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Encyclopedia > Disarmament in Somalia
 This article documents a current event.
Information may change rapidly as the event progresses.
A technical in Somalia after the Fall of Mogadishu, December, 2006
A technical in Somalia after the Fall of Mogadishu, December, 2006
Further information: Diplomatic and humanitarian efforts in the Somali Civil War

After the Fall of Mogadishu and Kismayo to the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) of Somalia, in late 2006, the country took steps to disarm the militias of the country after two decades of violence and civil war which began in 1986. According to the UN/World Bank's Joint Needs Assessment (JNA) coordination secretariat, "the total estimated number of militias [militia members] to be demobilized is 53,000."[1] In 2005, they estimated that "there are 11-15,000 militia people controlling Mogadishu (out of national estimates ranging from 50,000 to 200,000)."[2] Image File history File links Current_event_marker. ... Combatants Islamic Courts Union Pro-Islamist Militias Foreign fighters Transitional Federal Government Ethiopia[1][2] The Fall of Mogadishu began on December 27, 2006, when the militaries of Somalias United Nations-approved Transitional Federal Government and Ethiopia surrounded the Somalian capital of Mogadishu after a swift string of TFG... Main articles: Somali Civil War (2006), Battle of Baidoa, and Ethiopian intervention in the Somali Civil War The Somali Civil War began in 1988. ... Combatants Islamic Courts Union Pro-Islamist Militias Foreign fighters Transitional Federal Government Ethiopia[1][2] The Fall of Mogadishu began on December 27, 2006, when the militaries of Somalias United Nations-approved Transitional Federal Government and Ethiopia surrounded the Somalian capital of Mogadishu after a swift string of TFG... Combatants Islamic Courts Union Pro-Islamist Militias Foreign fighters Transitional Federal Government (TFG) Ethiopia Commanders Sharif Sheik Ahmed Yusuf Hassan TFG: Barre Adan Shire Hiiraale The Fall of Kismayo occurred on January 1, 2007, when the militaries of Somalias Transitional Federal Government (TFG) and Ethiopian troops entered the Somali... The Transitional Federal Parliament is an interim parliament of Somalia formed in neighbouring Kenya in 2004. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Arms control is a broad term alluding to a range of political concepts and aims. ... Lexington Minuteman representing militia minuteman John Parker A militia is the activity of one or more citizens organized to provide defense or paramilitary service, or those engaged in such activity. ... The Somali Civil War is an armed conflict in Somalia that started in 1988. ...

Contents

Background

This was not the first time disarmament of militias had been proposed in Somalia.


1992-1995 UN Missions to Somalia

In late 1992, UN Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali proposed an expansion of the UN humanitarian mission to Somalia to include nation building activities, including the disarming of the warring militias of the country. However, in a Time Magazine article from December 28, 2002, US Special Envoy Robert Oakley, said three things were important to a Somali man: "his camel, his wife and his weapon. The right to bear arms is in their soul."[3] 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... Boutros Boutros-Ghali CC (Arabic: بطرس بطرس غالي) (born 14 November 1922) is an Egyptian diplomat who was the sixth Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1992 to December 1996. ... Nation-building refers to the process of constructing or structuring a nation using the power of the state, especially a foreign one. ... Lexington Minuteman representing militia minuteman John Parker A militia is the activity of one or more citizens organized to provide defense or paramilitary service, or those engaged in such activity. ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... December 28 is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 3 days remaining. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... The right to bear arms refers to the concept that individuals, and not just states, have a right to weapons. ...


As Oakley astutely observed, the UN missions to Somalia would not result in the disarmament of the many factions of the Somali Civil War. Too many warlords, as well as too many common Somalis, wished to keep their weapons, and to keep their feuds alive. In 1995, the last of the UN peacekeepers were pulled out of Somalia.


UN Security Council intervention in Somalia's Civil War went back to Resolution 733, an arms control provison which established a weapons embargo on the country. Arms control is a broad term alluding to a range of political concepts and aims. ...


The list of UN missions to Somalia, and their US operations names, are as follows:

UN Mission US Operation Start Date End Date UNSC Resolution
UNOSOM I[4] Operation Provide Relief April 1992 March 1993 751
UNITAF Operation Restore Hope December 1992 May 4, 1993 794
UNOSOM II[5] Operation Continue Hope March, 1993 March 1995 814

Operation Provide Relief (UNOSOM I) was a United Nation (UN) sponsored effort to provide humanitarian relief for the people of Somalia who were facing a severe famine, initiated and exacerbated by the ongoing Somoli civil war. ... Operation Provide Relief (UNOSOM I) was a United Nation (UN) sponsored effort to provide humanitarian relief for the people of Somalia who were facing a severe famine, initiated and exacerbated by the ongoing Somoli civil war. ... On December 3, 1992 the UN Security Council Resolution 794 was unanimously passed, creating the Unified Task Force (UNITAF), which was to work in coordination with UNOSOM. This was an unprecedented resolution because it authorized Member States to “use all necessary means to establish as soon as possible a secure... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Operation Restore Hope was an American military operation with the support of the United Nations which was formed to deliver humanitarian aid and restore order to the African nation of Somalia which was suffering from a severe famine, general anarchy, and domination by a number of warlords following the collapse... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

1993 Conference on National Reconcilliation

In early 1993, concurrent with the UNOSOM I humanitarian mission, fifteen of the warring parties of the Somali Civil War signed two agreements for national reconciliation and disarmament: an agreement to hold an Informal Preparatory Meeting on National Reconciliation, followed by the 1993 Addis Ababa Agreement made at the Conference on National Reconciliation in Somalia. Fighting continued, and the agreement later fell apart. 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... The Somali Civil War is an armed conflict in Somalia that started in 1988. ...


1997 National Salvation Council

Organized by IGAD, and held in Sodere, Ethiopia, but boycotted by Hussein Aidid's faction as well as the newly-declared government of Somaliland. A similar conference in Sana'a, Yemen, did not include all the parties of the conflict, and was rejected by those not attending.[6][7] The Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) is a seven-country regional development organization in Eastern Africa. ... Sodere is a spa town in the Oromia region of Ethiopia. ... Capital Hargeisa Somali, Arabic and English Government Republic Independence From Somalia and United Kingdom   - Declared May 18, 1991 . ... Sanaá (Arabic صنعاء, romanized as , and also known as Sana or Sanaa), population 1,303,000 (2000), is the capital of Yemen. ...


1997 Cairo Peace Conference / Cairo Declaration

Hussein Aidid and representatives from 25 clans attended a peace conference in Cairo, in December 1997. While the UN Security Council lauded the efforts, which included decisions to adopt "a federal system with regional autonomy and agreement to form a transitional government of national unity," it still left the country without a national leader, many of the non-attendees balking at the results, and none of the Somali factions agreeing to disarm. Hussein Aidid and Ali Mahdi were considered opposed to the proposed settlements.[6][8][9]


1998 Baidoa Conference

The conference was postponed indefinitely and then cancelled after continuous fighting in the city throughout the early part of the year made it impossible to ensure security. Cholera had also broken out in Baidoa around that time. By June, Osman Hassan Ali "Ato" declared the Cairo peace process "dead."[10][11][12][13][14]


2000 Somalia National Peace Conference

Officially dubbed the Somalia National Peace Conference (SNPC), and sometimes called the Djibouti conference, this was a series of meetings held in Arta, Djibouti, on April 20 - May 5, 2000. The conference was aimed at bringing together representatives of the warring factions of Somalia to end the civil war that had claimed over 300,000 lives.[15] The name Transitional National Government (TNG) was selected for the movement at this time. Arta may refer to: Djibouti Arta District Arta, Djibouti Greece Arta Prefecture Arta, Greece Italy Piano dArta Ancient People Arta Kamuia or Arta Kamuio This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... April 20 is the 110th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (111th in leap years). ... May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (126th in leap years). ... This article is about the year 2000. ...


Annex II of the program for the Conference dealt with cease-fire, disarmament and security. It emphasized:

The desire of the Somali people for peace and security through disarmament is unambiguous. This call is heard repeated throughout the country from all segments of the Somali society, who have consistently demand (sic) an end to violence. Unless this is realized, the entire process of reconciliation, rehabilitation and reconstruction would be jeopardized, if not stillborn. One of the first responsibilities of Somalia's new transitional government will be to insist on an immediate and comprehensive cease-fire, together with binding, complete and simultaneous disarmament of al (sic) militias throughout the country consistent with the agreements they signed from 1991 to 1997, but never implemented.

It took another six years before the transitional government was in a position to implement such a cease-fire and disarmament.


2001 National Commission for Reconciliation and Property Settlement

In May 6, 2001, an effort to create a 25-member working body, dubbed the National Commission for Reconciliation and Property Settlement (NCRPS), was damaged when Abdirizak Haji Hussein, former Prime Minister, was named as its head. The Somalia Reconciliation and Restoration Council (SRRC) and Puntland leadership objected strongly. Hussein later resigned on July 25, 2001. May 6 is the 126th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (127th in leap years). ... This article is about the year 2001. ... Countrywide municipal elections, in which the SYL won 74 percent of the seats, occurred in November 1963. ... Motto: None Anthem(s): Puntland Somalian National Anthem Capital Garowe Largest city Bosaso Official language(s) Somali and Arabic Government  - President Mohamud Muse Hersi  - Vice-President Hasan Dahir Independence From Somalia   - Declared 1998   - Recognition none  Area  - Total ~250,000 km² (not ranked) n/a sq mi   - Water (%) Negl. ... July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... This article is about the year 2001. ...


2002 Somali Reconcilliation Conference

Held in Eldoret, Kenya, this conference was attended by most TFG supporters. However, at the time, the Rahanweyn Resistance Army (RRA) was still hotly contending with other factions, including warlord Adan Madobe-Habsade, who captured Baidoa. The RRA accused the Juba Valley Alliance of assisting the warlord, an accusation denied by the JVA leader Barre Adan Shire Hiiraale.[16] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Rahanwein Resistance Army. ... Jubaland (Somali: Jubbaland) or Juba Valley (Somali: Dooxada Jubba), formerly Trans-Juba (Italian: ), is the southwesternmost part of Somalia, on the far side of the Juba River (thus Trans-Juba), bordering on Kenya. ... Barre Aadan Shire Barre Adan Shire (Somali: ), also known as Barre Hiiraale is the Minister of Defense of the Somali Transitional Federal Government (TFG) which was formed in Nairobi, Kenya in 2004. ...


2004 Nairobi Conference

In January, 2004 a productive conference was held in Nairobi, Kenya, at which the Transitional Federal Government was agreed to. A document was signed by the major factions, entitled, Declaration on the Harmonization of Various Issues Proposed by the Somali Delegates at the Somali Consultative Meetings from 9-29 January 2004. From this, the Transitional Federal Institutions were agreed to, including elections. However, none of the parties yet had disarmed.[17] January is the first month of the year and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Transitional Federal Parliament is an interim parliament of Somalia formed in neighbouring Kenya in 2004. ...


2004 Presidential Elections

On 10 October [2004], the President of "Puntland", Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed, was elected President of the Somali Transitional Federal Government (TFG) with 189 votes. The runner up, Mr. Abdullahi Ahmed Addow received 79 votes. Before voting, the 25 Presidential candidates swore on the Koran and signed a declaration, pledging to support the elected president and demobilize their militia.[17] Motto: None Anthem(s): Puntland Somalian National Anthem Capital Garowe Largest city Bosaso Official language(s) Somali and Arabic Government  - President Mohamud Muse Hersi  - Vice-President Hasan Dahir Independence From Somalia   - Declared 1998   - Recognition none  Area  - Total ~250,000 km² (not ranked) n/a sq mi   - Water (%) Negl. ... It has been suggested that 2006 Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed assassination attempt be merged into this article or section. ... The Transitional Federal Parliament is an interim parliament of Somalia formed in neighbouring Kenya in 2004. ...

The avowed demobilizations never occurred.


2006 Islamic Courts Union

In 2006, the Islamic Courts Union (ICU) also attempted to disarm the secular warlords—a contentious issue which led to the Second Battle of Mogadishu. The Islamist victory resulted in the routing or forced surrender of many warlords and their caches of arms, and the rapid rise of the Islamic Courts Union.[18] By late 2006, their attempts to disarm the secular militias and their consolidation of power pitted them also against the Transitional Federal Government.[19] 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: none Anthem: none Capital (and largest city) Kismayo Somali and Arabic Government Sharia Krytocracy  - Executive Chairman Sharif Sheikh Ahmed  - Shura Chairman Hassan Dahir Aweys Civil War Faction Has not declared autonomy nor independence   - Established June 6th 2006 in Mogadishu  Area  - Total not finalized/civil war km² (not ranked) n... Combatants Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism Militia loyal to the Islamic Court Union Commanders Mohamed Qanyare, Muse Sudi, Nuur Daqle Sheikh Sharif Ahmed Strength unknown unknown Casualties unknown unknown The Second Battle of Mogadishu was a battle fought for control of Mogadishu, the capital city of... Combatants Islamic Courts Union Pro-Islamist Militias Alleged: Eritrea Foreign Jihadists ARPCT, comprising Various Warlords Transitional Federal Government Puntland Autonomous Region Rahanweyn Resistance Army Ethiopia[1] Alleged:  Uganda[2] Commanders Muhammad Ibraheem Bilal Hasan Hersi Turki Yusuf Siad Inda-Addeh Mukhtar Robow Adan Ayrow Barre Adan Shire Hirale (Jubaland), Abdi... The Transitional Federal Parliament is an interim parliament of Somalia formed in neighbouring Kenya in 2004. ...


The ICU attempted to curb the private possession of weapons, closing down the infamous Mogadishu arms market, and impounding or appropriating technicals for use solely by the Islamic Courts forces:

We were sceptical, but everyone we have spoken to since — doctors, teachers, journalists, shopkeepers — has talked of a city transformed. Gone are the ubiquitous checkpoints where the warlords’ militias killed, extorted and stole. Gone are their technicals, Jeeps with heavy machineguns mounted on the back. The infamous Bakaro arms markets has been closed. The only guns and technicals now are those of the Sharia courts enforcers, and the reports of violence in the papers were of the Ipswich murders.[20] The bodies of victims were found at various locations around Ipswich. ...

Many Somali warlords, along with the nation of Ethiopia, sided with the TFG against the ICU. Once the momentous battles were concluded in December 2006, the TFG proceeded with its plans to bring a general disarmament of the nation and closure to the Somali Civil War. Combatants Islamic Courts Union Pro-Islamist militias Alleged:  Eritrea Foreign jihadists Puntland Galmudug Transitional Government of Somalia  Ethiopia[1] Commanders Hassan Aweys Hasan Hersi Adan Ayrow Barre Adan Shire Hirale Abdi Qeybdid Adde Musa (Puntland) Meles Zenawi Strength 10,000 – 30,000 soldiers 500 – 2000 technicals Heavy weapons including artillery... December 2006 is the twelfth and final month of the year and will begin in 2 day(s). ... The Somali Civil War is an armed conflict in Somalia that started in 1988. ...


December 2006

On December 29, 2006, Mohamed Qanyare, a Mogadishu warlord, returned to the city and made a plea for the federal government to not disarm the militias.[21] Qanyare was former TFG Security Minister before losing his position as a result of the Second Battle of Mogadishu. On December 31, surrounded in headquarters compound by a dozen technicals, he claimed to have 1,500 men under his command, and asserted government control over Mogadishu was an illusion, owed to the military might of Ethiopia.[22] December 2006 is the twelfth and final month of the year and will begin in 2 day(s). ... December 29 is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 2 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism Militia loyal to the Islamic Court Union Commanders Mohamed Qanyare, Muse Sudi, Nuur Daqle Sheikh Sharif Ahmed Strength unknown unknown Casualties unknown unknown The Second Battle of Mogadishu was a battle fought for control of Mogadishu, the capital city of... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... A technical in Liberia. ...


Gedi's decree for disarmament also applied to non-government troops in the autonomous state of Puntland, where it was seen as questionably enforceable.[23] Motto: None Anthem(s): Puntland Somalian National Anthem Capital Garowe Largest city Bosaso Official language(s) Somali and Arabic Government  - President Mohamud Muse Hersi  - Vice-President Hasan Dahir Independence From Somalia   - Declared 1998   - Recognition none  Area  - Total ~250,000 km² (not ranked) n/a sq mi   - Water (%) Negl. ...


January 2007

Ali Mohammed Ghedi
Ali Mohammed Ghedi

It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: Crystal ball, user has created future months and dates before, and been told not to (See User Talk:Jose and Ricardo). ... Image File history File links Jeedi. ... Image File history File links Jeedi. ...

Announcement of weapons collections and amnesty

On January 1, 2007, Somali Prime Minister Ali Mohammed Gedi announced "The warlord era in Mogadishu is now over."[24] January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 2007 (MMVII) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A prime minister (aka Gavinder Johal) is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ...


He said all civilian groups and businesses would have three days to disarm and turn their weapons in to the government. Technicals were to be brought to the old port in Mogadishu. All collected arms would be registered at Villa Somalia. Villa Baidoa was also mentioned as an arms collection point.[25] An amnesty to Islamists was also extended.[26] A technical in Liberia. ...


Ghedi also made an appeal for international aid efforts to continue, and for the establishment of a peacekeeping force (see IGASOM).[24] Main articles: Somali Civil War (2006), Battle of Baidoa, and Ethiopian intervention in the Somali Civil War The Somali Civil War began in 1988. ... The IGAD Peace Support Mission to Somalia or IGASOM, is an Intergovernmental Authority on Development regional peacekeeping force to Somalia which was approved by the African Union on September 14, 2006. ...


On January 2, Prime Minister Gedi met with leaders of the Ayr subclan of the Habar-Gidir clan, a branch of the Hawiye tribe, to reassure the subclan regarding disarmament and to establish how they would work with the TFG. They had been supporters of the ICU.[27] January 2 is the second day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Hawiye (or Hawiya) is a Somali clan, comprising about 25% of the Somali population. ...


Abdi Qeybdid called for restoring peace and stability in the country. He asked that no reprisals be taken against the Islamists, and said he is not interested in getting back the battlewagons he had lost in the conflict, but hoped they were turned over to the government.[28] Abdi Hasan Awale Qeybdiid is a Somali warlord whose forces fought on behalf of the Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism against the Islamic Courts Union in the 2nd Battle of Mogadishu. ...


On January 3, Police Commander Ali Mohamed Hassan Loyan, who has only 1,000 officers under his command, admitted he was vastly outgunned: "I cannot say there is a viable police operation in Mogadishu." Meanwhile, the infamous Bakaara Market had re-opened and was doing brisk business.[29] January 3 is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Bakaara Market (also spelled Bakara) is the Mogadishu open market, selling daily essentials, but also renown for its sale of small arms and other weapons. ...


External links

  • Somali Joint Needs Assessment United Nations & World Bank Coordination Secretariat
  • Country Profiles, Reports and Fact Sheets on Somalia WomenWarPeace.org

References

  1. ^ Demobilization of the Militia Somali Joint Needs Assessment (MS Word Doc)
  2. ^ Disarmament, Demobilization & Reintegration: Somalia Militia Nairobi Kenya, May 2005 (MS Word Doc)
  3. ^ The Dilemma of Disarmament Time Magazine
  4. ^ Somalia - UNOSOM I UN
  5. ^ Somalia - UNOSOM II UN
  6. ^ a b Somalia: From Permanent Conflict to More Peacefulness? Searching for Peace in Africa, Jos van Beurden
  7. ^ AI Report 1998: Somalia Amnesty International
  8. ^ Security Council Welcomes Results of Somali Leaders' Meeting in Cairo UN Security Council
  9. ^ Somalia/Ethiopia CountryWatch
  10. ^ Horn of Africa, Monthly Review, January 1998 UNDP
  11. ^ Horn of Africa, Monthly Review, February 1998 UNDP
  12. ^ Horn of Africa, Monthly Review, March 1998 UNDP
  13. ^ Horn of Africa, Monthly Review, April-May 1998 UNDP
  14. ^ Horn of Africa, Monthly Review, May-June 1998 UNDP
  15. ^ Somalia National Peace Conference Program, hosted at Banadir.com
  16. ^ SOMALIA: Interview with Barre Adan Shire, chairman of the Juba Valley Alliance (JVA) IRIN
  17. ^ a b UN in Somalia United Nations Political Office for Somalia (UNPOS)
  18. ^ Somalian resistance outgunned AP, United Nations, Taipei Times
  19. ^ Islamic Leader Talks of Peace in Somalia Associated Press
  20. ^ "Battle-scarred nation is at peace with itself... but still facing war", Martin Fletcher, The Times, December 16, 2006
  21. ^ Somalia: News summary for December 29, 2006 SomaliNet
  22. ^ AP Interview: Former warlord calls government control of Somali capital an illusion Associated Press
  23. ^ Somalia govt orders Puntland to surrender weapons Garowe Online
  24. ^ a b Somali prime minister orders complete disarmament Associated Press
  25. ^ Islamic militants in Somalia flee after stronghold falls Associated Press
  26. ^ Somali government to disarm the civilian population in three days Shabelle Media Network
  27. ^ Somalia: Premier Gedi meets with Ayr sub-clan over the disarmament SomaliNet
  28. ^ Somalia: Former warlord says no revenge against Islamists Shabelle Media Network
  29. ^ Everyone in Somalia's capital has a gun — everyone, that is, but the police Associated Press

The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1785, and under its current name since 1788. ... December 16 is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ...

See also

 v  d  e 
War in Somalia (2006–present)
Background Events Key players

Military: Combatants Islamic Courts Union Pro-Islamist militias Alleged:  Eritrea Foreign jihadists Puntland Galmudug Transitional Government of Somalia  Ethiopia[1] Alleged:  Uganda[2] Commanders Hassan Aweys Sharif Ahmed Hasan Hersi Adan Ayrow Barre Adan Shire Hirale Abdi Qeybdid Adde Musa (Puntland) Meles Zenawi Strength 10,000–30,000 militia 500–2000...

Political: The Ethiopian-Somali conflict and tension has a background in territorial and political disputes. ... The Somali Civil War is an armed conflict in Somalia that started in 1988. ... Combatants Islamic Courts Union Pro-Islamist Militias Alleged: Eritrea Foreign Jihadists Various Warlords Transitional Federal Government Puntland Ethiopia Commanders Muhammad Ibraheem Bilal Hasan Hersi Turki Yusuf Siad Inda-Addeh Mukhtar Robow Barre Adan Shire Hirale (Jubaland), Abdi Qeybdid, Adde Musa (Puntland) Strength 10,000 - 30,000 soldiers 500 - 2000 technicals...

Timeline: Flag of Somalia, the five edges of the star are said to symbolize the five parts of Greater Somalia Greater Somalia refers to those regions in the Horn of Africa in which ethnic Somalis live. ... Main articles: Somali Civil War (2006), Battle of Baidoa, and Ethiopian intervention in the Somali Civil War The Somali Civil War began in 1988. ... // Even before the beginning of the War in Somalia (2006-present) there have been significant assertions and accusations of the use of disinformation and propaganda tactics, classed as forms of information warfare, by various parties to shape the causes and course of the conflict. ...


 
 

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