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Encyclopedia > Discrete space

In topology and related fields of mathematics, a discrete space is a particularly simple example of a topological space or similar structure, one in which the points are "isolated" from each other in a certain sense. Topology (Greek topos, place and logos, study) is a branch of mathematics concerned with spatial properties preserved under bicontinuous deformation (stretching without tearing or gluing); these are the topological invariants. ... Euclid, detail from The School of Athens by Raphael. ... Topological spaces are structures that allow one to formalize concepts such as convergence, connectedness and continuity. ...

## Contents

Given a set X:

• the discrete topology on X is defined by letting every subset of X be open, and X is a discrete topological space if it is equipped with its discrete topology;
• the discrete uniformity on X is defined by letting every superset of the diagonal {(x,x) : x is in X} in X × X be an entourage, and X is a discrete uniform space if it is equipped with its discrete uniformity.
• the discrete metric on X is defined by letting the distance between any distinct points x and y be 1, and X is a discrete metric space if it is equipped with its discrete metric.

A metric space ( E , d ) is said to be uniformly discrete if there exists r > 0 such that, for any $x,y in E$, one has either x = y or d(x,y) > r. The topology underlying a metric space can be discrete, without the metric being uniformly discrete: for example the usual metric on the set {1, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, ...} of real numbers. A is a subset of B, and B is a superset of A. In mathematics, especially in set theory, a set A is a subset of a set B, if A is contained inside B. Every set is a subset of itself. ... In topology and related fields of mathematics, a set U is called open if, intuitively speaking, you can wiggle or change any point x in U by a small amount in any direction and still be inside U. In other words, if x is surrounded only by elements of U... In the mathematical field of topology, a uniform space is a set with a uniform structure. ... A is a subset of B If X and Y are sets and every element of X is also an element of Y, then we say or write: X is a subset of (or is included in) Y; X ⊆ Y; Y is a superset of (or includes) X; Y ⊇ X... In topology, one defines uniform spaces in order to study concepts such as uniform continuity, completeness and uniform convergence. ... In mathematics, a metric space is a set where a notion of distance between elements of the set is defined. ... Two or more things are distinct if no two of them are the same thing. ... Look up one in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

## Properties

The underlying uniformity on a discrete metric space is the discrete uniformity, and the underlying topology on a discrete uniform space is the discrete topology. Thus, the different notions of discrete space are compatible with one another. On the other hand, the underlying topology of a non-discrete uniform or metric space can be discrete; an example is the metric space X := {1/n : n = 1,2,3,...} (with metric inherited from the real line and given by d(x,y) = |x − y|). Obviously, this is not the discrete metric; also, this space is not complete and hence not discrete as a uniform space. Nevertheless, it is discrete as a topological space. We say that X is topologically discrete but not uniformly discrete or metrically discrete. In mathematics, the real line is simply the set of real numbers. ... In mathematical analysis, a metric space M is said to be complete (or Cauchy) if every Cauchy sequence of points in M has a limit that is also in M. Intuitively, a space is complete if it doesnt have any holes, if there arent any points missing. For...

Any function from a discrete topological space to another topological space is continuous, and any function from a discrete uniform space to another uniform space is uniformly continuous. That is, the discrete space X is free on the set X in the category of topological spaces and continuous maps or in the category of uniform spaces and uniformly continuous maps. These facts are examples of a much broader phenomenon, in which discrete structures are usually free on sets. In mathematics, a singleton is a set with exactly one element. ... In mathematics, informally speaking, a limit point (or cluster point) of a set S in a topological space X is a point x in X that can be approximated by points of S other than x as well as one pleases. ... In mathematics, a base (or basis) B for a topological space X with topology T is a collection of open sets in T such that every open set in T can be written as a union of elements of B. We say that the base generates the topology T. Bases... In topology, one defines uniform spaces in order to study concepts such as uniform continuity, completeness and uniform convergence. ... In topology and related fields of mathematics, there are several restrictions that one often makes on the kinds of topological spaces that one wishes to consider. ... In topology and related branches of mathematics, a Hausdorff space is a topological space in which points can be separated by neighbourhoods. ... In mathematics, a compact space is a space that resembles a closed and bounded subset of Euclidean space Rn in that it is small in a certain sense and contains all its limit points. The modern general definition calls a topological space compact if every open cover of it has... â†” â‡” â‰¡ For other possible meanings of iff, see IFF. In mathematics, philosophy, logic and technical fields that depend on them, iff is used as an abbreviation for if and only if. Common alternative phrases to iff or if and only if include Q is necessary and sufficient for P and P... In mathematics, a set is called finite if and only if there is a bijection between the set and some set of the form {1, 2, ..., n} where is a natural number. ... In mathematical analysis, a metric space M is said to be complete (or Cauchy) if every Cauchy sequence of points in M has a limit that is also in M. Intuitively, a space is complete if it doesnt have any holes, if there arent any points missing. For... In mathematics, a metric space is a set (or space) where a distance between points is defined. ... In mathematics, a metric space is a set where a notion of distance between elements of the set is defined. ... In topology, a first-countable space is a topological space satisfying the first axiom of countability. Specifically, a space X is said to be first-countable if each point has a countable local base. ... In topology, a second-countable space is a topological space satisfying the second axiom of countability. Specifically, a space is said to be second-countable if its topology has a countable base. ... In mathematics the term countable set is used to describe the size of a set, e. ... In topology and related branches of mathematics, a topological space X is said to be disconnected if it is the union of two disjoint nonempty open sets. ... In topology and related branches of mathematics, a Baire space is a topological space in which, intuitively, there are enough points for certain limit processes. ... In topology and related areas of mathematics a continuous function is a morphism between topological spaces; that is, a mapping which preserves the topological structure. ... In mathematical analysis, a function f(x) is called uniformly continuous if, roughly speaking, small changes in the input x effect small changes in the output f(x) (continuity), and furthermore the size of the changes in f(x) depends only on the size of the changes in x but... The idea of a free object in mathematics is one of the basics of abstract algebra. ... Category theory is a mathematical theory that deals in an abstract way with mathematical structures and relationships between them. ...

With metric spaces, things are more complicated, because there are several categories of metric spaces, depending on what is chosen for the morphisms. Certainly the discrete metric space is free when the morphisms are all uniformly continuous maps or all continuous maps, but this says nothing interesting about the metric structure, only the uniform or topological structure. Categories more relevant to the metric structure can be found by limiting the morphisms to Lipschitz continuous maps or to short maps; however, these categories don't have free objects (on more than one element). However, the discrete metric space is free in the category of bounded metric spaces and Lipschitz continuous maps, and it is free in the category of metric spaces bounded by 1 and short maps. That is, any function from a discrete metric space to another bounded metric space is Lipschitz continuous, and any function from a discrete metric space to another metric space bounded by 1 is short. In mathematics, a morphism is an abstraction of a structure-preserving process between two mathematical structures. ... In mathematics, a structure on a set is some additional mathematical objects that, loosely speaking, attach to the set, making it easier to visualize or work with. ... In mathematics, a function f : M → N between metric spaces M and N is called Lipschitz continuous (or is said to satisfy a Lipschitz condition) if there exists a constant K > 0 such that d(f(x), f(y)) ≤ K d(x, y) for all x and y in M... In mathematics, a short map is a function f from a metric space X to another metric space Y such that for any we have . Here and denote metrics on and , respectively. ... In mathematics, a metric space is a set where a notion of distance between elements of the set is defined. ...

Going the other direction, a function f from a topological space Y to a discrete space X is continuous if and only it if is locally constant in the sense that every point in Y has a neighborhood on which f is constant. In mathematics, a function f from a topological space A to a set B is called locally constant, iff for every a in A there exists a neighborhood U of a, such that f is constant on U. Every constant function is locally constant. ... This is a glossary of some terms used in the branch of mathematics known as topology. ...

## Uses

A discrete structure is often used as the "default structure" on a set that doesn't carry any other natural topology, uniformity, or metric. For example, any group can be considered as a topological group by giving it the discrete topology, implying that theorems about topological groups apply to all groups. Indeed, analysts may refer to the ordinary, non-topological groups studied by algebraists as "discrete groups" . In some cases, this can be usefully applied, for example combined with Pontryagin duality. In mathematics, a group is a set, together with a binary operation, such as multiplication or addition, satisfying certain axioms, detailed below. ... In mathematics, a topological group G is a group that is also a topological space such that the group multiplication G Ã— G â†’ G and the inverse operation G â†’ G are continuous maps. ... In mathematics, a discrete group is a group G equipped with the discrete topology. ... In mathematics, in particular in harmonic analysis and the theory of topological groups, Pontryagin duality explains the general properties of the Fourier transform. ...

A 0-dimensional manifold (or differentiable or analytical manifold) is nothing but a discrete topological space. In the spirit of the previous paragraph, we can therefore view any discrete group as a 0-dimensional Lie group. On a sphere, the sum of the angles of a triangle is not equal to 180Â°. A sphere is not a Euclidean space. ... This article needs a better explanation of technical details or more context regarding applications or importance to make it more accessible to a general audience, or at least to technical readers outside this specialty. ...

While discrete spaces are not very exciting from a topological viewpoint, one can easily construct interesting spaces from them. For instance, a product of countably infinitely many copies of the discrete space of natural numbers is homeomorphic to the space of irrational numbers, with the homeomorphism given by the continued fraction expansion. A product of countably infinitely many copies of the discrete space {0,1} is homeomorphic to the Cantor set; and in fact uniformly homeomorphic to the Cantor set if we use the product uniformity on the product. Such a homeomorphism is given by ternary notation of numbers. (See Cantor space.) In mathematics the term countable set is used to describe the size of a set, e. ... In mathematics, a natural number is either a positive integer (1, 2, 3, 4, ...) or a non-negative integer (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, ...). The former definition is generally used in number theory, while the latter is preferred in set theory. ... This word should not be confused with homomorphism. ... In mathematics, an irrational number is any real number that is not a rational number, i. ... In mathematics, a continued fraction is an expression such as where a0 is some integer and all the other numbers an are positive integers. ... 2 (two) is a number, numeral, and glyph. ... The Cantor set, introduced by German mathematician Georg Cantor, is a remarkable construction involving only the real numbers between zero and one. ... In the mathematical field of topology a uniform isomorphism or uniform homeomorphism is a special isomorphism between uniform spaces which respects uniform properties. ... Ternary is the base 3 numeral system. ... In mathematics, the term Cantor space is sometimes used to denote the topological abstraction of the classical Cantor set: A topological space is a Cantor space if it is homeomorphic to the Cantor set. ...

In the foundations of mathematics, the study of compactness properties of products of {0,1} is central to the topological approach to the ultrafilter principle, which is a weak form of choice. Foundations of mathematics is a term sometimes used for certain fields of mathematics itself, namely for mathematical logic, axiomatic set theory, proof theory, model theory, and recursion theory. ... In mathematics, a compact space is a space that resembles a closed and bounded subset of Euclidean space Rn in that it is small in a certain sense and contains all its limit points. The modern general definition calls a topological space compact if every open cover of it has... In mathematics, the ultrafilter lemma states that every filter is a subset of some ultrafilter, i. ... In mathematics, the axiom of choice, or AC, is an axiom of set theory. ...

## Indiscrete spaces

In some ways, the opposite of the discrete topology is the trivial topology (also called the indiscrete topology), which has the least possible number of open sets (just the empty set and the space itself). Where the discrete topology is initial or free, the indiscrete topology is final or cofree: every function from a topological space to an indiscrete space is continuous, etc. In topology, a topological space with the trivial topology is one where the only open sets are the empty set and the entire space. ... In mathematics and more specifically set theory, the empty set is the unique set which contains no elements. ...

## Quotation

Stanisław Marcin Ulam (April 13, 1909–May 13, 1984) was a Polish-American mathematician who helped develop the key theory behind the hydrogen bomb. ... Nickname: City of Angels Official website: http://www. ... The hour (symbol: h) is a unit of time. ... Look up Drive in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Drive has several meanings in various fields: In computing, drive is a device for mass storage. ... Point can refer to: Look up Point in Wiktionary, the free dictionary // Mathematics In mathematics: Point (geometry), an entity that has a location in space but no extent Fixed point (mathematics), a point that is mapped to itself by a mathematical function Point at infinity Point group Point charge, an...

In mathematics, subshifts of finite type are used to model dynamical systems, and in particular are the objects of study in symbolic dynamics and ergodic theory. ... Results from FactBites:

 PlanetMath: discrete space (231 words) The product of an infinite number of discrete spaces is discrete under the box topology, but if an infinite number of the spaces have more than one element, it is not discrete under the product topology. discrete subspace, discrete topology, discrete space, discrete subset This is version 14 of discrete space, born on 2002-02-27, modified 2005-06-19.
 Discrete space - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1106 words) The underlying uniformity on a discrete metric space is the discrete uniformity, and the underlying topology on a discrete uniform space is the discrete topology. Nevertheless, it is discrete as a topological space. However, the discrete metric space is free in the category of bounded metric spaces and Lipschitz continuous maps, and it is free in the category of metric spaces bounded by 1 and short maps.
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