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A disaster is the impact of a natural or man-made hazard that negatively affects society or environment. The root of the word disaster comes from astrology: this implies that when the stars are in a bad position a bad event will happen.[1] The word derives from Middle French désastre, from Old Italian disastro, from the Greek pejorative prefix δυσ-, (dis-) "bad" + αστήρ (aster), "star". Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Look up disaster in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A natural disaster is a natural event with catastrophic consequences for living things in the vicinity. ... Man-made hazards are threats having an element of human intent, negligence, error or involving a failure of a system. ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with pejoration. ...


In contemporary academia, disasters are seen as the consequence of inappropriately managed risk. These risk are the product of hazards and vulnerability. Hazards that strike in areas with low vulnerability are not considered a disaster, as is the case in uninhabited regions.[2]


Developing countries suffer the greatest costs when a disaster hits – more than 95 percent of all deaths caused by disasters occur in developing countries, and losses due to natural disasters are 20 times greater (as a percentage of GDP) in developing countries than in industrialized countries.[3] GDP is an acronym which can stand for more than one thing: (in economics) an abbreviation for Gross Domestic Product. ...

Contents

Classification

Wisner et al reflect a common opinion when they argue that all disasters can be seen as being man-made, their reasoning being that human actions before the strike of the hazard can prevent it developing into a disaster. All disasters are hence the result of human failure to introduce appropriate disaster management measures.[4] Hazards are routinely divided into natural or human-made, although complex disasters, where there is no single root cause, are more common in developing countries. A specific disaster may spawn a secondary disaster that increases the impact. A classic example is an earthquake that causes a tsunami, resulting in coastal flooding. Disaster management means a continuous and integrated multi-sectoral, multi-disciplinary process of planning and implementation of measures aimed at prevention and mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery in relation to natural and man-made disasters. ...  Newly industrialized countries  Other emerging markets  Other developing economies  High income  Upper-middle income  Lower-middle income  Low income A developing country is that country which has a relatively low standard of living, an undeveloped industrial base, and a moderate to low Human Development Index (HDI) score and per capita... This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ... For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation). ... A flood (in Old English flod, a word common to Teutonic languages; compare German Flut, Dutch vloed from the same root as is seen in flow, float) is an overflow of water, an expanse of water submerging land, a deluge. ...


Natural disasters

Main article: Natural disaster

A natural disaster is the consequence when a natural hazard (e.g., volcanic eruption or earthquake) affects humans. Human vulnerability, caused by the lack of appropriate emergency management, leads to financial, environmental, or human impact. The resulting loss depends on the capacity of the population to support or resist the disaster: their resilience. This understanding is concentrated in the formulation: "disasters occur when hazards meet vulnerability". A natural hazard will hence never result in a natural disaster in areas without vulnerability, e.g., strong earthquakes in uninhabited areas. The term natural has consequently been disputed because the events simply are not hazards or disasters without human involvement. This article is about the natural disasters caused by natural hazards. ... Look up hazard in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about volcanoes in geology. ... This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ... For other uses of the word Vulnerability, please refer to vulnerability (computer science). ... // Emergency management (or disaster management) is the discipline dealing of with and avoiding risks. ...


Man-made disasters

Main article: Man-made hazards

Disasters caused by human action, negligence, error, or involving the failure of a system are called man-made disasters. Man-made disasters are in turn categorized as technological or sociological. Technological disasters are the results of failure of technology, such as engineering failures, transport disasters, or environmental disasters. Sociological disaster have a strong human motive, such as criminal acts, stampedes, riots, and war. Man-made hazards are threats having an element of human intent, negligence, error or involving a failure of a system. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... For other uses, see Crime (disambiguation). ... A stampede is an act of mass impulse among herd animals or a crowd of people in which the herd (or crowd) collectively begins running with no clear direction or purpose. ... Teamsters, armed with pipes, riot in a clash with riot police in the Minneapolis Teamsters Strike of 1934. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ...


Management

The probability of avoiding a disaster is greatly improved when those potentially affected by them implement mitagative action and develop emergency preparedness plans. The science of disaster management deals with this issue. Although the term disaster is subjective, it is often used in the developed world to refer to situations where local emergency management resources are inadequate to counteract the negative effects of the event[2]. Business continuity planning focus on the particular application of disaster management in the commercial domain. // Emergency management (or disaster management) is the discipline dealing of with and avoiding risks. ... Business continuity planning life cycle Business Continuity Planning (BCP) is an interdisciplinary peer mentoring methodology used to create and validate a practiced logistical plan for how an organization will recover and restore partially or completely interrupted critical function(s) within a predetermined time after a disaster or extended disruption. ... Disaster management means a continuous and integrated multi-sectoral, multi-disciplinary process of planning and implementation of measures aimed at prevention and mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery in relation to natural and man-made disasters. ... Business continuity planning life cycle Business Continuity Planning (BCP) is an interdisciplinary peer mentoring methodology used to create and validate a practiced logistical plan for how an organization will recover and restore partially or completely interrupted critical function(s) within a predetermined time after a disaster or extended disruption. ...


Risks of hypothetical future disasters

Risks to civilization, humans and planet Earth are existential risks that would imperil mankind as a whole and/or have major adverse consequences for the course of human civilization, human extinction or even the end of planet Earth. ... For other uses, see Pandemic (disambiguation). ... Map of countries by population density (See List of countries by population density. ... Antibiotic resistance is the ability of a microorganism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic. ... A supervolcano is a volcano that produces the largest and most voluminous kinds of eruption on Earth. ... Graphical description of risks and impacts from global warming from the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. ... For other uses, see Peak oil (disambiguation). ... The Titan II ICBM carried a 9 Mt W53 warhead, making it one of the most powerful nuclear weapons fielded by the United States during the Cold War. ... Artists impression of a major impact event. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... Megatsunami (often hyphenated as mega-tsunami, also known as iminami or wave of purification) is an informal term used mostly by popular media and popular scientific societies to describe a very large tsunami wave beyond the typical size reached by most tsunamis. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... A megathrust earthquake is an interplate earthquake where one tectonic plate slips beneath (subducts) another. ... For the labor union vitiation procedure, see NLRB election procedures#Decertification elections. ... Shutdown or slowdown of the thermohaline circulation is a possible effect of global warming. ... Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... Deforestation of the Madagascar Highland Plateau has led to extensive siltation and unstable flows of western rivers. ... The Traffic Light colour convention, showing the concept of Harvest Control Rule (HCR), specifying when a rebuilding plan is mandatory in terms of precautionary and limit reference points for spawning biomass and fishing mortality rate. ... This article is about the process of deforestation in the environment. ... When plotted on a logarithmic graph, 15 separate lists of paradigm shifts for key events in human history show an exponential trend. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... Image:Durer Revelation Four Riders. ...

See also

Wikibooks
Wikibooks History has a page on the topic of
Historical Disasters and Tragedies
Disasters Portal

Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... The overall objectives in the field of Civil Protection are to ensure better protection of people, the environment, economies and infrastructure in the event of major natural or man-made disasters, including accidental marine pollution, chemical spills. ... A crisis (plural: crises) is a turning point or decisive moment in events. ... Business Continuity is a progression of disaster recovery, aimed at allowing an organisation to continue functioning after (and ideally, during) a disaster, rather than simply being able to recover after a disaster. ... Look up emergency in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Survivalism (disambiguation). ... The end of civilization or the end of the world are phrases used in reference to human extinction scenarios, doomsday events, and related hazards which occur on a global scale. ... Human extinction is the as-yet hypothetical extinction of the human species, Homo sapiens. ... Sociology of disaster is a special branch of sociology, research being done mostly for applied purposes, especially in the USA, and to some degree as well in Germany and Italy. ... With the release of The Poseidon Adventure (1972), the Disaster film officially became a movie-going craze. ... Disaster convergence is the phenomenon of individuals or groups moving towards a disaster stricken area. ... A disaster is a natural or man-made event that negatively affects life, property, livelihood or industry, often resulting in permanent changes to human societies, ecosystems and environment. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Word Detective
  2. ^ a b Quarantelli E.L. (1998). Where We Have Been and Where We Might Go. In: Quarantelli E.L. (ed). What Is A Disaster? London: Routledge. pp146-159
  3. ^ World Bank
  4. ^ B. Wisner, P. Blaikie, T. Cannon, and I. Davis (2004). At Risk - Natural hazards, people's vulnerability and disasters. Wiltshire: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-25216-4

References

  • Barton A.H. (1969). Communities in Disaster. A Sociological Analysis of Collective Stress Situations. SI: Ward Lock
  • Catastrophe and Culture: The Anthropology of Disaster. Susanna M. Hoffman and Anthony Oliver-Smith, Eds.. Santa Fe NM: School of American Research Press, 2002
  • G. Bankoff, G. Frerks, D. Hilhorst (eds.) (2003). Mapping Vulnerability: Disasters, Development and People. ISBN 1-85383-964-7.
  • D. Alexander (2002). Principles of Emergency planning and Management. Harpended: Terra publishing. ISBN 1-903544-10-6.

External links

  • The Disaster Roundtable Information on past and future Disaster Roundtable workshops
  • EM-DAT database of human-made and natural disasters
  • HAVARIA Emergency and Disaster Information Service An up-to-the-minute world wide map showing current disasters.
  • Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System A United Nations and European Commission sponsored website for disaster information.
  • Top 100 aviation disasters on AirDisaster.com
  • Guinness Book of World Records
  • The world's worst massacres Whole Earth Review
  • War Disaster and Genocide
  • Armageddon Online - Daily News and articles about ongoing natural and man made disasters
  • Geohotspots

Airdisaster. ...

United States

  • Citizen Corps Guide
  • DisasterHelp.gov United States Egov reference
  • Ready.gov United States Ready Egov reference
  • The Disaster Center Internet source for disaster information

  Results from FactBites:
 
Disaster Diplomacy (664 words)
Disaster Diplomacy also embraces a wide definition of "disaster", not just rapid-onset events such as earthquakes and industrial explosions, but also events which are more diffuse in space and time such as droughts, epidemics, and global changes.
As Disaster Diplomacy embraces a wider definition, it is guided by the Radix discussions regarding the links amongst disasters, human rights, and sustainability.
Disaster should not be desired, but attempts to extract as many positive aspects as possible from a difficult situation should be made, especially since those positive aspects can reduce vulnerability and contribute to disaster risk reduction.
Disaster - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3713 words)
A disaster (from Latin meaning, "bad star") is the impact of a natural or man-made hazard that negatively affects society or environment.
A tornado is a natural disaster resulting from a thunderstorm of severe conditions, and is a large funnel of extremely high pressure winds cycling and twisting at random.
Disasters having an element of human intent, negligence, error or involving a failure of a system are called man-made disasters.
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