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Encyclopedia > Discoveries of the chemical elements

The discovery of the elements known to exist today is presented here in chronological order. The elements are listed generally in the order in which each was first defined as the pure element, as the exact date of discovery of most elements cannot be accurately defined. The first few elements did not have any written record.

Contents

Antiquity

Name Date Discoverer
Carbon antiquity Unknown
Silver antiquity Unknown
Copper antiquity Unknown
Sulfur antiquity Unknown
Tin antiquity Unknown
Gold antiquity Unknown
Lead antiquity Unknown
Iron antiquity Unknown
Mercury antiquity Unknown

General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Atomic mass 12. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Atomic mass 107. ... General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic pinkish red Atomic mass 63. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Atomic mass 32. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tin, Sn, 50 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Atomic mass 118. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish white Atomic mass 207. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Atomic mass 55. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 200. ...

13th century

Name Date Discoverer Notes
Arsenic 1250 Albertus Magnus is believed to have been the first to isolate the element.

General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Atomic mass 74. ... // April 30 - King Louis IX of France released by his Egyptian captors after paying a ransom of one million dinars and turning over the city of Damietta. ... Albertus Magnus (1193? – November 15, 1280), also known as Saint Albert the Great and Albert of Cologne, was a Dominican friar who became famous for his comprehensive knowledge and advocacy for the peaceful coexistence of science and religion. ...

15th century

Name Date Discoverer Notes
Antimony 1450 First described scientifically by Tholden
Bismuth 15th century? May have been described in writings attributed to Basil Valentinus, definitively identified by Claude François Geoffroy in 1753

General Name, Symbol, Number antimony, Sb, 51 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous grey Atomic mass 121. ... Events March - French troops under Guy de Richemont besiege the English commander in France, Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, in Caen April 15 - Battle of Formigny. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bismuth, Bi, 83 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 15, 6, p Appearance lustrous reddish white Atomic mass 208. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Claude François Geoffroy (1729–1753) was a French chemist. ...

16th century

Name Date Discoverer Notes
Zinc 1526 Identified as a unique metal by Paracelsus

General Name, Symbol, Number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Atomic mass 65. ... Events January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. ... Paracelsus Paracelsus (born 11 November or 17 December 1493 in Einsiedeln, Switzerland - 24 September 1541) was an alchemist, physician, astrologer, and general occultist. ...

17th century

Name Date Discoverer Notes
Phosphorus 1669 Hening Brand, later described by Robert Boyle

General Name, Symbol, Number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Atomic mass 30. ... // Events Samuel Pepys stopped writing his diary. ... Hennig Brand (c. ... Robert Boyle Robert Boyle (January 25, 1627 – December 30, 1691) was an Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, inventor and early gentleman scientist, noted for his work in physics and chemistry. ...

18th century

Name Date Discoverer Notes
Cobalt 1732 Georg Brandt
Platinum ca. 1741 Discovered independently by Antonio de Ulloa (published 1748) and Charles Wood. Noticed in South American gold ore since the 16th century.
Nickel 1751 Axel Fredrik Cronstedt
Magnesium 1755 Joseph Black
Hydrogen 1766 Isolated and described by Henry Cavendish, named by Antoine Lavoisier
Oxygen 1771 Joseph Priestley Because of his belief in phlogiston, Priestley did not realise that he had prepared a new element, and thought that he had managed to prepare air free from phlogiston ("de-phlogisticated air").
Nitrogen 1772 Daniel Rutherford
Chlorine 1774 Carl Wilhelm Scheele
Manganese 1774 Johan Gottlieb Gahn
Molybdenum 1778 Carl Wilhelm Scheele
Tellurium 1782 Franz-Joseph Müller von Reichenstein
Tungsten 1783 Juan José Elhuyar and Fausto Elhuyar
Uranium 1789 Martin Heinrich Klaproth Named after the newly discovered planet, Uranus.
Zirconium 1789 Martin Heinrich Klaproth
Strontium 1793 Martin Heinrich Klaproth
Yttrium 1794 Johan Gadolin
Titanium 1797 Martin Heinrich Klaproth
Chromium 1797 Louis Nicolas Vauquelin
Beryllium 1798 Louis Nicolas Vauquelin

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Events February 23 - First performance of Handels Orlando, in London June 9 - James Oglethorpe is granted a royal charter for the colony of Georgia. ... Georg Brandt (b. ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Atomic mass 195. ... // Events April 10 - Austrian army attack troops of Frederick the Great at Mollwitz August 10 - Raja of Travancore defeats Dutch East India Company naval expedition at Battle of Colachel December 19 - Vitus Bering dies in his expedition east of Siberia December 25 - Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale Celsius... Antonio de Ulloa (January 12, 1716 _ July 3, 1795) was a Spanish general, explorer, author, astronomer, colonial administrator and the first Spanish governor of Louisiana. ... Sir Charles Wood was a British chemist who is credited with the independent discovery of platinum circa 1741. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nickel, Ni, 28 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 4, d Appearance lustrous, metallic Atomic mass 58. ... Events Adam Smith is appointed professor of logic at the University of Glasgow March 25 - For the last time, New Years Day is legally on March 25 in England and Wales. ... Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt (1722 – 1765) was a Swedish chemist who discovered nickel in 1751. ... General Name, Symbol, Number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 24. ... 1755 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Joseph Black Joseph Black (April 16, 1728 - December 6, 1799) was a Scottish physicist and chemist. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... 1766 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Henry Cavendish (October 10, 1731 - February 24, 1810) was a British scientist. ... Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (August 26, 1743 – May 8, 1794) the father of modern chemistry, was a French nobleman prominent in the histories of chemistry, finance, biology, and economics. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Atomic mass 15. ... 1771 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Joseph Frederick Priestley is often credited for the discovery of oxygen. ... The phlogiston theory is an obsolete scientific theory of combustion. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 14. ... Catherine IIs soldiers in the Russo-Turkish War, by Alexandre Benois. ... Daniel Rutherford, (November 3, 1749 – November 15, 1819), was a Scottish chemist and physician who was most famous for the discovery of nitrogen in 1772. ... General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Atomic mass 35. ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... Carl Wilhelm Scheele Scheeles house with his pharmacy in Köping. ... General Name, Symbol, Number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Atomic mass 54. ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... Johan Gottlieb Gahn discovered manganese in 1774. ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Atomic mass 95. ... 1778 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Carl Wilhelm Scheele Scheeles house with his pharmacy in Köping. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tellurium, Te, 52 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Atomic mass 127. ... 1782 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Baron Franz-Joseph Müller von Reichenstein discovered Tellurium in 1782. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tungsten, W, 74 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 6, d Appearance grayish white, lustrous Atomic mass 183. ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Juan José Elhuyar y de Suvisa (June 15, 1754 - September 20, 1796) was a Spanish chemist and mineralogist, the joint discoverer of tungsten with his brother Fausto Elhuyar in 1783. ... Fausto Elhuyar was the joint discoverer of tungsten with his brother Juan José Elhuyar This article is a substub, the first step on the way to becoming a full article. ... General Name, Symbol, Number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Atomic mass 238. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Martin Heinrich Klaproth Martin Heinrich Klaproth (December 1, 1743 – January 1, 1817) was a German chemist. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 120 kPa Hydrogen 83% Helium 15% Methane 1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zirconium, Zr, 40 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 5, d Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 91. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Martin Heinrich Klaproth Martin Heinrich Klaproth (December 1, 1743 – January 1, 1817) was a German chemist. ... General Name, Symbol, Number strontium, Sr, 38 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 5, s Appearance silvery white metallic Atomic mass 87. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Martin Heinrich Klaproth Martin Heinrich Klaproth (December 1, 1743 – January 1, 1817) was a German chemist. ... General Name, Symbol, Number yttrium, Y, 39 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 3, 5, d Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 88. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Johan Gadolin Johan Gadolin (June 5, 1760 — August 15, 1852) was a Finnish chemist, physicist and mineralogist. ... General Name, Symbol, Number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Atomic mass 47. ... 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Martin Heinrich Klaproth Martin Heinrich Klaproth (December 1, 1743 – January 1, 1817) was a German chemist. ... General Name, Symbol, Number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Atomic mass 51. ... 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Louis Nicolas Vauquelin. ... General Name, Symbol, Number beryllium, Be, 4 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 2, s Appearance white-gray metallic Atomic mass 9. ... 1798 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Louis Nicolas Vauquelin. ...

19th century

Name Date Discoverer Notes
Vanadium 1801 Andrés Manuel del Río
Niobium 1801 Charles Hatchett Named columbium by discoverer.
Tantalum 1802 Anders Gustaf Ekeberg
Cerium 1803 Martin Heinrich Klaproth; Jöns Jakob Berzelius and Hisinger Named after the newly discovered asteroid, Ceres. Discovered nearly simultaneously in two laboratories, though it was later shown that Berzelius and Hisinger's cerium was actually a mixture of cerium, lanthanum and so-called didymium.
Rhodium 1803 William Hyde Wollaston
Palladium 1803 Ryan Lumadue Named after the newly discovered asteroid, Pallas.
Osmium 1803 Smithson Tennant
Iridium 1803 Smithson Tennant
Potassium 1807 Humphry Davy Discovered using electricity from the Voltaic pile to decompose the salts of alkali metals.
Sodium 1807 Humphry Davy Discovered using electricity from the Voltaic pile to decompose the salts of alkali metals; discovered a few days after potassium, using the same method.
Calcium 1808 Humphry Davy Discovered using electricity from the Voltaic pile to decompose the salts of alkali metals.
Barium 1808 Humphry Davy Discovered using electricity from the Voltaic pile to decompose the salts of alkali metals.
Boron 1808 Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac & Louis-Jacques Thenard
Iodine 1811 Bernard Courtois
Lithium 1817 Johan August Arfwedson
Cadmium 1817 Friedrich Strohmeyer Independently discovered by K.S.L Hermann
Selenium 1817 Jöns Jakob Berzelius
Silicon 1823 Jöns Jakob Berzelius
Aluminium 1825 Hans Christian Ørsted May have been isolated in Roman times, see History of Aluminium.
Bromine 1826 Antoine Jérôme Balard
Thorium 1828 Jöns Jakob Berzelius
Beryllium 1828 Friedrich Wöhler. Independently discovered by A.A.B. Bussy
Lanthanum 1839-41 Carl Gustaf Mosander Discovered when Mosander showed that the cerium isolated in 1803 by Berzelius was actually a mixture of cerium, lanthanum and so-called didymium.
Terbium 1843 Carl Gustaf Mosander
Erbium 1843 Carl Gustaf Mosander
Ruthenium 1844 Karl Klaus
Caesium 1860 Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchoff First identified by its blue spectroscopic emission line.
Rubidium 1860 Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchoff First identified by its red spectroscopic emission line.
Thallium 1861 Sir William Crookes First identified by its bright green spectroscopic emission line.
Indium 1863 Ferdinand Reich and Theodor Richter First identified by its indigo-blue spectroscopic emission line.
Helium 1868 Independently by Pierre Jansen and Norman Lockyer First identified by astronomers as an emission line in the spectrum of the sun.
Gallium 1875 Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran Predicted by Mendeleev in 1871 as ekaaluminium.
Ytterbium 1878 Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac
Thulium 1879 Per Teodor Cleve
Scandium 1879 Lars Fredrik Nilson Predicted by Mendeleev in 1871 as ekaboron.
Holmium 1879 Marc Delafontaine, Jacques-Louis Soret and Per Teodor Cleve
Samarium 1879 Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran
Gadolinium 1880 Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac
Praseodymium 1885 Carl Auer von Welsbach The didymium isolated by Mosander in 1839 was shown to be two separate elements; praseodymium and neodymium.
Neodymium 1885 Carl Auer von Welsbach The didymium isolated by Mosander in 1839 was shown to be two separate elements, praseodymium and neodymium.
Dysprosium 1886 Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran
Germanium 1886 Clemens Winkler Predicted by Mendeleev in 1871 as ekasilicon.
Fluorine 1886 Joseph Henri Moissan
Argon 1894 Lord Rayleigh & Sir William Ramsay Discovered by comparing the molecular weights of nitrogen prepared by liquefaction from air and nitrogen prepared by chemical means.
Neon 1898 Sir William Ramsay Separated from liquid argon by difference in boiling point.
Krypton 1898 Sir William Ramsay Separated from liquid argon by difference in boiling point.
Xenon 1898 Sir William Ramsay Separated from liquid argon by difference in boiling point.
Radium 1898 Pierre Curie and Marie Curie
Polonium 1898 Pierre Curie and Marie Curie
Radon 1898 Friedrich Ernst Dorn, who called it nitron Discovered as a product of the radioactive decay of radium.
Actinium 1899 Ryan Lumadue

General Name, Symbol, Number vanadium, V, 23 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 4, d Appearance silver-grey metal Atomic mass 50. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Andrés Manuel Del Río (10 November 1764—23 March 1849) was a Mexican chemist who discovered vanadium (as vanadinite) in 1801. ... General Name, Symbol, Number niobium, Nb, 41 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Atomic mass 92. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Charles Hatchett Charles Hatchett (February 1, 1765 - October 3, 1847) was an English chemist who discovered the element niobium. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tantalum, Ta, 73 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 6, d Appearance gray blue Atomic mass 180. ... --69. ... Anders Gustaf Ekeberg (1767-1813) was a Swedish chemist who discovered tantalum in 1802 Categories: People stubs | Discoverer of a chemical element | Swedish chemists | 1767 births | 1813 deaths ... General Name, Symbol, Number cerium, Ce, 58 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 140. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Martin Heinrich Klaproth Martin Heinrich Klaproth (December 1, 1743 – January 1, 1817) was a German chemist. ... Jöns Jakob Berzelius Statue of Berzelius in the centre of Berzelii Park, Stockholm Jöns Jakob Berzelius (August 20, 1779 - August 7, 1848) was a Swedish chemist. ... 253 Mathilde, a C-type asteroid. ... 1 Ceres (IPA , Latin: ) is a dwarf planet in the asteroid belt. ... Didymium is a mixture of the elements praseodymium and neodymium. ... Rh redirects here. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... William Hyde Wollaston (August 6, 1766 – December 22, 1828) was an English chemist who is famous for discovering two chemical elements and for developing a way to process platinum ore. ... General Name, Symbol, Number palladium, Pd, 46 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Atomic mass 106. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 253 Mathilde, a C-type asteroid. ... 2 Pallas (pal-us, Greek Παλλάς) was the first asteroid discovered after 1 Ceres. ... General Name, Symbol, Number osmium, Os, 76 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 6, d Appearance silvery, blue cast Atomic mass 190. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Smithson Tennant (November 30, 1761 - February 22, 1815) was an English chemist. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iridium, Ir, 77 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 6, d Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 192. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Smithson Tennant (November 30, 1761 - February 22, 1815) was an English chemist. ... General Name, Symbol, Number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 39. ... 1807 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Sir Humphry Davy. ... Lightning strikes during a night-time thunderstorm. ... A copper-zinc Voltaic pile The Voltaic pile was the first modern electric battery, invented by Alessandro Volta in 1800. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 22. ... 1807 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Sir Humphry Davy. ... Lightning strikes during a night-time thunderstorm. ... A copper-zinc Voltaic pile The Voltaic pile was the first modern electric battery, invented by Alessandro Volta in 1800. ... General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 40. ... 1808 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Sir Humphry Davy. ... Lightning strikes during a night-time thunderstorm. ... A copper-zinc Voltaic pile The Voltaic pile was the first modern electric battery, invented by Alessandro Volta in 1800. ... General Name, Symbol, Number barium, Ba, 56 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 6, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 137. ... 1808 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Sir Humphry Davy. ... Lightning strikes during a night-time thunderstorm. ... A copper-zinc Voltaic pile The Voltaic pile was the first modern electric battery, invented by Alessandro Volta in 1800. ... General Name, Symbol, Number boron, B, 5 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 13, 2, p Appearance black/brown Atomic mass 10. ... 1808 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac. ... Louis Jacques Thénard. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iodine, I, 53 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 5, p Appearance violet-dark gray, lustrous Atomic mass 126. ... 1811 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Bernard Courtois, also spelled Barnard Courtois, (8 February 1777–27 September 1838) was a French chemist who discovered iodine in 1811. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lithium, Li, 3 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 2, s Appearance silvery white/grey Atomic mass 6. ... 1817 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Johan August Arfwedson (January 12, 1792 - October 28, 1841), Swedish chemist and the discoverer of lithium (1817). ... General Name, Symbol, Number cadmium, Cd, 48 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metallic Atomic mass 112. ... 1817 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Friedrich Stromeyer (1776 - 1835) was a German chemist. ... Karl Samuel Leberecht Hermann (died 1846) was a German chemist who independently discovered cadmium in 1817 Categories: Substubs | German chemists | Discoverer of a chemical element | 1846 deaths ... Se redirects here. ... 1817 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Jöns Jakob Berzelius Statue of Berzelius in the centre of Berzelii Park, Stockholm Jöns Jakob Berzelius (August 20, 1779 - August 7, 1848) was a Swedish chemist. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silicon, Si, 14 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 14, 3, p Appearance as coarse powder, dark gray with bluish tinge Atomic mass 28. ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Jöns Jakob Berzelius Statue of Berzelius in the centre of Berzelii Park, Stockholm Jöns Jakob Berzelius (August 20, 1779 - August 7, 1848) was a Swedish chemist. ... General Name, Symbol, Number aluminium, Al, 13 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 3, p Appearance silvery Atomic mass 26. ... Opening of the Stockton and Darlington Railway 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Hans Christian Ørsted (August 14, 1777 – March 9, 1851) was a Danish physicist and chemist, influenced by the thinking of Immanuel Kant. ... General Name, Symbol, Number aluminium, Al, 13 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 3, p Appearance silvery Atomic mass 26. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bromine, Br, 35 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 4, p Appearance gas/liquid: red-brown solid: metallic luster Atomic mass 79. ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Antoine Jérôme Balard (September 30, 1802 - April 30, 1876), was a French chemist, and the discoverer of bromine. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 232. ... 1828 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Jöns Jakob Berzelius Statue of Berzelius in the centre of Berzelii Park, Stockholm Jöns Jakob Berzelius (August 20, 1779 - August 7, 1848) was a Swedish chemist. ... General Name, Symbol, Number beryllium, Be, 4 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 2, s Appearance white-gray metallic Atomic mass 9. ... 1828 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Friedrich Wöhler Friedrich Wöhler (July 31, 1800 - September 23, 1882) was a German chemist, best-known for his synthesis of urea, but also the first to isolate several of the elements. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lanthanum, La, 57 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block 3, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 138. ... 1839 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Carl Gustaf Mosander (Kalmar 10 September 1797 – Lovö, Stockholm County 15 October Swedish chemist. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... General Name, Symbol, Number terbium, Tb, 65 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 158. ... 1843 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Carl Gustaf Mosander (Kalmar 10 September 1797 – Lovö, Stockholm County 15 October Swedish chemist. ... General Name, Symbol, Number erbium, Er, 68 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 167. ... 1843 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Carl Gustaf Mosander (Kalmar 10 September 1797 – Lovö, Stockholm County 15 October Swedish chemist. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Ruthenium, Ru, 44 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Atomic mass 101. ... 1844 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Karl Klaus Karl Klaus (22 January 1796 – 24 March 1864) was a Russian chemist, professor at Kazan State University, and discoverer of ruthenium. ... General Name, Symbol, Number caesium, Cs, 55 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 6, s Appearance silvery gold Atomic mass 132. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Robert Bunsen Robert Wilhelm Bunsen (born 31 March 1811 in Göttingen, died 16 August 1899 in Heidelberg) was a German chemist. ... Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (March 12, 1824 - October 17, 1887), a German physicist who contributed to the fundamental understanding of electrical circuits, spectroscopy, and the emission of black-body radiation by heated objects. ... A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from an excess or deficiency of photons in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rubidium, Rb, 37 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 5, s Appearance grey white Atomic mass 85. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Robert Bunsen Robert Wilhelm Bunsen (born 31 March 1811 in Göttingen, died 16 August 1899 in Heidelberg) was a German chemist. ... Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (March 12, 1824 - October 17, 1887), a German physicist who contributed to the fundamental understanding of electrical circuits, spectroscopy, and the emission of black-body radiation by heated objects. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thallium, Tl, 81 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 6, p Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 204. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Categories: People stubs | 1832 births | 1919 deaths | British scientists | English chemists | Physicists | Discoverer of a chemical element ... General Name, Symbol, Number indium, In, 49 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Atomic mass 114. ... 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar). ... Ferdinand Reich (1799-1882) was a German chemist who co-discovered indium in 1863 with Hieronymous Theodor Richter (1824-1898). ... Hieronymous Theodor Richter (1824-1898) was a German chemist who co-discovered indium in 1863 with Ferdinand Reich. ... General Name, Symbol, Number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 4. ... 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Jules Janssen (1824-1907), French astronomer. ... Sir Joseph Norman Lockyer or Norman Lockyer (May 17, 1836 – August 16, 1920) was an English scientist and astronomer. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gallium, Ga, 31 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 4, p Appearance silvery white   Atomic mass 69. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Paul Émile (François) Lecoq de Boisbaudran (April 18, 1838 - May 28, 1912) was a French chemist born in Cognac. ... Professor Dimitri Mendeleev published the first Periodic Table of the Atomic Elements in 1869 based on properties which appeared with some regularity as he laid out the elements from lightest to heaviest. ... Mendeleyevs portrait by Ilya Repin. ... Yb redirects here; for the unit of information see Yottabit General Name, Symbol, Number ytterbium, Yb, 70 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 173. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Jean Charles Galinard de Marignac (April 24, 1817–April 15, 1894) was a Swiss chemist whose work with atomic weights suggested the possibility of isotopes and the packing fraction of nuclei and whose study of the rare earth elements led to his discovery of ytterbium in 1878 and codiscovery of... General Name, Symbol, Number thulium, Tm, 69 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block ?, 6, f Appearance silvery gray Atomic mass 168. ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Per Teodor Cleve (Stockholm February 10, 1840 – Uppsala June 18, 1905) was a Swedish chemist and geologist. ... General Name, Symbol, Number scandium, Sc, 21 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 3, 4, d Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 44. ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Lars Fredrik Nilson (1840-1899) was a Swedish chemist who discovered scandium in 1879. ... Professor Dimitri Mendeleev published the first Periodic Table of the Atomic Elements in 1869 based on properties which appeared with some regularity as he laid out the elements from lightest to heaviest. ... Mendeleyevs portrait by Ilya Repin. ... General Name, Symbol, Number holmium, Ho, 67 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 164. ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Marc Delafontaine was a Swiss chemist who co-discovered holmium in 1878, with Jacques-Louis Soret and independently in 1879 with Per Teodor Cleve. ... Jacques-Louis Soret was a Swiss chemist who co-discovered holmium in 1878 with Marc Delafontaine and indepdently in 1879 with Per Teodor Cleve Categories: Substubs | Discoverer of a chemical element | Swiss chemists ... Per Teodor Cleve (Stockholm February 10, 1840 – Uppsala June 18, 1905) was a Swedish chemist and geologist. ... General Name, Symbol, Number samarium, Sm, 62 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 150. ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Paul Émile (François) Lecoq de Boisbaudran (April 18, 1838 - May 28, 1912) was a French chemist born in Cognac. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gadolinium, Gd, 64 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 157. ... 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Jean Charles Galinard de Marignac (April 24, 1817–April 15, 1894) was a Swiss chemist whose work with atomic weights suggested the possibility of isotopes and the packing fraction of nuclei and whose study of the rare earth elements led to his discovery of ytterbium in 1878 and codiscovery of... General Name, Symbol, Number praseodymium, Pr, 59 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance grayish white Atomic mass 140. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Carl Auer von Welsbach ( 9 September 1858 - 8 April 1929) was an Austrian scientist and inventor who had a talent for not only discovering advances, but turning them into commercially successful products. ... 1839 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... General Name, Symbol, Number neodymium, Nd, 60 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white, yellowish tinge Atomic mass 144. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Carl Auer von Welsbach ( 9 September 1858 - 8 April 1929) was an Austrian scientist and inventor who had a talent for not only discovering advances, but turning them into commercially successful products. ... 1839 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... General Name, Symbol, Number dysprosium, Dy, 66 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 162. ... 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) // Events January 18 - Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England. ... Paul Émile (François) Lecoq de Boisbaudran (April 18, 1838 - May 28, 1912) was a French chemist born in Cognac. ... General Name, Symbol, Number germanium, Ge, 32 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 14, 4, p Appearance grayish white Atomic mass 72. ... 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) // Events January 18 - Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England. ... Clemens Alexander Winkler (1838-1904), a German chemist, discovered the element Germanium in 1886. ... Professor Dimitri Mendeleev published the first Periodic Table of the Atomic Elements in 1869 based on properties which appeared with some regularity as he laid out the elements from lightest to heaviest. ... Mendeleyevs portrait by Ilya Repin. ... General Name, Symbol, Number fluorine, F, 9 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 2, p Appearance Yellowish brown gas Atomic mass 18. ... 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) // Events January 18 - Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England. ... Joseph Henri Moissan (1852-1907) was a French chemist who isolated fluorine in 1886. ... General Name, Symbol, Number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 39. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... See also Rayleigh fading Rayleigh scattering Rayleigh number Rayleigh waves Rayleigh-Jeans law External links Nobel website bio of Rayleigh About John William Strutt MacTutor biography of Lord Rayleigh Categories: People stubs | 1842 births | 1919 deaths | Nobel Prize in Physics winners | Peers | British physicists | Discoverer of a chemical element ... Categories: People stubs | 1852 births | 1916 deaths | Nobel Prize in Chemistry winners | Discoverer of a chemical element ... General Name, Symbol, Number neon, Ne, 10 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 20. ... 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Sir William Ramsay (October 2, 1852 – July 23, 1916) was a Scottish chemist who discovered the noble gases and received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1904 (along with Lord Rayleigh who received the Nobel Prize in Physics that same year for the discovery of argon). ... General Name, Symbol, Number krypton, Kr, 36 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 4, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 83. ... 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Sir William Ramsay (October 2, 1852 – July 23, 1916) was a Scottish chemist who discovered the noble gases and received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1904 (along with Lord Rayleigh who received the Nobel Prize in Physics that same year for the discovery of argon). ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 131. ... 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Sir William Ramsay (October 2, 1852 – July 23, 1916) was a Scottish chemist who discovered the noble gases and received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1904 (along with Lord Rayleigh who received the Nobel Prize in Physics that same year for the discovery of argon). ... General Name, Symbol, Number radium, Ra, 88 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 7, s Appearance silvery white metallic Atomic mass (226) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Pierre Curie (May 15, 1859, Paris – April 19, 1906, Paris) was a French physicist and a pioneer in the study of crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity and radioactivity. ... Marie SkÅ‚odowska-Curie (French: Maria Curie, born Maria SkÅ‚odowska, also widely known as Madame Curie, November 7, 1867 – July 4, 1934) was a Polish (and later also French as a citizen) physicist and chemist. ... General Name, Symbol, Number polonium, Po, 84 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 6, p Appearance silvery Atomic mass (209) g/mol Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Pierre Curie (May 15, 1859, Paris – April 19, 1906, Paris) was a French physicist and a pioneer in the study of crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity and radioactivity. ... Marie SkÅ‚odowska-Curie (French: Maria Curie, born Maria SkÅ‚odowska, also widely known as Madame Curie, November 7, 1867 – July 4, 1934) was a Polish (and later also French as a citizen) physicist and chemist. ... General Name, Symbol, Number radon, Rn, 86 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 6, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass (222) g/mol Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p6 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8 Physical properties Phase gas Density (0 °C, 101. ... 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Friedrich Ernst Dorn (1848-1916) was a German physicist who discovered radon in 1898. ... General Name, Symbol, Number actinium, Ac, 89 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block 3, 7, f Appearance silvery Atomic mass (227) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...

20th century

Name Date Discoverer Notes
Europium 1901 Eugene Demarcay
Lutetium 1907 Georges Urbain
Protactinium 1917 Kasimir Fajans, O. Göhring, Fredrich Soddy, John Cranston, Lise Meitner and Otto Hahn
Hafnium 1923 Dirk Coster and György Hevesy
Rhenium 1925 Walter Noddack and Ida Tacke
Technetium 1937 Carlo Perrier and Emilio Segrè First synthetic element discovered. Predicted by Mendeleev in 1871 as ekamanganese.
Francium 1939 Marguerite Derey Last naturally occurring element discovered; all elements discovered after it are synthetic.
Astatine 1940 Dale R. Corson, K.R.Mackenzie, Emilio Segrè Later determined to occur naturally in miniscule qunatitites (<25 grams in earth's crust).
Neptunium 1940 E.M. McMillan & Philip H. Abelson, University of California, Berkeley First transuranium element discovered.
Plutonium 1941 Glenn T. Seaborg, Arthur C. Wahl, Joseph W. Kennedy, Emilio Segrè
Curium 1944 Glenn T. Seaborg
Americium 1944 Glenn T. Seaborg
Promethium 1945 Jacob A. Marinsky
Berkelium 1949 Albert Ghiorso, Glenn T. Seaborg, Stanley G. Thompson, Kenneth Street Jr.
Californium 1950 Albert Ghiorso, Glenn T. Seaborg, Stanley G. Thompson, Kenneth Street Jr.
Einsteinium 1952 Argonne Laboratory, Los Alamos Laboratory, and University of California
Fermium 1953 Argonne Laboratory, Los Alamos Laboratory, and University of California
Mendelevium 1955 Glenn T. Seaborg, Evans G. Valens
Nobelium 1958 Albert Ghiorso, Glenn T. Seaborg, John R. Walton and Torbørn Sikkeland
Lawrencium 1961 Albert Ghiorso, Torbjørn Sikkeland, Almon Larsh and Robert M. Latimer
Rutherfordium 1964 Joint Institute for Nuclear Research at Dubna, U.S.S.R.
Dubnium 1970 Albert Ghiorso
Seaborgium 1974 Joint Institute for Nuclear Research and University of California, Berkeley
Bohrium 1976 Y. Oganessian et al, Dubna and confirmed at GSI (1982)
Meitnerium 1982 Peter Armbruster and Gottfried Münzenberg, GSI
Hassium 1984 Peter Armbruster and Gottfried Münzenberg
Darmstadtium 1994 S. Hofmann, V. Ninov et al, GSI
Roentgenium 1994 S. Hofmann, V. Ninov et al, GSI
Ununbium 1996 S. Hofmann, V. Ninov et al, GSI
Ununquadium 1999 Joint Institute for Nuclear Research at Dubna[1]

General Name, Symbol, Number europium, Eu, 63 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 151. ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Eugène-Antole Demarçay (January 1, 1852 – December, 1904) was a French chemist. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lutetium, Lu, 71 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, d Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 174. ... 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... General Name, Symbol, Number protactinium, Pa, 91 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance bright, silvery metallic luster Atomic mass 231. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Kasimierz Fajans or Kasimir Fajans (27 May 1887 - 18 May 1975), was a Polish-American chemist who did valuable work on chemical bonding and on radioactivity and isotopes. ... Lise Meitner ca. ... Meitner and Hahn working together at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute Otto Hahn (March 8, 1879 – July 28, 1968) was a German chemist and received the 1944 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hafnium, Hf, 72 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 6, d Appearance gray steel Atomic mass 178. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... This article contains information that has not been verified. ... George de Hevesy (August 1, 1885 - July 5, 1966) was a Hungarian chemist who was important in the development of the tracer method where radioactive tracers are used to study chemical processes, e. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhenium, Re, 75 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 6, d Appearance grayish white Atomic mass 186. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Walter Noddack (* 17 August 1893 in Berlin, 7 December 1960 in Berlin) was a German chemist. ... Ida Noddack Tacke (25 February 1896 in Wesel - 1978) was a German chemist and physicist. ... General Name, Symbol, Number technetium, Tc, 43 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metal Atomic mass [98](0) g/mol Electron configuration [Kr] 4d5 5s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 13, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Portrait of Dr. Emilio Segre Emilio Gino Segrè (February 1, 1905 - April 22, 1989) was an Italian American physicist who, with Owen Chamberlain, won the 1959 Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery of the antiproton. ... The chemical elements labelled as synthetic are unstable, with a half-life so short (ranging from a fraction of millisecond to a few million years) relative to the age of the Earth that any atoms of that element that may have been present when the Earth formed have long since... Professor Dimitri Mendeleev published the first Periodic Table of the Atomic Elements in 1869 based on properties which appeared with some regularity as he laid out the elements from lightest to heaviest. ... Mendeleyevs portrait by Ilya Repin. ... General Name, Symbol, Number francium, Fr, 87 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 7, s Appearance metallic Atomic mass (223) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 7s1 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 1 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... General Name, Symbol, Number astatine, At, 85 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 6, p Appearance metallic (presumed) Atomic mass (210) g/mol Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p5 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 7 Physical properties Phase solid Melting point 575 K (302 Â°C... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... Dale R. Corson (born 1914) is an U.S. educator. ... Portrait of Dr. Emilio Segre Emilio Gino Segrè (February 1, 1905 - April 22, 1989) was an Italian American physicist who, with Owen Chamberlain, won the 1959 Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery of the antiproton. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neptunium, Np, 93 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery metallic Atomic mass (237) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f4 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 22, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... Edwin Mattison McMillan (September 18, 1907-September 7, 1991) was the first scientist to produce a transuranium element. ... Philip Hauge Abelson (April 27, 1913 – August 1, 2004) was a physicist, editor of scientific literature, and science writer. ... The University of California, Berkeley (also known as UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, and by other names, see below) is the oldest and flagship campus of the ten-campus University of California system. ... In chemistry, transuranium elements (also known as transuranic elements) are the chemical elements with atomic numbers greater than 92, the atomic number of uranium. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass (244) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... This article is about the year. ... Glenn T. Seaborg Glenn Theodore Seaborg (April 19, 1912 – February 25, 1999) was an American chemist prominent in the discovery and isolation of ten transuranic elements including plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium, fermium, mendelevium, nobelium and seaborgium, which was named in his honor. ... Joseph W. Kennedy (May 30, 1916 – May 5, 1957) is credited with being a co-discoverer of Plutonium along with Glenn T. Seaborg, Edwin McMillan, and Arthur Wahl. ... Portrait of Dr. Emilio Segre Emilio Gino Segrè (February 1, 1905 - April 22, 1989) was an Italian American physicist who, with Owen Chamberlain, won the 1959 Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery of the antiproton. ... General Name, Symbol, Number curium, Cm, 96 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance silvery Atomic mass (247) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... Glenn T. Seaborg Glenn Theodore Seaborg (April 19, 1912 – February 25, 1999) was an American chemist prominent in the discovery and isolation of ten transuranic elements including plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium, fermium, mendelevium, nobelium and seaborgium, which was named in his honor. ... General Name, Symbol, Number americium, Am, 95 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass (243) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ... Glenn T. Seaborg Glenn Theodore Seaborg (April 19, 1912 – February 25, 1999) was an American chemist prominent in the discovery and isolation of ten transuranic elements including plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium, fermium, mendelevium, nobelium and seaborgium, which was named in his honor. ... General Name, Symbol, Number promethium, Pm, 61 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance metallic Atomic mass [145](0) g/mol Electron configuration [Xe] 4f5 6s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 23, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... Jacob A. Marinsky (1918 – September 1, 2005) was a chemist and writer who was the co-discoverer of the element promethium in 1944. ... General Name, Symbol, Number berkelium, Bk, 97 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (247) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f9 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 27, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... Albert Ghiorso (b. ... Glenn T. Seaborg Glenn Theodore Seaborg (April 19, 1912 – February 25, 1999) was an American chemist prominent in the discovery and isolation of ten transuranic elements including plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium, fermium, mendelevium, nobelium and seaborgium, which was named in his honor. ... General Name, Symbol, Number californium, Cf, 98 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (251) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f10 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 28, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Albert Ghiorso (b. ... Glenn T. Seaborg Glenn Theodore Seaborg (April 19, 1912 – February 25, 1999) was an American chemist prominent in the discovery and isolation of ten transuranic elements including plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium, fermium, mendelevium, nobelium and seaborgium, which was named in his honor. ... General Name, Symbol, Number einsteinium, Es, 99 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (252) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f11 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 29, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Argonne National Laboratory is one of the United States governments oldest and largest science and engineering research national laboratories and is the largest in the Midwest. ... Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. ... The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the state of California. ... General Name, Symbol, Number fermium, Fm, 100 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (257) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f12 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 30, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Melting... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Argonne National Laboratory is one of the United States governments oldest and largest science and engineering research national laboratories and is the largest in the Midwest. ... Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. ... The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the state of California. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mendelevium, Md, 101 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (258) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f13 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 31, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Melting point 1100... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Glenn T. Seaborg Glenn Theodore Seaborg (April 19, 1912 – February 25, 1999) was an American chemist prominent in the discovery and isolation of ten transuranic elements including plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium, fermium, mendelevium, nobelium and seaborgium, which was named in his honor. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nobelium, No, 102 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (259) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f14 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Melting... 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Albert Ghiorso (b. ... Glenn T. Seaborg Glenn Theodore Seaborg (April 19, 1912 – February 25, 1999) was an American chemist prominent in the discovery and isolation of ten transuranic elements including plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium, fermium, mendelevium, nobelium and seaborgium, which was named in his honor. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lawrencium, Lr, 103 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (260) g/mol Electron configuration probably [Rn] 5f14 7s2 7p1 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 8, 3 Phase presumably a... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... Albert Ghiorso (b. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rutherfordium, Rf, 104 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (261) g/mol Electron configuration probably [Rn] 5f14 6d2 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 10, 2 Phase presumably a... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... The Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, JINR (Объединённый институт ядерных исследований, ОИЯИ in Russian) in Dubna, Moscow Oblast (120 km north of Moscow), Russia is an international research centre for nuclear sciences, involving around 1000 scientists from eighteen states (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Cuba, Czech Republic, Georgia, Kazakhstan, DPR Korea, Moldova, Mongolia, Poland,Romania, Russia... General Name, Symbol, Number dubnium, Db, 105 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (262) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d3 7s2 (guess based on tantalum) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 11... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1970 calendar). ... Albert Ghiorso (b. ... General Name, Symbol, Number seaborgium, Sg, 106 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (266) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d4 7s2 (guess based on tungsten) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 12... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... The Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, JINR (Объединённый институт ядерных исследований, ОИЯИ in Russian) in Dubna, Moscow Oblast (120 km north of Moscow), Russia is an international research centre for nuclear sciences, involving around 1000 scientists from eighteen states (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Cuba, Czech Republic, Georgia, Kazakhstan, DPR Korea, Moldova, Mongolia, Poland,Romania, Russia... The University of California, Berkeley (also known as UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, and by other names, see below) is the oldest and flagship campus of the ten-campus University of California system. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bohrium, Bh, 107 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (264) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d5 7s2 (guess based on rhenium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 13... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Dubna is a small city located in central Russia, in the Taldomsky district of Moscow Oblast, approximately 125 km north of Moscow, on the banks of the Volga river. ... The Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung mbH (GSI, Institute for Heavy Ion Research) in Wixhausen, a suburb of Darmstadt, Germany is a federally funded heavy ion research center. ... General Name, Symbol, Number meitnerium, Mt, 109 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (268) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d7 7s2 (guess based on iridium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 15... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Peter Armbruster (born July 25 1931 in Dachau, Bavaria) is a physicist at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) facility in Darmstadt, Germany, and is credited with discovering elements 108 Hassium, 109 Meitnerium, 110 (darmstadtium), 111 (roentgenium), and 112 (ununbium). ... Gottfried Münzenberg (born 1940 in Nordhausen, Germany) is a German physicist. ... The Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung mbH (GSI, Institute for Heavy Ion Research) in Wixhausen, a suburb of Darmstadt, Germany is a federally funded heavy ion research center. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hassium, Hs, 108 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (269) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d6 7s2 (guess based on osmium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 14... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Peter Armbruster (born July 25 1931 in Dachau, Bavaria) is a physicist at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) facility in Darmstadt, Germany, and is credited with discovering elements 108 Hassium, 109 Meitnerium, 110 (darmstadtium), 111 (roentgenium), and 112 (ununbium). ... Gottfried Münzenberg (born 1940 in Nordhausen, Germany) is a German physicist. ... General Name, Symbol, Number darmstadtium, Ds, 110 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (281) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d9 7s1 (guess based on platinum) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 17... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... The Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung mbH (GSI, Institute for Heavy Ion Research) in Wixhausen, a suburb of Darmstadt, Germany is a federally funded heavy ion research center. ... General Name, Symbol, Number roentgenium, Rg, 111 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably yellow or orange metallic Atomic mass (272) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s1 (guess based on gold) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 1... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... The Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung mbH (GSI, Institute for Heavy Ion Research) in Wixhausen, a suburb of Darmstadt, Germany is a federally funded heavy ion research center. ... General Name, Symbol, Number ununbium, Uub, 112 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray liquid Atomic mass (285) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 (guess based on mercury) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... The Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung mbH (GSI, Institute for Heavy Ion Research) in Wixhausen, a suburb of Darmstadt, Germany is a federally funded heavy ion research center. ... General Name, Symbol, Number ununquadium, Uuq, 114 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (298) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p2 (guess based on lead) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... The Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, JINR (Объединённый институт ядерных исследований, ОИЯИ in Russian) in Dubna, Moscow Oblast (120 km north of Moscow), Russia is an international research centre for nuclear sciences, involving around 1000 scientists from eighteen states (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Cuba, Czech Republic, Georgia, Kazakhstan, DPR Korea, Moldova, Mongolia, Poland,Romania, Russia...

21st century

Name Date Discoverer Notes
Ununhexium 2001 Joint Institute for Nuclear Research at Dubna[2]
Ununtrium 2004 Joint Institute for Nuclear Research at Dubna and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory[3]
Ununpentium 2004 Joint Institute for Nuclear Research at Dubna and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory[3]
Ununoctium 2006 Joint Institute for Nuclear Research at Dubna and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory[4]

General Name, Symbol, Number ununhexium, Uuh, 116 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 16, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (302) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p4 (guess based on polonium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... This article is about the year 2001. ... The Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, JINR (Объединённый институт ядерных исследований, ОИЯИ in Russian) in Dubna, Moscow Oblast (120 km north of Moscow), Russia is an international research centre for nuclear sciences, involving around 1000 scientists from eighteen states (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Cuba, Czech Republic, Georgia, Kazakhstan, DPR Korea, Moldova, Mongolia, Poland,Romania, Russia... General Name, Symbol, Number ununtrium, Uut, 113 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (284) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p1 (guess based on thallium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, JINR (Объединённый институт ядерных исследований, ОИЯИ in Russian) in Dubna, Moscow Oblast (120 km north of Moscow), Russia is an international research centre for nuclear sciences, involving around 1000 scientists from eighteen states (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Cuba, Czech Republic, Georgia, Kazakhstan, DPR Korea, Moldova, Mongolia, Poland,Romania, Russia... Aerial view of the lab and surrounding area. ... General Name, Symbol, Number ununpentium, Uup, 115 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 15, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (288) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p3 (guess based on bismuth) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, JINR (Объединённый институт ядерных исследований, ОИЯИ in Russian) in Dubna, Moscow Oblast (120 km north of Moscow), Russia is an international research centre for nuclear sciences, involving around 1000 scientists from eighteen states (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Cuba, Czech Republic, Georgia, Kazakhstan, DPR Korea, Moldova, Mongolia, Poland,Romania, Russia... Aerial view of the lab and surrounding area. ... General Name, Symbol, Number ununoctium, Uuo, 118 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably colorless Atomic mass predicted, (314) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p6 (guess based on radon) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 8 Phase... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, JINR (Объединённый институт ядерных исследований, ОИЯИ in Russian) in Dubna, Moscow Oblast (120 km north of Moscow), Russia is an international research centre for nuclear sciences, involving around 1000 scientists from eighteen states (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Cuba, Czech Republic, Georgia, Kazakhstan, DPR Korea, Moldova, Mongolia, Poland,Romania, Russia... Aerial view of the lab and surrounding area. ...

See also

The periodic table of the chemical elements is a tabular method of displaying the chemical elements, first devised in 1869 by the Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev. ... The Elements (1959) is a song by Tom Lehrer that recites the names of all the chemical elements that were known at the time of writing, up to number 102, nobelium. ...

References

  1. ^ Oganessian, Yu. Ts., et al. (October 1999). "Synthesis of Superheavy Nuclei in the 48Ca + 244Pu Reaction". Physical Review Letters 83: 3154. DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.83.3154.
  2. ^ Oganessian, Yu. Ts., et al. (2000). "Observation of the decay of 292116". Physical Review C 63: 011301. DOI:10.1103/PhysRevC.63.011301.
  3. ^ a b Oganessian, Yu. Ts., et al. (2005). "Synthesis of elements 115 and 113 in the reaction 243Am + 48Ca". Physical Review C 72: 034611. DOI:10.1103/PhysRevC.72.034611.
  4. ^ Oganessian, Yu. Ts., et al. (2006). "Synthesis of the isotopes of elements 118 and 116 in the 249Cf and 245Cm+48Ca fusion reactions". Physical Review C 74: 044602. DOI:10.1103/PhysRevC.74.044602.

 
 

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