30. ^ The Texas Constitution - Art 1 - Sec 4
  31. ^ Maryland Constitution - Declaration of Rights
  32. ^ FindLaw for Legal Professionals - Case Law, Federal and State Resources, Forms, and Code
  33. ^ Maritain, Jacques (1953). "Chapter 8, The Meaning of Contemporary Atheism", The Range of Reason. London: Geoffrey Bles, 103-117.  Note: Chapter 8 is reprinted from "The Meaning of Contemporary Atheism" (July 1949). Review of Politics 11 (3): 267-280.  A version also appears in "The Meaning of Contemporary Atheism" (9 March 1950). The Listener 43 (1102): 427-429,432. 
  34. ^ Reid, J.P. (1967). "Atheism", New Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1000-1003. 
  35. ^ Smith, George H. (1980). Atheism: The Case Against God. Prometheus Books. ISBN 0-87975-124-X. 
  36. ^ Borne, Étienne (1961). Atheism. New York: Hawthorn Books, 10.  [Originally published in France under the title Dieu n’est pas mort: essai sur l’atheisme contemporain. Librairie Arthème Fayard, 1959]
  37. ^ Armstrong, Karen (1999). A History of God. London: Vintage, 331-332. ISBN 0-09-927367-5. 
  38. ^ Borne, Étienne (1961). Atheism, 18. 
  39. ^ Martin, Michael (1990). Atheism: A philosophical justification. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 465-466. ISBN 0-87722-943-0. 
  40. ^ Futrell, Mynga; Paul Geisert (2003). Nixing "Nonbelief"—The Brights. Retrieved on 2006-03-05.
  41. ^ (1998) in J.C.A. Gaskin: Varieties of Unbelief: from Epicurus to Sartre. New York: Macmillan, 4. ISBN 0-02-340681-X. 
  42. ^ Bonner, Bradlaugh; Hypatia (1908). Charles Bradlaugh: a record of his life and work. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 334. 

Jacques Maritain Jacques Maritain (November 18, 1882 – April 28, 1973) was a French Catholic philosopher. ... George H. Smith is a libertarian author. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the day. ...

Further reading

For more on repressive definitions of atheism, see:

  • Berman, David (1990). A History of Atheism in Britain: from Hobbes to Russell. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-04727-7.
  • Berman, David (1983). David Hume and the Suppression of Atheism. in Journal of the History of Philosophy, Vol. 21 (3), July 1983, p.375-387.
  • Berman, David (1982). The Repressive Denials of Atheism in Britain in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries in Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Vol. 82c, (9), p.211-246.
This section does not cite its references or sources. ... Atheist redirects here. ... Percy Bysshe Shelley, author of The Necessity of Atheism This is an incomplete list, which may never be able to satisfy certain standards for completeness. ... It is difficult to quantify the number of atheists in the world. ... Although the term atheism originated in the 16th century, based on Ancient Greek ἄθεος godless, denying the gods, ungodly[1] and open admission to positive atheism in modern times was not made earlier than in the late 18th century, atheistic ideas and beliefs, as well as their political influence, have a... State atheism is the official promotion of atheism by a government, often accompanied by active suppression of religious belief and practice. ... Criticism of atheism is made chiefly by theistic sources, though some forms of atheism also receive criticism from nontheistic sources. ... Many atheists have experienced persecution, mainly from Christians and Muslims. ... Strong atheism is a term generally used to describe atheists who accept as true the proposition, gods do not exist. Weak atheism refers to any type of non-theism which falls short of this standard. ... Agnostic atheism is a philosophical doctrine that encompasses both atheism and agnosticism. ... Implicit atheism and explicit atheism are subcategories of atheism coined by George H. Smith (1979, p. ... Antitheism (sometimes anti-theism) is active opposition to theism. ... Antireligion is opposition to some or all religions in some or all contexts. ... Atheist Alliance International (AAI) is an alliance of atheist organisations around the world. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (504x656, 106 KB) Ludwig Feuerbach is a german philosopher. ... This article refers to the philosopher. ... Agnosticism (Greek: α- a-, without + γνώσις gnōsis, knowledge; after Gnosticism) is the philosophical view that the truth value of certain claims — particularly metaphysical claims regarding theology, afterlife or the existence of God, gods, deities, or even ultimate reality — is unknown or, depending on the form of agnosticism, inherently unknowable due to... Thomas Huxley, coiner of the term agnostic. ... Agnostic Theism is the philosophical view that encompasses both theism and agnosticism. ... Agnostic atheism is a philosophical doctrine that encompasses both atheism and agnosticism. ... Weak agnosticism, or empirical agnosticism (also negative agnosticism), is the belief that the existence or nonexistence of deities is currently unknown, but is not necessarily unknowable, therefore one will withhold judgment until more evidence is available. ... Strong agnosticism or positive agnosticism is the belief that it is impossible for humans to know whether or not any God or gods exist. ... Ignosticism is a word coined by Rabbi Sherwin Wine to indicate one of two related views about the existence of God. ... Apatheism (a portmanteau of apathy and theism/atheism), also known as pragmatic or critically as practical atheism, is acting with apathy, disregard, or lack of interest towards belief, or lack of belief in a deity. ... Nontheism is a term that covers a range of both religious and nonreligious attitudes characterized by the absence of—or the rejection of—theism or any belief in a personal god or gods. ... Secular humanism is a humanist philosophy that upholds reason, ethics, and justice, and specifically rejects the supernatural and the spiritual as warrants of moral reflection and decision-making. ... Freethought is a philosophical viewpoint that holds that beliefs should be formed on the basis of science and logical principles and not be compromised by authority, tradition, or any other dogma. ... This article is about secularism. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... An atheist sign criticizing religion by the Connecticut Valley Atheists in Rockvilles Central Park, Vernon in December 2007. ... The Freedom From Religion Foundation is an American Freethought organization based in Madison, Wisconsin. ... Bobby Henderson redirects here. ... A depiction of the Invisible Pink Unicorn, in the style of a heraldic animal rampant, though the nearest heraldic color to pink is purpure (purple). ... Russells teapot, sometimes called the Celestial Teapot, was an analogy first coined by the philosopher Bertrand Russell, intended to refute the idea that the burden of proof lies upon the sceptic to disprove unfalsifiable claims of religions. ... Below are words that designate a set or subset of beliefs. ... Acosmism, in contrast to pantheism, denies the reality of the universe, seeing it as ultimately illusory, (the prefix a- in Greek meaning negation; like un- in English), and only the infinite unmanifest Absolute as real. ... Agnosticism (Greek: α- a-, without + γνώσις gnōsis, knowledge; after Gnosticism) is the philosophical view that the truth value of certain claims — particularly metaphysical claims regarding theology, afterlife or the existence of God, gods, deities, or even ultimate reality — is unknown or, depending on the form of agnosticism, inherently unknowable due to... The term Animism is derived from the Latin anima, meaning soul.[1][2] In its most general sense, animism is simply the belief in souls. ... Antireligion is opposition to some or all religions in some or all contexts. ... Atheist redirects here. ... For other uses, see Ceremonial Deism. ... This article is about the general notion of determinism in philosophy. ... For other uses, see Dualism (disambiguation). ... Look up Esotericism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Gnosticism (Greek: gnōsis, knowledge) refers to a diverse, syncretistic religious movement consisting of various belief systems generally united in the teaching that humans are divine souls trapped in a material world created by an imperfect spirit, the demiurge, who is frequently identified with the Abrahamic God. ... This article discusses Humanism as a non-theistic life stance. ... In philosophical debates about free will and determinism, libertarianism is generally held to be the combination of the following beliefs: that free will is incompatible with determinism that human beings do possess free will, and that determinism is false All libertarians subscribe to the philosophy of incompatibilism which states that... For other uses, see Monist (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... New Age describes a broad movement characterized by alternative approaches to traditional Western culture. ... The New Thought Movement or New Thought is comprised of a loosely allied group of denominations, organizations, authors, philosophers, and individuals who share a set of metaphysical beliefs concerning healing, life force, visualization, and personal power. ... The term nondual is a literal translation of the Sanskrit term advaita, (meaning not two). ... Pandeism (Greek πάν, pan = all and Latin deus = God, in the sense of deism), is a term used at various times to describe religious beliefs. ... Pantheism (Greek: πάν ( pan ) = all and θεός ( theos ) = God) literally means God is All and All is God. It is the view that everything is of an all-encompassing immanent abstract God; or that the universe, or nature, and God are equivalent. ... Theism is the belief in the existence of one or more divinities or deities. ... Thelema is the English transliteration of the Ancient Greek noun : will, from the verb θέλω: to will, wish, purpose. ... Theosophy is a word and a concept known anciently, commonly understood in the modern era to describe the studies of religious philosophy and metaphysics originating with Helena Petrovna Blavatsky from the 1870s. ... In religion, transcendence is a condition or state of being that surpasses, and is independent of, physical existence. ... Below are words that designate a set or subset of beliefs. ... Image File history File links Portal. ...

 
 

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