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Encyclopedia > Disco
Disco
Stylistic origins
Cultural origins
United States: New York City/Los Angeles/Atlanta Early 1970s

Canada: Toronto/Montreal Early 1970s Disco may refer to: // Disco, a Finnish synth-pop band. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Soul music (disambiguation). ... For other uses, including related musical genres, see Funk (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about the genre of popular music. ... Eurovision redirects here. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... This article is about the state capital of Georgia. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ...

Europe: The Eurovision Song contest
Typical instruments
Violin, Harp, Cello, Double bass, Acoustic Guitar, Electric guitar, Bass guitar, Piano, Keyboard, Drums, Drum machine, string section, horn section, orchestral solo instruments (e.g. flute)
Mainstream popularity Most popular in the mid to late 1970s
Derivative forms Post Disco, Hi-NRG, House music, Eurodisco, Space Disco, Italo Disco, Disco house, Disco electro, Silent disco, Techno, Trance, Old school hip hop, Crunk
Fusion genres
Disco-punk
Regional scenes
In US: New York, Philadelphia, Atlanta, Miami, Los Angeles. In Canada: Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver
Other topics
Discothèque Nightclubs, Orchestration
Disco artists

Disco is a genre of dance-oriented music whose origins, like other genres of music, are hard to place at a single defining point. In what is considered a forerunner to disco style clubs in February 1970 New York City DJ David Mancuso opened The Loft, a members-only private dance club set in his own home.[1][2] Most agree that the first disco songs were released in 1973, but some claim Manu Dibango's 1972 Soul Makossa to be the first disco record.[3] The first article about disco was written in September 1973 by Vince Aletti for Rolling Stone Magazine.[4][5] In 1974 New York City's WPIX-FM premiered the first disco radio show.[6] For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The term Eurovision has several meanings: technically, the Eurovision Network created by the European Broadcasting Union (EBU). ... For the Anne Rice novel, see Violin (novel). ... For other uses, see Harp (disambiguation). ... This article is about the stringed musical instrument. ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ... Acoustic guitar can refer to the following musical instruments: Nylon and gut stringed guitars: Renaissance guitar Baroque guitar Romantic guitar Classical guitar, the modern version of the original guitar, with nylon strings Flamenco guitar Steel stringed guitars: Steel-string acoustic guitar, also known as western, folk or country guitar Twelve... Two different electric guitars. ... A sunburst-colored Fender Precision Bass The electric bass guitar (or electric bass[1][2]; pronounced , as in base) is a bass stringed instrument played primarily with the fingers (either by plucking, slapping, popping, or tapping) or using a pick. ... Pianoforte redirects here. ... An electronic keyboard. ... A drum kit (or drum set or trap set) is a collection of drums, cymbals and sometimes other percussion instruments, such as a cowbell, wood block, chimes or tambourines, arranged for convenient playing by a single drummer. ... A Boss DR-202 Drum Machine A drum machine is an electronic musical instrument designed to imitate the sound of drums and/or other percussion instruments. ... The term post disco is a referal to the late 70s early 80s movement of disco music into more electronic influenced sounds. ... Hi-NRG (High Energy) is a type of electronic dance music which emerged and then became popular in nightclubs in the early 1980s. ... House music is a style of electronic dance music that was developed by dance club DJs in Chicago in the early to mid-1980s. ... Eurodance is style of dance music, popular in Europe during 1990s. ... Space Disco, was a short lived 70s Eurodisco variation. ... Cover of the ZYX Music compilation album. ... French house is a late 1990s form of house music, part of the 90s & 2000s European dance music scene and the latest form of Euro disco. ... The Silent Disco is a clubbing concept where dancers are provided with personal wireless headphones which can be tuned in to listen to a DJ. This type of disco earned its name because of the fact that an outsider walking in would see a tent full of people dancing, yet... For the comic book character previously known as Techno, see Fixer (comics). ... Trance is a style of electronic music that developed in the 1990s. ... Old school hip hop is a term used to describe the very earliest hip hop music to come out of the block parties of New York City in the 1970s and 1980s. ... For other uses, see Crunk (disambiguation). ... Dance-punk (also known as disco-punk) is a term for an amalgamation of the conceptual elements of punk rock with the production techniques of dance musics, such as funk, dub, disco, synthpop, house, and techno. ... This article is about the state. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... This article is about the state capital of Georgia. ... This article is about the city in Florida. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... For other uses, see Vancouver (disambiguation). ... For the Young Love song, see Discotech (song). ... A nightclub (often dance club or club, particularly in the UK) is an entertainment venue which does its primary business after dark. ... Disco orchestration is the arranging, orchestration, and musical production and recording techniques that went into the production of mid- to late-1970s disco music. ... The following lists groups or individuals primarily associated with the disco era of the 1970s and early 1980s and some of their most noteworthy disco hits. ... For the gay mens lifestyle magazine, see Genre (magazine). ... David Mancuso is the creator of the infamous by invitation only parties in New York City which have come to be known as The Loft. ... The Loft is a nightclub in Gabriel Street, Maidstone. ... Manu Dibango (born December 12, 1933) is a Cameroonian saxophonist and vibraphone player. ... Soul Makossa is a 1972 single by Cameroonian saxophonist Manu Dibango. ... Vince Aletti (1945 - ) is an American music journalist and art critic. ... This article is about the music magazine. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into WQCD. (Discuss) WPIX-FM was a New York City FM radio station operating at 101. ...


Musical influences include funk, soul music, and salsa and the Latin or Hispanic musics which influenced salsa.[3] The disco sound has a soaring, often reverberated vocals over a steady "four-on-the-floor" beat, an eighth note (quaver) or sixteenth note (semi-quaver) hi-hat pattern with an open hi-hat on the off-beat, and prominent, syncopated electric bass line. Strings, horns, electric pianos, and electric guitars create a lush background sound. Orchestral instruments such as the flute are often used for solo melodies, and unlike in rock, lead guitar is rarely used. Four to the floor or four-on-the-floor is a type of dance music characterized by a steady, uniformly accented beat in 4/4 time, popularized in 1960s, and disco music of 1970s. ... Figure 1. ... The hi-hat stand has changed little since its invention. ... In music, syncopation is the stressing of a normally unstressed beat in a bar or the failure to sound a tone on an accented beat. ... A sunburst-colored Fender Precision Bass The electric bass guitar (or electric bass[1][2]; pronounced , as in base) is a bass stringed instrument played primarily with the fingers (either by plucking, slapping, popping, or tapping) or using a pick. ... Lead guitar refers to a role within a band, that provides melody or melodic material, as opposed to the rhythm of the rhythm guitar, bass, and drums. ...


Well-known late 1970s disco performers included Bee Gees, Donna Summer and The Jacksons. While performers and singers garnered the lion's share of public attention, the behind-the-scenes producers played an equal, if not more important role in disco, since they often wrote the songs and created the innovative sounds and production techniques that were part of the "disco sound".[7] Many non-disco artists recorded disco songs at the height of disco's popularity, and films such as Saturday Night Fever and Thank God It's Friday contributed to disco's rise in mainstream popularity and ironically the beginning of its commercial decline. However, disco was very important in the development of Hip hop music (especially the subgenres of crunk, snap, and hyphy), British New Wave, and disco's direct descendants: the 1980s and 1990s dance music genres of house music and its harder-driving offshoot, techno. The Bee Gees were a singing trio of brothers — Barry, Robin, and Maurice Gibb — that became one of the most successful musical acts of the 20th century. ... Donna Summer (born Donna Adrian Gaines) is an American singer-songwriter and musician who gained prominence during the disco era of music. ... The cover to the Jackson 5s first LP, Diana Ross Presents the Jackson 5, released on Motown Records in 1969. ... Saturday Night Fever is a 1977 movie starring John Travolta as Tony Manero, a troubled Brooklyn youth whose weekend activities are dominated by visits to a Brooklyn discotheque. ... Thank God Its Friday is a 1978 film directed by Robert Klane. ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... For other uses, see Crunk (disambiguation). ... Snap music is a subgenre of hip hop music that emerged from Atlanta, Georgia. ... Look up hyphy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... New Wave was a music genre that existed during the late 1970s and the early-to-mid 1980s. ... House music is a style of electronic dance music that was developed by dance club DJs in Chicago in the early to mid-1980s. ... For the comic book character previously known as Techno, see Fixer (comics). ...

Contents

Role of producers and DJs

Disco has its musical roots in late 1960s soul, especially the Philly and New York soul, both of which were evolutions of the Motown sound. The Philly Sound is typified by lavish percussion, which became a prominent part of mid-1970s disco songs. Music with proto-"disco" elements appeared in the late 1960s, with "Tighten Up" and "Mony, Mony", "Dance to the Music" and "Love Child" . Two early songs with disco elements include Jerry Butler’s 1969 "Only the Strong Survive"[8] and Manu Dibango's 1972 "Soul Makossa" . The term disco was first used in print in an article by Vince Aletti in the September 13, 1973 edition of Rolling Stone magazine titled "Discotheque Rock '72: Paaaaarty!"[9] Conference National Division Eastern Year founded 2004 Home arena Wachovia Center & Wachovia Spectrum(alt. ... The Motown Sound is a style of soul music with distinctive characteristics, including the use of tambourine along with drums, bass instrumentation, a distinctive melodic and chord structure, and a call and response singing style originating in gospel music. ... Percussion redirects here. ... Tighten Up was a 1968 song by Houston, Texas based R&B vocal group Archie Bell & the Drells. ... Mony Mony was a 1968 single released by Tommy James & The Shondells that again became huge hit for Billy Idol in 1987. ... Dance to the Music is a 1968 hit single by the influential soul/rock/funk band Sly & the Family Stone for the Epic/CBS Records label. ... 1. ... Manu Dibango (born December 12, 1933) is a Cameroonian saxophonist and vibraphone player. ... Soul Makossa is a 1972 single by Cameroonian saxophonist Manu Dibango. ... Vince Aletti (1945 - ) is an American music journalist and art critic. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... This article is about the magazine. ...


The early "disco" sound was largely an urban American phenomenon with such legendary producers and labels such as SalSoul Records (Ken, Joe and Stanley Cayre), Westend Records (Mel Cheren), Casablanca (Neil Bogart), and Prelude (Marvin Schlachter) to name a few. They inspired and influenced such prolific European dance-track producers such as Giorgio Moroder and Jean-Marc Cerrone. Moroder was the Italian producer, keyboardist, and composer who produced many songs of the singer Donna Summer. These included the 1975 hit "Love to Love You Baby", a 17-minute-long song with "shimmering sound and sensual attitude". Allmusic.com calls Moroder "one of the principal architects of the disco sound".[10] Giorgio Moroder (born Giovanni Giorgio Moroder on April 26, 1940 in Ortisei, Italy) is an Academy Award-winning Italian record producer, songwriter and performer, whose groundbreaking work with synthesizers during the 1970s was a significant influence on new wave, techno and electronic music in general. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Donna Summer (born Donna Adrian Gaines) is an American singer-songwriter and musician who gained prominence during the disco era of music. ...


The disco sound was also shaped by the legendary Tom Moulton who wanted to extend the enjoyment of the music — thus single-handedly creating the "Remix" which has influenced many other latter genres such as Rap, Hip-Hop, Techno, and Pop. DJs and remixers would often remix (i.e., re-edit) existing songs using reel-to-reel tape machines. Their remixed versions would add in percussion breaks, new sections, and new sounds. Influential DJs and remixers who helped to establish what became known as the "disco sound" included David Mancuso, Tom Moulton, Nicky Siano, Shep Pettibone, the legendary and much-sought-after Larry Levan, Walter Gibbons, and later, New York–born Chicago "Godfather of House" Frankie Knuckles. Disco was also shaped by nightclub DJ's such as Francis Grasso, who used multiple record players to seamlessly mix tracks from genres such as soul, funk and pop music at discoteques, and was the forerunner to later styles such as hip-hop and house. Tom Moulton (b. ... A remix is an alternative version of a song, different from the original version. ... RAP may mean: the IATA airport code for Rapid City Regional Airport Rassemblement pour lalternative progressiste, a Québecois political party. ... Breakdance, an early form of hip hop dance, often involves battles, showing off skills without any physical contact with the adversaries. ... For the comic book character previously known as Techno, see Fixer (comics). ... This article is about the genre of popular music. ... David Mancuso is the creator of the infamous by invitation only parties in New York City which have come to be known as The Loft. ... Tom Moulton (b. ... Nicky Siano (18/03/1955 - )was born in Brooklyn, New York. ... Robert E. Pettibone, Jr. ... Larry Levan (born Lawrence Philpot, July 20, 1954 – died November 8, 1992, of AIDS) stands at the crossroads of disco, house music and garage music. ... Walter Gibbons (1954 - 1994) was an American record producer and remixer. ... Frankie Knuckles (born January 18, 1955, in New York City) is a DJ, producer and remix artist. ...


Chart-topping songs

The Hues Corporation's 1974 "Rock The Boat", a U.S. #1 single and million-seller, was one of the early disco songs to hit #1. Other chart-topping songs included "Walking in Rhythm" by The Blackbyrds, "Rock Your Baby" by George McCrae and "Love's Theme" by Barry White's Love Unlimited Orchestra. Also in 1975, Gloria Gaynor released the first side-long disco mix vinyl album, which included a remake of The Jackson 5's "Never Can Say Goodbye" and two other songs, "Honey Bee" and "Reach Out (I'll Be There)". Also significant during this early disco period was Miami's KC and the Sunshine Band. Formed by Harry Wayne Casey ("KC") and Richard Finch, KC and the Sunshine Band had a string of disco-definitive top-five hits between 1975 and 1977, including "Get Down Tonight", "That's the Way (I Like It)", "(Shake, Shake, Shake) Shake Your Booty", "I'm Your Boogie Man" and "Keep It Comin' Love". The Hues Corporation was a pop and soul trio of the mid 70s. ... Rock The Boat is the second single from Aaliyahs third album Aaliyah. ... A collection of various CD singles In music, a single is a short recording of one or more separate tracks. ... Walking in Rhythm is a 1975 smooth rhythm and blues song by The Blackbyrds. ... The Blackbyrds were a 1970s rhythm & blues and jazz-funk fusion group, formed in Washington, D.C.. The group was led by trumpeter Donald Byrd and featured some of his Howard University students: Kevin Toney (keyboards), Keith Killgo (vocals, drums), Joe Hall (bass), Orville Saunders (guitar), and Jay Jones (flute... Rock Your Baby was a popular song by George McCrae. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Loves Theme is an instrumental piece performed by the Love Unlimited Orchestra, which was conducted by Barry White in 1974. ... Barry Eugene White (born Barrence Eugene Carter, September 12, 1944) – July 4, 2003) was a Grammy Award winning American record producer, songwriter and singer responsible for the creation of numerous hit soul and disco songs. ... Barry White ( September 12, 1944 - July 4, 2003) was an American record producer and singer responsible for the creation of numerous hit soul and disco songs. ... Gloria Gaynor (born Gloria Fowles September 7, 1949) is an American singer, best-known for the disco era hits I Will Survive (Hot 100 #1, 1979), Never Can Say Goodbye (Hot 100 #9, 1974), and I Am What I Am (Hot 100 #82, 1983). ... A disco mix is the re-recording of a disco song, whose structure was predicated on exciting listeners and dancers by employing various iterations of the the songs verses, bridges, and refrains through breaks and orchestral builds. ... Chemical structure of the vinyl functional group. ... An album or record album is a collection of related audio or music tracks distributed to the public. ... The Jackson 5 (also spelled The Jackson Five or The Jackson 5ive, abbreviated as J5, and later known as The Jacksons) was an American popular music quintet (and briefly a sextet and quartet) from Gary, Indiana. ... Never Can Say Goodbye was a 1971 hit single by The Jackson 5 for the Motown label, one of their most successful singles. ... The honeybee is a colonial insect that is often maintained, fed, and transported by farmers. ... Reach Out Ill Be There (also rendered as Reach Out (Ill Be There)) is a 1966 hit song recorded by The Four Tops for the Motown label. ... This article is about the city in Florida. ... KC and the Sunshine Band is an American musical group. ... Harry Wayne Casey Harry Wayne Casey (KC) (born January 31, 1951 as Harold Wayne Casey) is an American musician, singer, songwriter, and producer. ... Get Down Tonight is a song released in 1975 on the eponymous album by the disco group KC and the Sunshine Band. ... Thats The Way (I Like It) was a song recorded & released in 1975 by KC and the Sunshine Band for their epnoymous second album. ... (Shake, Shake, Shake) Shake Your Booty was a song recorded & released in 1976 by KC and the Sunshine Band for the album Part 3. ... Im Your Boogie Man is a popular song by KC and the Sunshine Band from their 1976 album Part 3. In 1977 the song reached number 1 position in both Billboard Hot 100 and the United World Chart. ... Keep It Comin Love was a song recorded & released in 1976 on the KC and the Sunshine Band album, Part 3. ...


The Bee Gees used Barry Gibb's falsetto to garner hits such as "You Should Be Dancing". In 1975, hits such as Van McCoy's "The Hustle" and Donna Summer's "Love to Love You Baby" and "Could It Be Magic" brought disco further into the mainstream. Other notable early disco hits include The Jackson 5’s "Dancing Machine" (1973), Barry White’s "You're the First, the Last, My Everything" (1974), LaBelle’s "Lady Marmalade" (1974), The Four Seasons’ "December, 1963 (Oh, What a Night)" (1975), Silver Convention’s "Fly Robin Fly" (1975) and The Bee Gees’ "Jive Talkin'" (1975). Chic's "Le Freak" (1978) became a classic and is heard almost everywhere disco is mentioned; other hits by Chic include the often-sampled "Good Times" (1979) and "Everybody Dance" (1977). Also noteworthy are Cheryl Lynn's "Got to Be Real" (1978) and Walter Murphy's various attempts to bring classical music to the mainstream, most notably his hit "A Fifth of Beethoven" (1976). The Bee Gees: Maurice, Barry and Robin The Bee Gees were a British and Australian band, originally a pop singer-songwriter combination, reborn as funk and disco. ... Barry Alan Crompton Gibb CBE (born on 1 September 1946) is a singer, songwriter and producer. ... Falsetto (Italian diminutive of falso, false) is a singing technique that produces sounds that are pitched higher than the singers normal range, in the treble range. ... Van Allen Clinton McCoy (January 6, 1940 – July 6, 1979) was a music producer, musician, songwriter, and orchestra conductor most famous for his massive 1975 disco hit The Hustle, which is still played on dance floors today, nearly 30 years after his death. ... The Hustle is a catchall name for several disco dances which were extremely popular in the 1970s. ... Donna Summer (born Donna Adrian Gaines) is an American singer-songwriter and musician who gained prominence during the disco era of music. ... Love to Love You Baby is the second album by Donna Summer, and her first to be released internationally. ... Could It Be Magic was a song written and released by Barry Manilow on his first album, self titled Barry Manilow I in 1973. ... The Jackson 5 (also spelled The Jackson Five or The Jackson 5ive, abbreviated as J5, and later known as The Jacksons) was an American popular music quintet (and briefly a sextet and quartet) from Gary, Indiana. ... Dancing Machine is a 1973 song recorded by The Jackson 5, released as a single in 1974. ... Barry Eugene White (born Barrence Eugene Carter, September 12, 1944) – July 4, 2003) was a Grammy Award winning American record producer, songwriter and singer responsible for the creation of numerous hit soul and disco songs. ... Youre the First, the Last, My Everything is a popular single by Barry White. ... Labelle (with the b written in small caps, while the spelling LaBelle exclusively refers to the stage surname of the groups lead vocalist, Patti LaBelle) was an American R&B/soul group, who successfully melded disco with funk and glam rock, resulting in such memorable songs as Lady Marmalade... Audio sample Audio sample Info Lady Marmalade (help· info) Lady Marmalade, released in December 1974, is a 1975 number-one single recorded by Labelle for CBS Records Epic label. ... The Four Seasons (known off and on since 1967 as Frankie Valli & The Four Seasons), is an American pop and rock group, distinct from many similar groups of the early to mid-1960s in its traditional Italian-American sound. ... December, 1963 (Oh, What a Night) is a 1976 hit song by The Four Seasons about a young man losing his virginity to an anonymous stranger. ... Silver Convention was a German disco recording act of the 1970s. ... Fly, Robin, Fly is a 1975 song by the German group Silver Convention. ... The Bee Gees: Maurice, Barry and Robin The Bee Gees were a British and Australian band, originally a pop singer-songwriter combination, reborn as funk and disco. ... Jive Talkin was a song by the Bee Gees, which hit #1 on the Billboard Hot 100 and reached the Top Five on the UK music charts in the summer of 1975. ... For other uses, see Chic. ... Le Freak is a 1978 hit disco song by Chic. ... Good Times is a song by the band CHIC, recorded for their 1979 album Risqué. In August of that year, it became the bands second #1 single on the Billboard Hot 100. ... Cheryl Lynn (born Lynda Cheryl Smith, 11 March 1957, in Los Angeles, California) is a known disco, R&B and soul singer, who scored fame then success beginning in the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s. ... Got To Be Real is a song by Cheryl Lynn from her self-title album. ... Walter Murphy Walter Murphy (born December 19, 1952) is a pianist, composer, and arranger who had a massive hit with the instrumental, A Fifth of Beethoven, a disco adaption of Beethovens Fifth Symphony, in 1976, when disco was at the height of its popularity. ... This article is about Western art music from 1000 AD to the present. ... A Fifth of Beethoven is a disco instrumental recorded by Walter Murphy and the Big Apple Band and written by Murphy. ...


Prominent European pop and disco groups were Luv' from the Netherlands and Boney M, a group of four West Indian singers and dancers masterminded by West German record producer Frank Farian. Boney M charted worldwide hits with such songs as "Daddy Cool", "Ma Baker" and "Rivers of Babylon." All three charted in the United States. In France, Dalida released "J'attendrai", which became a big hit in Canada and Japan. This article is about the genre of popular music. ... Luv was one of the most successful Dutch girl groups in the 1970s. ... Boney M was a Eurodance, pop, and disco group, comprising four West Indian singers and dancers and masterminded by West German record producer Frank Farian, and who were successful during the 1970s. ... Franz Reuther (born July 18, 1941), better known as Frank Farian, is a German music producer, singer-songwriter and fraudster. ... Boney M was a Eurodance, pop, and disco group, comprising four West Indian singers and dancers and masterminded by West German record producer Frank Farian, and who were successful during the 1970s. ... Daddy Cool can be: an Australian band of the 1970s—see Daddy Cool (band); a song by Boney M; or a novel by Donald Goines—see Daddy Cool: A Father Out to Revenge His Daughters Shame. ... Ma Baker was a 1977 music single released by the Euro-disco group Boney M. The song is about legendary 1930s outlaw Ma Barker, but the lyrics are not historically accurate. ... Rivers of Babylon is a spiritual song penned by the late Brent Dowe and Trevor McNaughton of the Melodians. ... It has been suggested that Olympia 74 be merged into this article or section. ... JAttendrai was the French version of the old Italian song Tornerai. This version of Dalida was the first disco song in Europe and made Dalida the first French disco star. ...


1978–1980: mainstream popularity

The release of the film and soundtrack of Saturday Night Fever in December of 1977, which became one of the best-selling soundtracks of all time, turned disco into a mainstream music genre. This in turn led many non-disco artists to record disco songs at the height of its popularity, most often due to demand from record companies who needed a surefire hit. Many of these songs were not "pure" disco, but were instead rock or pop songs with disco overtones. Notable examples include Helen Reddy’s "I Can't Hear You No More" (1976), Marvin Gaye’s "Got to Give It Up" (1977), Charo's "Dance a Little Bit Closer" (1977), Barry Manilow’s "Copacabana (At The Copa)" (1978), The Rolling Stones' "Miss You" (1978), Dolly Parton's "Baby I'm Burning" (1978), Rod Stewart's "Da Ya Think I'm Sexy?" (1979), Wings’ "Goodnight Tonight" (1979), Barbra Streisand's "The Main Event/Fight" (1979), Ann-Margret's "Love Rush" (1979), Kiss' "I Was Made for Lovin' You" (1979), Electric Light Orchestra’s "Shine a Little Love" (1979), Isaac Hayes' "Don't Let Go" (1980), The Spinners' "Working My Way Back To You" (1980) and Queen's "Another One Bites The Dust" (1980). Saturday Night Fever is a 1977 movie starring John Travolta as Tony Manero, a troubled Brooklyn youth whose weekend activities are dominated by visits to a Brooklyn discotheque. ... 2003 Greatest Hits compilation Helen Reddy (born October 25, 1941 in Melbourne, Australia) is an Australian pop singer and actor. ... I Cant Hear You is the name of a song written by Gerry Goffin and Carole King. ... Marvin Gaye (born Marvin Pentz Gay Jr. ... Got to Give It Up is a 1977 hit single recorded by American soul music legend Marvin Gaye. ... María del Rosario Pilar Martínez Molina Baeza de Rasten (born March 13, 1951; disputed year 1941) better known in the Latin and Hollywood show business as Charo, is a singer, dancer, comedienne, actress and classical guitar player. ... Barry Manilow (born Barry Alan Pincus on June 17, 1943) is an American artist best known for such recordings as I Write the Songs, Mandy, Weekend in New England and Copacabana. ... Copacabana is a 1978 disco song by Barry Manilow. ... Rolling Stones redirects here. ... Miss You is a 1978 hit song by The Rolling Stones, from their album Some Girls. ... Dolly Rebecca Parton (born January 19, 1946) is a Grammy Award-winning country music singer/songwriter, author, actress and philanthropist. ... Baby Im Burning was a 1978 song written and performed by Dolly Parton that was part of a double-A-sided single: Baby Im Burning/I Really Got the Feeling. Released from Partons RCA album Heartbreaker, after the success of the title single, Baby Im Burning... Rod Stewart CBE (born January 10, 1945), is a singer and songwriter born and raised in London, England, with Scottish parentage. ... Da Ya Think Im Sexy? is a 1978 hit song for Rod Stewart. ... Wings was a rock music supergroup formed in August 1971, after the breakup of The Beatles, by ex-Beatle Paul McCartney. ... Goodnight Tonight is Wings disco-inflected single which included a spirited flamenco guitar break. ... Barbra Streisand (pronounced STRY-sand; born April 24, 1942) is an American two time Academy Award-winning singer, film and theatre actress. ... Ann-Margret Ann-Margret (born April 28, 1941) is a Swedish-born actress and singer. ... Kiss is an American rock band formed in New York City in January 1973. ... I Was Made for Lovin You is a hard rock/disco song by the American hard rock band Kiss, originally released on their 1979 album Dynasty (see 1979 in music). ... ELO redirects here. ... Shine A Little Love The first track on the Electric Light Orchestra LP Discovery This was the bands most commercial single to date, Far removed from their Prog Rock beginnings at the start of the 1970s. ... For the American arctic explorer, see Isaac Israel Hayes Isaac Lee Hayes, Jr. ... The Spinners are a Detroit, Michigan -based soul band popular in the 1960s and 1970s. ... Working My Way Back To You is a song made popular by The Four Seasons and The Detroit Spinners. ... Queen are an English rock band formed in 1970 in London by guitarist Brian May, lead vocalist Freddie Mercury, and drummer Roger Taylor, with bass guitarist John Deacon joining the following year. ... Another One Bites the Dust is a 1980 funk/rock song from the English rock band Queen, written by bassist John Deacon and was a worldwide crossover hit (hitting number one on the U.S. Billboard Hot 100, hitting #2 on the R&B charts, and the Disco Top 100). ...

Bootleg "Saturday Night Fever" 8-Track album cover from the 1970s

Disco hit the airwaves with Marty Angelo's Disco Step-by-Step Television Show in 1975, Steve Marcus' Disco Magic/Disco 77, Eddie Rivera's Soap Factory and Merv Griffin's, Dance Fever, hosted by Deney Terrio, who is credited with teaching actor John Travolta to dance for his upcoming role in the hit movie Saturday Night Fever. Several parodies of the disco style were created, most notably "Disco Duck" and "Dancin' Fool". Rick Dees, at the time a radio DJ in Memphis, Tennessee, recorded "Disco Duck"; Frank Zappa parodied the lifestyles of disco dancers in "Dancin' Fool" on his Sheik Yerbouti album. Stereo 8, commonly known as the 8-track cartridge, or eight track tape in popular vernacular is a magnetic tape sound recording technology, popular from the mid-1960s to the early 1980s. ... Disco Step-by-Step® was a local television show in Buffalo, New York which featured disco music, dance instruction, and hustle dancing. ... Mervyn Edward Merv Griffin, Jr. ... Dance Fever was a syndicated musical variety series in which three celebrities judged amateur dancers to hottest disco hits of the day. ... Deney Terrio was the host of the television musical variety series Dance Fever from 1979 to 1987. ... John Joseph Travolta (born February 18, 1954) is an Academy Award-nominated and Golden Globe Award-winning American actor, dancer, and singer, best known for his leading roles in films such as Saturday Night Fever, Grease and Pulp Fiction. ... Saturday Night Fever is a 1977 movie starring John Travolta as Tony Manero, a troubled Brooklyn youth whose weekend activities are dominated by visits to a Brooklyn discotheque. ... Disco Duck is a satirical disco novelty song performed by Memphis disc jockey Rick Dees and His Cast of Idiots and released in 1976, where it became a number-one hit on the Billboard Hot 100 (and ranked as the ninety-ninth most popular song of the year according to... Rigdon Osmond Rick Dees III (born March 14, 1950 in Jacksonville, Florida) is a radio disc jockey who currently lives in the San Fernando Valley community of Toluca Lake in Los Angeles, California, U.S.. Dees is best known for his syndicated radio show Rick Dees Weekly Top 40 and... For other uses, see Memphis (disambiguation). ... Frank Vincent Zappa[1] (December 21, 1940 – December 4, 1993) was an American composer, musician, and film director. ... Sheik Yerbouti (Shake Your Booty) is a double vinyl album by Frank Zappa featuring material recorded in 1977 and 1978. ...


The "disco sound"

The "disco sound" while unique almost defies a unified description as it was an ultra-inclusive art form that drew on as many influences as it produced interpretations. Jazz, Classical, Latin, Soul, Funk, and new technologies just to name a few of the obvious were all mingled with aplomb. Vocals could be frivolous or serious love intrigues all the way to extremely serious social conscious commentary. The music tended to layer soaring, often reverberated vocals, which are often doubled by horns, over a background "pad" of electric pianos and wah-pedaled "chicken-scratch" (palm muted) guitars. Other backing keyboard instruments include the piano, string synth, and electroacoustic keyboards such as the Fender Rhodes piano, Wurlitzer electric piano, and Hohner Clavinet. Synthesizers were also fairly common in disco, especially in the late 70's. The rhythm is laid down by prominent, syncopated basslines played on the bass guitar and by drummers using a drum kit, African/Latin percussion, and electronic drums such as Simmons and Roland drum modules). The sound was enriched with solo lines and harmony parts played by a variety of orchestral instruments, such as harp, violin, viola, cello, trumpet, saxophone, trombone, clarinet, flugelhorn, French horn, tuba, English horn, oboe, flute, and piccolo. The palm mute, also known as palm muting, is a playing technique for the guitar or (less commonly) bass guitar. ... Pianoforte redirects here. ... A sunburst-colored Fender Precision Bass The electric bass guitar (or electric bass[1][2]; pronounced , as in base) is a bass stringed instrument played primarily with the fingers (either by plucking, slapping, popping, or tapping) or using a pick. ... A drum kit (or drum set or trap set) is a collection of drums, cymbals and sometimes other percussion instruments, such as a cowbell, wood block, chimes or tambourines, arranged for convenient playing by a single drummer. ... The term Latin percussion refers to any member of a large family of musical percussion instruments used in Latin music, which in turn is a very loosy related group of musical styles, mainly from the Latin American region, and ultimately having roots or influences in African tribal music. ... Basic electronic drum set made by Pintech. ... Roland Corporation ) TYO: 7944 is a Japanese manufacturer of electronic musical instruments, electronic equipment and software. ... A Sound module (sometimes referred to as tone generator) is an electronic musical instrument without a human-playable interface such as a keyboard, for example. ... For other uses, see Harp (disambiguation). ... For the Anne Rice novel, see Violin (novel). ... For other uses, see Viola (disambiguation). ... This article is about the stringed musical instrument. ... Trumpeter redirects here. ... The saxophone (colloquially referred to as sax) is a conical-bored musical instrument usually considered a member of the woodwind family. ... The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. ... Two soprano clarinets: a Bâ™­ clarinet (left, with capped mouthpiece) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ... A standard 3-valved Bb flugelhorn. ... The horn is a brass instrument consisting of tubing wrapped into a coiled form. ... For other uses, see Tuba (disambiguation). ... Cor anglais The cor anglais or English horn is a musical instrument of the woodwind family. ... For other uses, see Oboe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Flute (disambiguation). ... This article is about the instrument in the flute family. ...


Most disco songs have a steady four-on-the-floor beat, a quaver or semi-quaver hi-hat pattern with an open hi-hat on the off-beat, and a heavy, syncopated bass line. This basic beat would appear to be related to the Dominican merengue rhythm. Other Latin rhythms such as the rhumba, the samba and the cha-cha-cha are also found in disco recordings, and Latin polyrhythms, such as a rhumba beat layered over a merengue, are commonplace. The quaver pattern is often supported by other instruments such as the rhythm guitar and may be implied rather than explicitly present. It often involves syncopation, rarely occurring on the beat unless a synthesizer is used to replace the bass guitar. Four to the floor or four-on-the-floor is a type of dance music characterized by a steady, uniformly accented beat in 4/4 time, popularized in 1960s, and disco music of 1970s. ... Figure 1. ... The hi-hat stand has changed little since its invention. ... Merengue can mean either: A style of music from Hispainolia based from either Domininican or Haitian origin [1][2]  ; see merengue music See also Méringue, style of music. ... Polyrhythm is the simultaneous sounding of two or more independent rhythms. ... For other uses of the same name, see Syncopation (disambiguation). ... Synth redirects here. ...


In 1977, Giorgio Moroder again became responsible for a development in disco. Alongside Donna Summer and Pete Bellotte he wrote the song "I Feel Love" for Summer to perform. It became the first well-known disco hit to have a completely synthesised backing track. The song is still considered to have been well ahead of its time. Other disco producers, most famously Tom Moulton, grabbed ideas and techniques from dub music (which came with the increased Jamaican migration to NYC in the seventies) to provide alternatives to the four on the floor style that dominated. Larry Levan utilized style keys from dub and jazz and more as one of the most successful remixers of all time to create early versions of house music that sparked the genre [11]. Giorgio Moroder (born Giovanni Giorgio Moroder on April 26, 1940 in Ortisei, Italy) is an Academy Award-winning Italian record producer, songwriter and performer, whose groundbreaking work with synthesizers during the 1970s was a significant influence on new wave, techno and electronic music in general. ... Donna Summer (born Donna Adrian Gaines) is an American singer-songwriter and musician who gained prominence during the disco era of music. ... Pete Bellotte (born 1949) is a British songwriter and producer most famous for his main body of work work with Donna Summer alongside his partner Giorgio Moroder. ... I Feel Love is a song by Donna Summer, taken from her 1977 concept album I Remember Yesterday. ... Larry Levan (born Lawrence Philpot, July 20, 1954 – died November 8, 1992, of AIDS) stands at the crossroads of disco, house music and garage music. ... House music is a style of electronic dance music that was developed by dance club DJs in Chicago in the early to mid-1980s. ...


Production and development

The "disco sound" was much more costly to produce than many of the other popular music genres from the 1970s. Unlike the simpler, four-piece band sound of the funk, soul of the late 1960s, or the small jazz organ trios, disco music often included a large pop band, with several chordal instruments (guitar, keyboards, synthesizer), several drum or percussion instruments (drumkit, Latin percussion, electronic drums), a horn section, a string orchestra, and a variety of "classical" solo instruments (e.g., flute, piccolo, etc.). In music, a band is a company of musicians, or musical ensemble, usually popular or folk, playing parts of or improvising a musical arrangement on different musical instruments. ... For other uses, including related musical genres, see Funk (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... An organ trio, in a jazz context, is group of three jazz musicians, typically consisting of a Hammond organ player, a drummer, and either a jazz guitarist or a saxophone player. ... In a symphony orchestra the horn section is the group of musicians who play the horn (sometimes referred to as the French horn). ... A string orchestra is an orchestra composed solely of stringed instruments. ...


Disco songs were arranged and composed by experienced arrangers and orchestrators, and producers added their creative touches to the overall sound. Recording complex arrangements with such a large number of instruments and sections required a team that included a conductor, copyists, record producers, and mixing engineers. Mixing engineers had an important role in the disco production process, because disco songs used as many as 64 tracks of vocals and instruments. Mixing engineers compiled these tracks into a fluid composition of verses, bridges, and refrains, complete with orchestral builds and breaks. Mixing engineers helped to develop the "disco sound" by creating a distinctive-sounding disco mix. Orchestration is the study or practice of writing music for orchestra (or, more loosely, for any musical ensemble) or of adapting for orchestra music composed for another medium. ... Conducting is the act of directing a musical performance by way of visible gestures. ... A copyist is a person who makes written copies. ... In the music industry, a record producer (or music producer) has many roles, among them controlling the recording sessions, coaching and guiding the musicians, organizing and scheduling production budget and resources, and supervising the recording, mixing and mastering processes. ... Audio engineering is a part of audio science dealing with the recording and reproduction of sound through mechanical and electronic means. ... Methods and media for sound recording are varied and have undergone significant changes between the first time sound was actually recorded for later playback until now. ... Orchestral build is a term used in disco music to describe the systematic overlapping of prerecorded elements of the symphony orchestra during an interlude of a song. ... For other uses, see Break. ... A disco mix is the re-recording of a disco song, whose structure was predicated on exciting listeners and dancers by employing various iterations of the the songs verses, bridges, and refrains through breaks and orchestral builds. ...


Early records were the "standard" 3 minute version until Tom Moulton, thought the "standard" 3 minute songs were just too short and he came up with a way to make songs longer. He wanted to take the crowd to another level. He had a hard time trying to get these longer versions put on vinyl, the problem was that the 7" single couldn't hold more than some maximum 4-5 minutes with good quality. He really wanted people to get to hear the longer version, especially on the dancefloors, so Tom and friend, José Rodriguez who did his remastering, pressed one single on 10" instead of 7". The next "single" they cut on 12", same format as an album, this was how they come to invent the 12" single - which fast became all DJ's tool and format.[12] Tom Moulton (b. ...


Because record sales were often dependent on floor play in clubs, DJs were also important to the development and popularization of disco music. Notable DJs include Rex Potts (Loft Lounge, Sarasota, FL), Jim Burgess, Walter Gibbons, John "Jellybean" Benitez, Richie Kaczar of Studio 54, Rick Gianatos, Francis Grasso of Sanctuary, Larry Levan, Ian Levine, Neil "Raz" Rasmussen & Mike Pace of L'amour Disco in Brooklyn, Preston Powell of Magique, Jennie Costa of Lemontrees, Tee Scott, John Luongo, Robert Ouimet of The Limelight, and David Mancuso. DJ or dj may stand for Disc jockey, dinner jacket The DeadJournal website, or Djibouti. ... Walter Gibbons (1954 - 1994) was an American record producer and remixer. ... John Benitez a. ... Studio 54 was a New York City discothèque located at 254 West 54th Street in Manhattan. ... Francis Grasso was an American disc jockey from New York City, best known for inventing the technique of slip-cueing and later beatmatching which is the foundation of the modern club djs technique. ... Larry Levan (born Lawrence Philpot, July 20, 1954 – died November 8, 1992, of AIDS) stands at the crossroads of disco, house music and garage music. ... Record producer Ian Levine. ... David Mancuso is the creator of the infamous by invitation only parties in New York City which have come to be known as The Loft. ...


The 12-inch single format also allowed longer dance time and format possibilities. In May, 1976, Salsoul Records released Walter Gibbons' remix of Double Exposure's "Ten Percent", the first commercially-available 12-inch single. [citition needed] Motown Records’ "Eye-Cue" label also marketed 12-inch singles; however, the play time remained the same length as the original 45s. In 1976, Scepter/Wand released the first 12-inch extended-version single, Jesse Green's "Nice and Slow." This single was packaged in a collectible picture sleeve, a relatively new concept at the time. Twelve-inch singles became commercially available after the first crossover, Tavares' "Heaven Must Be Missing an Angel." The term musical form refers to two related concepts: the type of composition (for example, a musical work can have the form of a symphony, a concerto, or other generic type -- see Multi-movement forms below) the structure of a particular piece (for example, a piece can be written in... Salsoul Records is a New York based record label who from 1974 to 1985, released about 300 disco 12-inch singles and a string of albums. ... Walter Gibbons (1954 - 1994) was an American record producer and remixer. ... Double Exposure was an American disco era band hailing from Philadelphia, USA. Band members were Leonard Davis, Joe Harris, Chuck Whittington, and Jimmy Williams and they recorded for the Salsoul record label. ... Motown Records, also known as Tamla-Motown outside of the United States, is a record label originally based out of Detroit, Michigan (Motor City, hence mo(tor)town), from where it achieved widespread international success. ... Jesse Green (born in 1971) is an American professional jazz pianist, composer, arranger, producer, and teacher. ... Tavares is an American successful R&B, disco, and soul music band, comprised of five brothers from New Bedford, Massachusetts. ...


Disco club scene and dancing

By the late 1970s many major US cities had thriving disco club scenes which were centered around discotheques, nightclubs, and private loft parties where DJs would play disco hits through powerful PA systems for the dancers. The DJs played "...a smooth mix of long single records to keep people 'dancing all night long'".[13] Some of the most prestigious clubs had elaborate lighting systems that throbbed to the beat of the music. Discothèque redirects here. ... DJ or dj may stand for Disc jockey, dinner jacket The DeadJournal website, or Djibouti. ... A live sound reproduction system has two main forms: A sound reinforcement system enhances the volume of the initial sound and will be designed so that as much as possible the listener will not realise that an artificial system is being used to make it easier for them to hear...


Some cities had disco dance instructors or dance schools which taught people how to do popular disco dances such as "touch dancing", "the hustle" and "the cha cha." There were also disco fashions that discotheque-goers wore for nights out at their local disco, such as sheer, flowing Halston dresses for women and shiny polyester Qiana shirts for men with pointy collars, preferably open at the chest, often worn with double-knit suit jackets. Roy Halston Frowick, also known as Halston (April 23, 1932–March 26, 1990) was an iconic clothing designer of the 1970s. ... Qiana is a silky nylon fiber first developed by DuPont in 1968 [1]. Initially intended for high-end fashions, it eventually became a popular material in the 1970s for mens shirts, displaying bold patterns and large images. ...


Some notable professional dance troupes of the 1970s include Pan's People and Hot Gossip. For many dancers, the primary influence of the 1970s disco age is still predominantly the film Saturday Night Fever. In the 1980s this developed into the music and dance style of such films as Fame, Flashdance, and the musical A Chorus Line. Pans People were a 1970s British TV dance troupe who are best associated with the BBC TV music chart show Top of the Pops. ... Hot Gossip were a British dance troupe most notable for their appearance on the TV series The Kenny Everett Video Show, which aired on ITV in the late 1970s. ...


Drug subculture

In addition to the dance and fashion aspects of the disco club scene, there was also a thriving drug subculture, particularly for drugs that would enhance the experience of dancing to the loud music and the flashing lights, such as cocaine [14] (nicknamed "blow"), amyl nitrite "poppers" [15], and the "...other quintessential 1970s club drug Quaalude, which suspended motor coordination and turned one’s arms and legs to Jell-O."[16] According to Peter Braunstein, the "[m]assive quantities of drugs ingested in discotheques produced the next cultural phenomenon of the disco era: rampant promiscuity and public sex. While the dance floor was the central arena of seduction, actual sex usually took place in the nether regions of the disco: bathroom stalls, exit stairwells, and so on. In other cases the disco became a kind of 'main course' in a hedonist’s menu for a night out."[17] For other uses, see Cocaine (disambiguation). ... Variety of popper brands Poppers is the street term for various alkyl nitrites taken for recreational purposes through direct inhalation, particularly amyl nitrite, butyl nitrite and isobutyl nitrite. ... The term Quaalude is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as: A proprietary name for methaqualone; also, a tablet of this. More recently, however, the word has come to mean: a gently soothing interlude, possibly with mildly narcotic effects. ... Explain the dystonias connected with motor coordination. ... JELL-O is a brand name belonging to USA-based Kraft Foods for a number of gelatin desserts, including fruit gels, puddings and no-bake cream pies. ... Photograph of Peter Braunstein released by the police. ... Public sex is a term to describe sex in a public environment. ... This article does not cite any sources. ...


Famous disco bars included the very important Paradise Garage as well as "...cocaine-filled celeb hangouts such as Manhattan's Studio 54", which was operated by Steve Rubell and Ian Schrager. Studio 54 was notorious for the hedonism that went on within; the balconies were known for sexual encounters, and drug use was rampant. Its dance floor was decorated with an image of the "Man in the Moon" that included an animated cocaine spoon. For other uses, see Celebrity (disambiguation). ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... Studio 54 was a New York City discothèque located at 254 West 54th Street in Manhattan. ... The tone of this article is inappropriate for an encyclopedia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A cocaine spoon, referred to as a coke spoon, or simply spoon, is an instrument used in the process of insufflating (snorting, sniffing) cocaine. ...


Decline in popularity and backlash

Further information: Disco Demolition Night

The popularity of the film Saturday Night Fever prompted major record labels to mass-produce hits, a move which some perceived as turning the genre from something vital and edgy into a safe "product" homogenized for mainstream audiences. Though disco music had enjoyed several years of popularity, an anti-disco sentiment manifested in America. This sentiment proliferated at the time because of oversaturation and the big-business mainstreaming of disco. Worried about declining profits, rock radio stations and record producers encouraged this trend. According to Gloria Gaynor, the music industry supported the destruction of disco because rock music producers were losing money and rock musicians were losing the spotlight.[18] Many hard rock fans expressed strong disapproval of disco throughout the height of its popularity. Among these fans, the slogan "Disco Sucks" was common by the late 1970s and appeared in written form in places ranging from tee shirts to graffiti.[citation needed] Disco Demolition Night was a promotional event that took place on July 12, 1979, at Comiskey Park in Chicago. ... Gloria Gaynor (born Gloria Fowles September 7, 1949) is an American singer, best-known for the disco era hits I Will Survive (Hot 100 #1, 1979), Never Can Say Goodbye (Hot 100 #9, 1974), and I Am What I Am (Hot 100 #82, 1983). ... Hard Rock redirects here. ...


Disco music and dancing fads began to be depicted by rock music fans as silly and effeminate, such as in Frank Zappa's satirical song "Dancin' Fool". Some listeners objected to the perceived sexual promiscuity and illegal drug use (e.g., cocaine and Quaaludes) that had become associated with disco music. Others were put off by the exclusivity of the disco scene, especially in major clubs in large cities such as the Studio 54 discotheque, where bouncers only let in fashionably-dressed club-goers, celebrities, and their hangers-on. Rock fans objected to the idea of centering music around an electronic drum beat and synthesizers instead of live performers. Some have contended that there was also an element of bigotry to the anti-disco backlash; in his book A Change Is Gonna Come, Craig Werner wrote, "the attacks on disco gave respectable voice to the ugliest kinds of unacknowledged racism, sexism and homophobia."[19] Effeminacy is character trait of a male showing femininity, unmanliness, womanliness, weakness, softness and/or a delicacy, which contradicts traditional masculine, male gender roles. ... Frank Vincent Zappa[1] (December 21, 1940 – December 4, 1993) was an American composer, musician, and film director. ... Sheik Yerbouti (Shake Your Booty) is a double vinyl album by Frank Zappa featuring material recorded in 1977 and 1978. ... For other uses, see Bouncer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celebrity (disambiguation). ...


To further complicate matters, several prominent rock bands recorded songs with disco influences, such as Rod Stewart's "Da Ya Think I'm Sexy?" (1978), The Rolling Stones’ "Miss You" (1978), and Kiss's "I Was Made For Lovin' You" (1979). Though these fusions of rock and disco were initially met with critical[citation needed] and commercial acclaim, many of the bands were subsequently viewed as "sell-outs". Since the advent of disco and dance music, rock music has absorbed many of the rhythmic sensibilities of funk-influenced dance music, while nevertheless retaining a distinct sound and audience culture. Rod Stewart CBE (born January 10, 1945), is a singer and songwriter born and raised in London, England, with Scottish parentage. ... Da Ya Think Im Sexy? is a 1978 hit song for Rod Stewart. ... Rolling Stones redirects here. ... Miss You is a 1978 hit song by the Rolling Stones, from their album Some Girls. ... Kiss is an American rock band formed in New York City in January 1973. ... I Was Made for Lovin You is a hard rock/disco song by the American hard rock band Kiss, originally released on their 1979 album Dynasty (see 1979 in music). ... Selling out is a common slang phrase. ...


Some historians have referred to July 12, 1979 as "the day disco died" because of an anti-disco demonstration that was held in Chicago. Rock station DJs Steve Dahl and Garry Meier, along with Michael Veeck, son of Chicago White Sox owner Bill Veeck, staged Disco Demolition Night, a promotional event with an anti-disco theme, between games at a White Sox doubleheader for disgruntled rock fans. During this event, which involved exploding disco records, the raucous crowd tore out seats and turf in the field and did other damage to Comiskey Park. It ended in a riot in which police made numerous arrests. The damage done to the field forced the Sox to forfeit the second game. The stadium suffered thousands of dollars in damage.[20] is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Steve Dahl (born November 20, 1954) has been an American radio personality for over thirty years. ... Garry Meier Garry Meier is a Chicago-based radio talk show host. ... Major league affiliations American League (1901–present) Central Division (1994–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 2, 3, 4, 9, 11, 16, 19, 42, 72 Name Chicago White Sox (1904–present) (Chicago) White Stockings (1901-1903 *From 1900 to 1903, the official name did not contain the city name of Chicago... William Louis Veeck Jr. ... Disco Demolition Night was a promotional event that took place on July 12, 1979, at Comiskey Park in Chicago. ... This article is about the original Comiskey Park. ...


The television industry — taking a cue from the music industry — responded with an anti-disco agenda as well. A recurring theme on the television show, WKRP in Cincinnati contained a hateful attitude towards disco music. The anti-disco backlash may have helped to cause changes to the landscape of Top 40 radio. Negative responses from the listenerships of many Top 40 stations encouraged these stations to drop all disco songs from rotation, filling the holes in their playlists with New Wave, punk rock, and album-oriented rock cuts.[21]. Indeed, Jello Biafra of anarcho-punk band The Dead Kennedys likened disco to the cabaret culture of Weimar Germany for its apathy towards government policy and its escapism (which Biafra saw as delusional). He sang about this in the song Saturday Night Holocaust[citation needed], the B-side of the song Halloween. WKRP in Cincinnati (1978–1982) is an American situation comedy that featured the misadventures of the staff of a struggling radio station in Cincinnati, Ohio. ... Top 40 is a radio format based on frequent repetition of songs from a constantly-updated list of the forty best-selling singles. ... The New Wave was a movement in American, Australian and British popular music, in the late 1970s and early 1980s, growing out of the New York City musical scene centered around the club CBGB. The term itself is a source of much confusion. ... Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... Album-oriented rock (sometimes referred to as adult-oriented rock), abbreviated AOR and originally called album-oriented radio, was originally an American FM radio format focusing on album tracks by rock artists. ... Eric Reed Boucher (born June 17, 1958) is more widely known by the stage name Jello Biafra. ... The anarchy symbol commonly used by anarcho-punks Anarcho-punk (sometimes known as peace-punk) is a subgenre of the punk rock movement consisting of groups and bands promoting specifically anarchist ideas. ... This page is about the band; see Kennedy family for the political dynasty, or The Kennedy Curse, which inspired the name Dead Kennedys The Dead Kennedys, from San Francisco, California are widely considered to be one of the greatest punk rock bands of all time. ... Cabaret is a form of entertainment featuring comedy, song, dance, and theatre, distinguished mainly by the performance venue — a restaurant or nightclub with a stage for performances and the audience sitting around the tables (often dining or drinking) watching the performance. ... The period of German history from 1919 to 1933 is known as the Weimar Republic (in German Weimarer Republik). It is named after the city of Weimar, where a national assembly convened to produce a new constitution after the German monarchy was abolished following the nations defeat in World... Halloween (B-side Saturday Night Holocaust) is a seventh and final single by the Dead Kennedys. ...


It should be noted that, unlike in the U.S., there was never a focused backlash against disco in Europe, and discotheques and club culture continued longer in Europe than in the US.


From "disco sound" to "dance sound"

The transition from the late-1970s disco styles to the early-1980s dance styles was marked primarily by the change from complex arrangements performed by large ensembles of studio session musicians (including a horn section and an orchestral string section), to a leaner sound, in which one or two singers would perform to the accompaniment of synthesizer keyboards and drum machines.


In addition, dance music during the 1981-83 period borrowed elements from blues and jazz, creating a style different from the disco of the 1970s. This emerging music was still known as disco for a short time, as the word had become associated with any kind of dance music played in discothèques. Examples of early 1980s dance sound performers include D. Train, Kashif, and Patrice Rushen. [22] D. Train (sometimes written as D Train, D-Train or D Train) was actually James Williams R&B/dance music from Brooklyn New York. ... Kashif (born Michael Jones in Brooklyn, New York 1959-), is an American multi-instrumetalist, singer, songwriter and producer. ... Album cover of Straight from the Heart Patrice Louise Rushen (born September 30, 1954 in Los Angeles, California) is an American R&B singer, songwriter, composer, and pianist. ...


During the first years of the 1980s, the "disco sound" began to be phased out, and faster tempos and synthesized effects, accompanied by guitar and simplified backgrounds, moved dance music toward the funk and pop genres. This trend can be seen in singer Billy Ocean's recordings between 1979 and 1981. Whereas Ocean's 1979 song American Hearts was backed with an orchestral arrangement played by the Los Angeles Symphony Orchestra, his 1981 song One of Those Nights (Feel Like Gettin' Down) had a more bare, stripped-down sound, with no orchestration or symphonic arrangements. This drift from the original disco sound is called post-disco. Billy Ocean (born Leslie Sebastian Charles, 21 January 1950, Fyzabad, Trinidad[1] [2]) is a UK-based popular music performer who had a string of rhythm and blues-tinged international pop hits in the 1970s and 1980s. ... The term post disco is a referal to the late 70s early 80s movement of disco music into more electronic influenced sounds. ...


During the early 1980s, dance music dropped the complicated melodic structure and orchestration which typified the "disco sound." Examples of well-known songs which illustrate this difference include Kool & the Gang’s "Celebration" (1980), Rick James’ "Super Freak" (1981), Grace Jones's "Pull Up to the Bumper" (1981), Carol Jiani's "Hit N' Run Lover" (1981), Laura Branigan's "Gloria" (1982), The Pointer Sisters’ "I'm So Excited" (1982), Prince’s "1999" (1982), The Weather Girls's "It's Raining Men" (1982), Madonna’s "Holiday" (1983), Irene Cara’s "Flashdance (What A Feeling)" (1983), Angela Bofill's "Too Tough" (1983), Miquel Brown's "So Many Men, So Little Time" (1983), Michael Jackson’s "Thriller" (1983), Jocelyn Brown's "Somebody Else's Guy" (1984), and Klymaxx's "Meeting in the Ladies Room" (1984). Kool & the Gang is a highly successful American jazz/R&B/soul/funk/disco group. ... Celebration is a song released in 1980 by Kool & the Gang from their album Celebrate!. It reached number one on the Billboard Hot 100 chart on February 7, 1981 and held that position until February 20, 1981. ... Rick James (born James Ambrose Johnson, Jr) (February 1, 1948 – August 6, 2004) was one of the most popular artists on the Motown label during the late 1970s and early 1980s. ... Super Freak is a 1981 hit single, produced and performed by Rick James for the Motown label. ... Grace Jones (born May 19, 1948)[1] is a Jamaican–American model, singer and actress. ... Carol Jiani is a Nigerian born, Canadaian singer who debuted after the peak of Disco in the American mainstream. ... Laura Branigan (July 3, 1952 – August 26, 2004) was a popular American singer and actress. ... Gloria may be: Gloria (song), any one of several songs from the history of popular music Gloria in Excelsis Deo, the main doxology of the Roman Catholic Mass Vivaldis Gloria, a musical setting of the doxology Gloria Patri, a relatively short, common doxology Gloria, Oriental Mindoro, a municipality in... The Pointer Sisters was an American vocal group and recording act that achieved great success during the 1970s and 1980s. ... Im so Excited is a song recorded by the Pointer Sisters. ... For other uses, see Prince (disambiguation). ... Prince (UK) singles chronology Lets Work (1982) 1999 (1982) Little Red Corvette (1983) Prince (UK) singles chronology The Holy River (1997) 1999 (1998) The Greatest Romance Ever Sold (1999) 1999 is one of Princes most well-known songs and a defining point in his rise to superstar status. ... The Weather Girls were an American girl group that formed in 1982. ... Its Raining Men is a song written by Paul Jabara and Paul Shaffer in 1979, and originally recorded by The Weather Girls in 1982. ... This article is about the American entertainer. ... Madonna UK chronology Rescue Me (1991) Holiday (UK re-issue) (1991) This Used to Be My Playground (1992) Holiday is a song and the third single by pop singer Madonna, released on September 7, 1983 by Sire Records. ... Irene Cara (born Irene Escalera on March 18, 1959, in The Bronx, New York City) is an American singer of African, Cuban and Puerto Rican descent. ... Flashdance. ... Angela Bofill (born on May 2, 1954 in The Bronx) is an American R&B contralto vocalist and songwriter. ... Miquel Brown (born circa 1945) is a disco/soul singer from the 70s and 80s most popular for the songs Close to Perfection and the Hi-NRG So Many Men, So Little Time (now considered a gay anthem). ... So Many Men, So Little Time - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... For other persons named Michael Jackson, see Michael Jackson (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Thriller song. ... Jocelyn Brown (born Jocelyn Lorette Brown, November 25, 1950, in Kinston, North Carolina) is an R&B and dance music singer. ... The original members of Klymaxx. ...


DJ sets/mixes

The rising popularity of disco came in tandem with developments in turntablism and the use of records to create a continuous mix of songs. The resulting DJ mix differed from previous forms of dance music, which were oriented towards live performances by musicians. This in turn affected the arrangement of dance music, with songs since the disco era typically containing beginnings and endings marked by a simple beat or riff that can be easily slipped into the mix. DJ Mixer. ... A DJ mix or DJ set is a sequence of musical tracks typically mixed together to appear as one continuous track. ...


Early hip-hop, electronica and rap

The disco sound had a gigantic influence on early hip-hop and rap. Most of the early rap/hip-hop songs were created by isolating existing Disco bass-guitar lines and dubbing over them with MC rhymes. The Sugarhill Gang used Chic's "Good Times" as the foundation for their 1979 hit "Rapper's Delight", generally considered to be the song that first popularized hip hop in the United States and around the world. In 1982, Afrika Bambataa released the single "Planet Rock," which incorporated electronica elements from Kraftwerk's "Trans-Europe Express" and "Numbers." The "Planet Rock" sound also spawned a hip-hop electronic dance trend, which included such songs as Planet Patrol's "Play At Your Own Risk" (1982), C Bank’s "One More Shot" (1982), Shannon's "Let the Music Play" (1983), Freeez's "I.O.U." (1983), Midnight Star's "Freak-A-Zoid" (1983), and Chaka Khan's "I Feel For You" (1984). Breakdance, an early form of hip hop dance, often involves battles, showing off skills without any physical contact with the adversaries. ... RAP may mean: the IATA airport code for Rapid City Regional Airport Rassemblement pour lalternative progressiste, a Québecois political party. ... The Sugarhill Gang is an American hip hop and funk group, known mostly for their biggest hit, Rappers Delight, the first hip hop single to become a Top 40 hit. ... Rappers Delight is a 1979 single by American hip hop trio The Sugarhill Gang; it was one of the first hip hop hit singles. ... Afrika Bambaataa (born April 10 or October 4, 1957 or 1960, though his birthdate is hotly debated; he himself refuses to comment on his age) is a DJ and community leader from the South Bronx, who in the late 1970s, was instrumental in the early development of hip hop. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Kraftwerk (pronounced , German for power plant or power station) is an influential electronic-music band from Düsseldorf, Germany. ... Trans-Europe Express is the English language version of a 1977 music album by German band Kraftwerk (see 1977 in music). ... Breakdance, an early form of hip hop dance, often involves battles, showing off skills without any physical contact with the adversaries. ... Space Patrol was a puppet TV series from the United Kingdom, made in 1962, written and produced by Roberta Leigh in association with the Associated British Corporation It featured the vocal talents of Dick Vosburgh, Ronnie Stevens, Libby Morris, Murray Kash and Ysanne Churchman, and comprised 39 half-hour episodes. ... Shannon (born May 12, 1958 as Brenda Shannon Greene in Washington D.C.), is well known for her 1983 smash dance/freestyle record, Let The Music Play. The record redefined the electro funk sound that Arthur Baker and John Rocca (who produced I.O.U by Freeez and One More... Let the Music Play is a famous and critically acclaimed Latin Freestyle song recorded by Washington, DC area singer Shannon in 1983. ... Freeez is a dance music group from London England who had two Top 10 hits on the Hot Dance Music/Club Play chart in 1983. ... Midnight Star was a synth-funk group that had a string of R&B hits in the 80s. ... Chaka Khan (born March 23, 1953) is a multiple Grammy Award-winning American singer known for hit songs such as Im Every Woman, I Feel For You and Through the Fire. Khan was first featured as a member of the funk band Rufus before beginning her solo career. ... I Feel For You is a 1984 song by Chaka Khan. ...


House music

Main article: House music

House music is the direct heir apparent of Disco. A large number of disco performers and musicians have stated it was the same thing with a different name. Some might agree that record producers and synthesizer pioneers such as the American Patrick Cowley and Italian Giorgio Moroder, who both had a number of hit disco singles such as Moroder's "From Here to Eternity" (1977) and Sylvester's "You Make Me Feel (Mighty Real)" (1978) and "Hills of Katmandu" (1978) influenced to some degree the development of the later electric dance music genres such as house and its offshoot techno. Both early/proto House music and its stripped down offshoot techno rely on the repetitive bass drum rhythm and hi-hat rhythm patterns introduced by disco. However, as House music evolved over time, the productions became more lush with productions maintaining soulful vocals while re-introducing live instrumentation and live complex percussion mixed with the electronic drums and synthesizers — basically coming full circle back to the Disco musical ideals with a contemporary edge to them. Techno became more mechanical and devoid of organic flourishes, relying more on instrumental compositions or with minimal synthesized vocals. House music is a style of electronic dance music that was developed by dance club DJs in Chicago in the early to mid-1980s. ... Patrick Joseph Cowley (b October 19, 1950 Buffalo, New York - d November 12, 1982 San Francisco, California) was a Disco and Hi-NRG dance music composer and recording artist. ... Giorgio Moroder (born Giovanni Giorgio Moroder on April 26, 1940 in Ortisei, Italy) is an Academy Award-winning Italian record producer, songwriter and performer, whose groundbreaking work with synthesizers during the 1970s was a significant influence on new wave, techno and electronic music in general. ... House music refers to a collection of styles of electronic dance music, the earliest forms beginning in the early- to mid- 1980s. ... For the comic book character previously known as Techno, see Fixer (comics). ...


Early house music, which was developed by innovative DJs such as Larry Levan in New York and Frankie Knuckles in Chicago, consisted of various disco loops overlapped by strong bass beats. House music was usually computer-driven, and longer segments were used for mixing. Clubs associated with the birth of house music include New York's Paradise Garage and Chicago's Warehouse and The Music Box. DJ or dj may stand for Disc jockey, dinner jacket The DeadJournal website, or Djibouti. ... Larry Levan (born Lawrence Philpot, July 20, 1954 – died November 8, 1992, of AIDS) stands at the crossroads of disco, house music and garage music. ... Frankie Knuckles (born January 18, 1955, in New York City) is a DJ, producer and remix artist. ... The former home of the Paradise Garage on King Street. ... The Warehouse (or the House for short) was a nightclub that was established in Chicago, Illinois, USA, North America in 1977. ...


1990s and 2000s "disco revival"

In the 1990s, a revival of the original disco style began to emerge. The disco influence can be heard in songs as Gloria Estefan's "Get On Your Feet" (1991), Paula Abdul's "Vibeology" (1992), Whitney Houston's "I'm Every Woman" (1993), U2’s "Lemon" (1993), Diana Ross's "Take Me Higher" (1995), The Spice Girls’ "Who Do You Think You Are" (1997) and "Never Give up on the Good Times" (1997), Gloria Estefan's "Heaven's What I Feel" (1998) & "Don't Let This Moment End" (1999), Cher’s "Strong Enough" (1998), and Jamiroquai's "Canned Heat" (1999). Gloria Estefan (born Gloria María Fajardo on September 22, 1961 in Havana, Cuba) is a five-time Grammy Award-winning Cuban American singer and songwriter. ... Get on Your Feet is a single by Gloria Estefan. ... Paula Julie Abdul is an American, multi-platinum selling, Grammy Award-winning singer, dancer, television personality, jewelry designer, actress, and Emmy Award-winning choreographer. ... Vibeology was the fourth single from Paula Abduls album, Spellbound in 1992. ... Whitney Elizabeth Houston (born August 9, 1963) is a six-time Grammy award winning, American R&B singer, soprano, pianist, actress, film producer, and former model. ... Im Every Woman is a 1978 hit single by Chaka Khan, her first hit outside of her recordings with funk band Rufus. ... This article is about the Irish rock band. ... Lemon was the second single from U2s Zooropa album. ... For the author-illustrator, see Diana Ross (author). ... Take Me Higher is a 1995 album by American soul singer Diana Ross released on the Motown label. ... The Spice Girls are a BRIT Award-winning English pop group formed in 1994. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Never Give Up On The Good Times was supposed to be released by the Spice Girls, as a single from their second album, Spiceworld. ... Gloria Estefan (born Gloria María Fajardo on September 22, 1961 in Havana, Cuba) is a five-time Grammy Award-winning Cuban American singer and songwriter. ... Alternate cover Alternate Single Cover Heavens What I Feel was the first single released by Gloria Estefan on her eight studio album Gloria!. // This song is a beautiful ballad with a dance background which was first offered and recorded by Celine Dion but she turned down and at last... Dont Let This Moment End was the second single to U.S., the third single to UK and the fourth single to the rest of the world released by Gloria Estefan on her eight studio album Gloria!. // Dont Let This Moment End was a kind of ballad with... This article is about the entertainer. ... Strong Enough is the second single release from American singer/actress Chers thirty-first album Believe. ... Jamiroquai is a Grammy Award-winning English funk / soul / disco band. ... For other uses, see Canned Heat (disambiguation). ...


The trend continued in the 2000s with hit songs such as Kylie Minogue’s "Spinning Around" (2000) and "Love at First Sight" (2002), Sheena Easton's "Givin' Up, Givin' In" (2001), Sophie Ellis-Bextor's smash single Murder on the Dancefloor (2002), S Club 7's singles Don't Stop Movin' (2001), Alive (2002) and Love Ain't Gonna Wait For You (2003), The Shapeshifters' "Lola's Theme" (2003),Janet Jackson's "R&B Junkie" (2004), La Toya Jackson's "Just Wanna Dance" (2004), and Madonna’s 2005 album Confessions on a Dance Floor echoes traditional disco themes, particularly in the single "Hung Up," which samples ABBA's "Gimme! Gimme! Gimme! (A Man After Midnight)." Kylie redirects here. ... Spinning Around is the first single of the album Light Years from Kylie Minogue. ... This is an article about a song. ... Sheena Easton (born Sheena Shirley Orr on April 27, 1959, Bellshill, North Lanarkshire, Scotland) is a Scottish two time Grammy Award-winning pop singer and theatre & television actress. ... Sophie Michelle Ellis-Bextor (born 10 April 1979) is a multi-platinum selling English pop singer and songwriter. ... Murder on the Dancefloor is a song written by Gregg Alexander and Sophie Ellis-Bextor, produced by Alexander and Matt Rowe for Ellis-Bextors first album Read My Lips (2001). ... S Club 7 (later re-named S Club after the departure of Paul Cattermole from the band) were an English pop group created by former Spice Girls manager Simon Fuller, who rose to fame via their own BBC television programme. ... Dont Stop Movin was a single released by UK pop group, S Club 7 on April 23, 2001. ... Alive was a single released by UK pop group, S Club on November 18, 2002. ... This article is about the singer. ... R&B Junkie is a song by singer Janet Jackson from her 2004 album Damita Jo, scheduled as a single in late 2004. ... For other uses, see La Toya (disambiguation). ... Just Wanna Dance is a single by American singer La Toya Jackson. ... This article is about the American entertainer. ... Confessions on a Dancefloor is the confirmed title of Madonnas eleventh studio album slated to be released in November 2005. ... Audio sample Info (help· info) Hung Up is a pop song written by American singer-songwriter Madonna, Stuart Price, Benny Andersson and Björn Ulvaeus, and produced by Madonna and Price. ... Abba redirects here. ... Gimme! Gimme! Gimme! (A Man After Midnight) is one of the Swedish pop group ABBAs biggest disco hits. ...


In the mid-late 2000s, many disco-influenced songs have been released, becoming hits, including Ultra Nate's "Love's The Only Drug" (2006), Gina G’s "Tonight's The Night" (2006), The Shapeshifters' "Back To Basics" (2006), Michael Gray's "Borderline" (2006), Irene Cara's "Forever My Love" (2006), Bananarama's "Look on the Floor (Hypnotic Tango)", Dannii Minogue's "Perfection" (2006), Akcent's "Kings of Disco" (2007), the Freemasons "Rain Down Love" (2007), Claudja Barry's "I Will Stand" (2006), Suzanne Palmer's "Free My Love" (2007), Pepper Mashay's "Lost Yo Mind" (2007) and Sophie Ellis-Bextor’s "Me and My Imagination" (2007) Maroon 5's "Makes Me Wonder" (2007) Justice’s "D.A.N.C.E." (2007). Music producer, Ian Levine has also produced many new songs with such singers as George Daniel Long, Hazell Dean, Sheila Ferguson, Steve Brookstein and Tina Charles among others for the compilation album titled, Disco 2008, a tribute to Disco music using original material. Ultra Nate (originally from Baltimore) is a popular American house musician who is best known in her home country for her monsterous 1990s dance crossover smash, Free, which features the memorable chorus cause youre free/ to do what you want to do/ youve got to live your life... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Irene Cara (born Irene Escalera on March 18, 1959, in The Bronx, New York City) is an American singer of African, Cuban and Puerto Rican descent. ... Bananarama are a British girl group who have had success on the pop and dance charts since 1982. ... Look on the Floor (Hypnotic Tango) is a pop–dance song written by Sara Dallin, Keren Woodward, David Clewett and Ivar Lisinski for Bananaramas album Drama (2005). ... Not to be confused with Dan Minogue. ... Perfection is an dance-pop song performed by Australian singer Dannii Minogue and the Soul Seekerz. ... Akcent on the cover for JoKero (2006). ... Freemasons are a Dance/House/Electronica production team from Brighton, England. ... Claudja Barry, born 1952 in Jamaica, raised in Toronto, Canada and later based in Germany, is a Pop, Hi-NRG and House music singer and actress who has performed in the European versions of the stage musicals Hair and Catch My Soul. ... Suzanne Palmer is a female dance music singer, songwriter, pianist and producer born in Chicago, Illinois. ... Pepper Mashay (real name Jean McClain) is a Urban contemporary/Soul music and House music singer who has had success as a touring and studio performer. ... Sophie Michelle Ellis-Bextor (born 10 April 1979) is a multi-platinum selling English pop singer and songwriter. ... Me and My Imagination is a pop song written by Sophie Ellis-Bextor, Hannah Robinson and Matt Prime for Ellis-Bextors third album, Trip the Light Fantastic (2007). ... Maroon 5 is a soul-influenced American band originating from Los Angeles, California. ... Makes Me Wonder is the Grammy Award winning first single released from Maroon 5s second album, It Wont Be Soon Before Long (2007). ... This article is about the concept of justice. ... D.A.N.C.E.[1] is the second single by Justice, and the first from their album †. It includes an edit and extended versions of D.A.N.C.E, a rougher mix in the style of their earlier releases, B.E.A.T, and the track Phantom which... Record producer Ian Levine. ... Hazell Dean in 1991 Hazell Dean (born October 27, 1956 in Great Baddow, Essex) is an English dance music singer, composer and producer. ... Sheila Ferguson (born October 8, 1947 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) was the lead singer of 1970s American all woman soul music group The Three Degrees. ... Steve Desmond Brookstein (born 10 November 1968) is a British singer, probably best known as the first winner of the X Factor in December 2004[1], December 11, 2004, with two-thirds of the telephone votes. ... Tina Charles (born Tina Hoskins on March 10, 1954, in Whitechapel, London) is an English singer, who achieved success as a disco artist in the late 1970s. ...


In recent years, artists such as Ali Love and Hercules and Love Affair have revived the disco sound. Ali Love (born 1982) is a dance musician. ...


References and notes

  1. ^ empsfm.org Past Exhibitions
  2. ^ discomusic.com Timeline
  3. ^ a b Disco origins
  4. ^ ARTS IN AMERICA; Here's to Disco, It Never Could Say Goodbye, The New York Times, December 10, 2002]
  5. ^ Excerpt from first article about disco
  6. ^ discomusic.com Timeline first disco radio show
  7. ^ allmusic
  8. ^ "Only the Strong Survive"
  9. ^ Vince Aletti
  10. ^ Giorgio Moroder Allmusic.com
  11. ^ Shapiro, Peter (2000). Modulations: A History of Electronic Music. Caipirinha Productions, Inc., 254 pages. ISBN 0819564982.  see p.45, 46
  12. ^ http://www.disco-disco.com/disco/history.shtml
  13. ^ The Body and soul of club culture
  14. ^ Gootenberg, Paul 1954- - Between Coca and Cocaine: A Century or More of U.S.-Peruvian Drug Paradoxes, 1860-1980 - Hispanic American Historical Review - 83:1, February 2003, pp. 119-150. He says that "The relationship of cocaine to 1970s disco culture cannot be stressed enough; ..." -
  15. ^ Amyl, butyl and isobutyl nitrite (collectively known as alkyl nitrites) are clear, yellow liquids which are inhaled for their intoxicating effects. Nitrites originally came as small glass capsules that were popped open. This led to nitrites being given the name 'poppers' but this form of the drug is rarely found in the UK The drug became popular in the UK first on the disco/club scene of the 1970s and then at dance and rave venues in the 1980s and 1990s. Available at: http://www.drugscope.org.uk/druginfo/drugsearch/ds_results.asp?file=%5Cwip%5C11%5C1%5C1%5Cnitrites.html
  16. ^ www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/ah/1999/7/1999_7_43.shtml - 76k -
  17. ^ Peter Braunstein. Available at: http://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/ah/1999/7/1999_7_43.shtml
  18. ^ http://www.emplive.org/exhibits/index.asp?articleID=622
  19. ^ Disco Inferno, Daryl Easlea, The Independent, December 11, 2004
  20. ^ http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_kmtpp/is_200407/ai_n6834125
  21. ^ For example, WLS in Chicago, KFJZ-FM (now KEGL) in Dallas/Fort Worth, and CHUM-AM in Toronto were among the stations that took this approach. Although WLS continued to list some disco tracks, such as "Funkytown" by Lipps Inc., on its record surveys in the early 1980s, it refused to air them.
  22. ^ These changes were influenced by some of the notable R&B and jazz musicians of the 1970s, such as Stevie Wonder and Herbie Hancock, who had pioneered "one-man-band"-type keyboard techniques. Some of these influences had already begun to emerge during the mid-1970s, at the height of disco’s popularity. Songs such as Gloria Gaynor’s "Never Can Say Goodbye" (1974), Thelma Houston’s "Don't Leave Me This Way" (1976), Donna Summer’s "Spring Affair" (1977), Rod Stewart’s "Do Ya Think I'm Sexy?" (1978), Donna Summer’s "Bad Girls" (1979), and The Bee Gees’ "Love You Inside Out" (1979) foreshadowed the dramatic change in dance music styles which was to follow in the 1980s.
  • Michaels, Mark (1990). The Billboard Book of Rock Arranging. ISBN 0-8230-7537-0.
  • Jones, Alan and Kantonen, Jussi (1999). Saturday Night Forever: The Story of Disco. Chicago, Illinois: A Cappella Books. ISBN 1-55652-411-0.
  • Article on the 30th Annversary of Saturday Night Fever DVD, re-mastered by writer John Reed.

For other uses, see The Independent (disambiguation). ... WLS (Worlds Largest Store) is the callsign two broadcast stations in Chicago: radio station WLS AM 890 TV station WLS-TV 7 (DTV 52) WLS (Weight Loss Surgery) see Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery   This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might... KEGL is a radio station transmitting on 97. ... For other uses, see Dallas (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: Where the West Begins Location of Fort Worth in Tarrant County, Texas Coordinates: , Country State Counties Tarrant, Denton Government  - Mayor Michael J. Moncrief Area  - City 298. ... CHUM, broadcasting at 1050 kHz on the AM dial, is a Canadian radio station licensed to Toronto, owned and operated by CHUM Limited. ... This article is about the single by Lipps Inc. ... Lipps Inc was a studio band that achieved one significant hit, Funkytown in 1980. ... Herbert Jeffrey Hancock (born April 12, 1940 in Chicago, Illinois) is an Academy Award and Grammy award-winning American jazz pianist and composer. ... Gloria Gaynor (born Gloria Fowles September 7, 1949) is an American singer, best-known for the disco era hits I Will Survive (Hot 100 #1, 1979), Never Can Say Goodbye (Hot 100 #9, 1974), and I Am What I Am (Hot 100 #82, 1983). ... Never Can Say Goodbye was a 1971 hit single by The Jackson 5 for the Motown label, one of their most successful singles. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Dont Leave Me This Way is a song made popular by Thelma Houston and later The Communards. ... Donna Summer (born Donna Adrian Gaines) is an American singer-songwriter and musician who gained prominence during the disco era of music. ... Spring Affair is a single released by Donna Summer during the 1970s disco era when she made her name as the leading female of that genre. ... Rod Stewart CBE (born January 10, 1945), is a singer and songwriter born and raised in London, England, with Scottish parentage. ... Do Ya Think Im Sexy? is a 1979 hit song for Rod Stewart. ... Donna Summer (born Donna Adrian Gaines) is an American singer-songwriter and musician who gained prominence during the disco era of music. ... Bad Girls is a 1979 single released by American singer Donna Summer. ... The Bee Gees: Maurice, Barry and Robin The Bee Gees were a British and Australian band, originally a pop singer-songwriter combination, reborn as funk and disco. ... Love You Inside Out was a 1979 hit single for the Bee Gees, from their album Spirits Having Flown. ...

Further reading

  • Brewster, Bill and Broughton, Frank (1999) Last Night a DJ Saved my Life: the History of the Disc Jockey Headline Book Publishing Ltd. ISBN 0-7472-6230-6
  • Lawrence, Tim (2004) Love Saves the Day: A History of American Dance Music Culture, 1970-1979. Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-3198-5.
  • Angelo, Marty (2006) Once Life Matters: A New Beginning. Impact Publishing. ISBN 0961895446.
  • Shapiro, Peter (2005) Turn The Beat Around - The Secret History Of Disco. Faber And Faber. ISBN-10 0865479526 ISBN-13 978-0865479524

See also

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Disco
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Saturday Night Fever is a 1977 movie starring John Travolta as Tony Manero, a troubled Brooklyn youth whose weekend activities are dominated by visits to a Brooklyn discotheque. ... Disco orchestration is the arranging, orchestration, and musical production and recording techniques that went into the production of mid- to late-1970s disco music. ... For other uses, including related musical genres, see Funk (disambiguation). ... Disco-Punk is another nick name for the Punk-Dance movement. ... The Motown Sound is a style of soul music with distinctive characteristics, including the use of tambourine along with drums, bass instrumentation, a distinctive melodic and chord structure, and a call and response singing style originating in gospel music. ... These are the Billboard magazine Hot Dance Music/Club Play number one hits of 1978. ... These are the Billboard magazine Hot Dance Music/Club Play number one hits of 1979. ... -1... For the American indoor football team, see Philadelphia Soul. ... For other uses, see Soul music (disambiguation). ... TK Records was one of the record labels started by Henry Stone. ... An African American man gives a piano lesson to a young African American woman, in 1899 or 1900, in Georgia, USA. Photograph from a collection of W.E.B. DuBois. ... French house is a late 1990s form of house music, part of the 90s & 2000s European dance music scene and the latest form of Euro disco. ... Disco polo is a musical genre unique and native to Poland, which in its present form exists since the early 1990s. ... This article is about a music style. ... The term Euro-Disco first used during the 70s, to describe the non UK based disco productions and artists. ... Hi-NRG (High Energy) is a type of electronic dance music which emerged and then became popular in nightclubs in the early 1980s. ... House music is a style of electronic dance music that was developed by dance club DJs in Chicago in the early to mid-1980s. ... Cover of the ZYX Music compilation album. ... Space Disco, was a short lived 70s Eurodisco variation. ... Spacesynth, also known as synthdance and spacedance, is a modern U.S.A. term to describe various 1980s music styles of European electronic dance music, emerge from a 70s Eurodisco music style, called Space Disco. ... The following lists groups or individuals primarily associated with the disco era of the 1970s and early 1980s and some of their most noteworthy disco hits. ... For the Young Love song, see Discotech (song). ... Laser lights illuminate the dance floor at a Gatecrasher dance music event in Sheffield, England A nightclub (or night club or club) is a drinking, dancing, and entertainment venue which does its primary business after dark. ... Disco orchestration is the arranging, orchestration, and musical production and recording techniques that went into the production of mid- to late-1970s disco music. ... For other uses, see Electronic music (disambiguation). ... This is a list of electronic music genres, sub-genres and styles, though for the latter, not all possess their own article (in which case, see the main genre article). ...

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Disco Music, Records, Downloads, Charts and History @ DiscoMusic.com (0 words)
DiscoMusic.com is the premiere gathering place for 12" Disco record collectors, world famous Disco DJs, remixers and artists along with hustle dancers and fans of 70s and 80s nostalgia to interact, discuss and immerse themselves in dance music.
It's the 1970s or 1980s and you're out dancing to the sounds of such Disco DJs as Larry Levan of the Paradise Garage, David Mancuso of The Loft, John "Jellybean" Benitez of The Funhouse, John Ceglia of River West, Robbie Leslie of The Saint or perhaps Bobby Viteritti of Trocadero Transfer.
Disco music is everywhere today including the movies like "The Last Days of Disco" and "54" about Studio 54.
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