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Encyclopedia > Disaccharide
Sucrose, a common disaccharide
Sucrose, a common disaccharide

A disaccharide is a sugar (a carbohydrate) composed of two monosaccharides.[1] Image File history File links Saccharose. ... Image File history File links Saccharose. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates. ...


'Disaccharide' is one of the four chemical groupings of carbohydrates (monosaccharide, disaccharide, oligosaccharide, and polysaccharide). Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates. ... An oligosaccharide is a saccharide polymer containing a small number (typically three to six) of component sugars, also known as simple sugars. ... Polysaccharides (sometimes called glycans) are relatively complex carbohydrates. ...

Contents

Formation

It is formed when two sugars are joined together and a molecule of water is removed. For example, milk sugar (lactose) is made from glucose and galactose whereas cane sugar (sucrose) is made from glucose and fructose. Lactose is a disaccharide that consists of β-D-galactose and β-D-glucose molecules bonded through a β1-4 glycosidic linkage. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Galactose (also called brain sugar) is a type of sugar found in dairy products, in sugar beets and other gums and mucilages. ... Sucrose (common name: table sugar, also called saccharose) is a disaccharide (glucose + fructose) with the molecular formula C12H22O11. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Fructose (or levulose) is a simple sugar (monosaccharide) found in many foods and is one of the three most important blood sugars along with glucose and galactose. ...


The two monosaccharides are bonded via a dehydration reaction (also called a condensation reactionor dehydration synthesis) that leads to the loss of a molecule of water. Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates. ... In chemistry, a dehydration reaction is a chemical reaction that involves the loss of water from the reacting molecule. ... A condensation reaction is a chemical reaction in which two molecules or moieties combine to form one single molecule, together with the loss of a small molecule. ...


UII9JHGT6TY8U8U ( THE MOST RECENT DISACCARAIDE)


Properties

The glycosidic bond can be formed between any hydroxyl group on the component monosaccharide. So, even if both component sugars are the same (e.g., glucose), different bond combinations (regiochemistry) and stereochemistry (alpha- or beta-) result in disaccharides that are diastereoisomers with different chemical and physical properties. This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Diastereomers are stereoisomers that are not enantiomers or mirror images of each other. ...


Depending on the monosaccharide constituents, disaccharides are sometimes crystalline, sometimes water-soluble, and sometimes sweet-tasting and sticky-feeling. Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates. ...


Common disaccharides

Disaccharide Unit 1 Unit 2 Bond Disaccharidase
Sucrose (table sugar, cane sugar, saccharose, or beet sugar) glucose fructose α(1→2) sucrase
Lactose (milk sugar) galactose glucose β(1→4) lactase
Maltose glucose glucose α(1→4) maltase
Trehalose glucose glucose α(1→1)α trehalase
Cellobiose glucose glucose β(1→4) cellobiase

Maltose and cellobiose are hydrolysis products of the polysaccharides, starch and cellulose, respectively. Disaccharidase is a type of enzyme that breaks down disaccharides into monosaccharides. ... Sucrose (common name: table sugar, also called saccharose) is a disaccharide (glucose + fructose) with the molecular formula C12H22O11. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Fructose (or levulose) is a simple sugar (monosaccharide) found in many foods and is one of the three most important blood sugars along with glucose and galactose. ... Headline text Sucrase (EC 3. ... Lactose is a disaccharide that consists of β-D-galactose and β-D-glucose molecules bonded through a β1-4 glycosidic linkage. ... Galactose (also called brain sugar) is a type of sugar found in dairy products, in sugar beets and other gums and mucilages. ... Lactase is a member of the β-galactosidase family of enzyme: enzymes that hydrolysis β 1,4 bonded attachments off of galactose. ... Maltose, or malt sugar, is a disaccharide formed from two units of glucose joined with an α(1→4) linkage. ... Maltase, drawn from PDB 1OBB. Maltase (EC 3. ... Trehalose also known as mycose is a 1-alpha (disaccharide) sugar found extensively but not abundantly in nature. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A disaccharide subunit of cellulose composed of two glucose molecules linked in a β(1→4) bond; which can only be hydrolyzed by bacteria. ... Model of cellulase enzyme, produced by , based on PDB structure 1JS4. ... Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction or process in which a chemical compound reacts with water. ... Polysaccharides (sometimes called glycans) are relatively complex carbohydrates. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8) is a complex carbohydrate which is insoluble in water; it is used by plants as a way to store excess glucose. ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ...


Less common disaccharides include: Gentiobiose, that consists of two glucose monomers with an β(1→6) linkage; Isomaltose, that consists of two glucose monomers with an α(1→6) linkage; Kojibiose, that consists of two glucose monomers with an α(1→2) linkage [2]; Laminaribiose, that consists of two glucose monomers with a β(1→3) linkage; Mannobiose, that consists of two mannose monomers with either an α(1→2), α(1→3), α(1→4), or an α(1→6) linkage; Melibiose, that consists of a glucose monomer and a galactose monomer with an α(1→6) linkage; Nigerose, that consists of two glucose monomers with an α(1→3) linkage; Rutinose, that consists of a rhamnose monomer and a glucose monomer with an α(1→6) linkage; and Xylobiose, that consists of two xylopyranose monomers with a β(1→4) linkage. Gentiobiose is a disaccharide composed of two units of D-glucose. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... In chemistry, a monomer (from Greek mono one and meros part) is a small molecule that may become chemically bonded to other monomers to form a polymer. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... In chemistry, a monomer (from Greek mono one and meros part) is a small molecule that may become chemically bonded to other monomers to form a polymer. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... In chemistry, a monomer (from Greek mono one and meros part) is a small molecule that may become chemically bonded to other monomers to form a polymer. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... In chemistry, a monomer (from Greek mono one and meros part) is a small molecule that may become chemically bonded to other monomers to form a polymer. ... Mannose is a sugar, one of the hexose series of carbohydrates. ... In chemistry, a monomer (from Greek mono one and meros part) is a small molecule that may become chemically bonded to other monomers to form a polymer. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... In chemistry, a monomer (from Greek mono one and meros part) is a small molecule that may become chemically bonded to other monomers to form a polymer. ... Galactose (also called brain sugar) is a type of sugar found in dairy products, in sugar beets and other gums and mucilages. ... In chemistry, a monomer (from Greek mono one and meros part) is a small molecule that may become chemically bonded to other monomers to form a polymer. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... In chemistry, a monomer (from Greek mono one and meros part) is a small molecule that may become chemically bonded to other monomers to form a polymer. ... Rutinose is the disaccharide also known as 6-O-L-rhamnosyl-D-glucose (C12H22O10) which is present in some flavonoid glycosides. ... Rhamnose is a naturally-occurring sugar. ... In chemistry, a monomer (from Greek mono one and meros part) is a small molecule that may become chemically bonded to other monomers to form a polymer. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... In chemistry, a monomer (from Greek mono one and meros part) is a small molecule that may become chemically bonded to other monomers to form a polymer. ... Xylobiose is a disaccharide of two xylopyranose monomers with a beta-1,4-bond between them. ... In chemistry, a monomer (from Greek mono one and meros part) is a small molecule that may become chemically bonded to other monomers to form a polymer. ...


References

  1. ^ International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. "disaccharides". Compendium of Chemical Terminology Internet edition.
  2. ^ Matsuda, K. (November 1957). "Kojibiose (2-O-alpha-D-Glucopyranosyl-D-Glucose): Isolation and Structure: Chemical Synthesis". Nature 180: 985. DOI:10.1038/180985a0. 

IUPAC logo The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) (Pronounced as eye-you-pack) is an international non-governmental organization established in 1919 devoted to the advancement of chemistry. ... Compendium of Chemical Terminology (ISBN 0-86542-684-8) is a book published by IUPAC containing internationally accepted definitions for terms in chemistry. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Definition of disaccharide - Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (41 words)
Learn more about "disaccharide" and related topics at Britannica.com
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Disaccharide - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (189 words)
A disaccharide is a sugar (a carbohydrate) composed of two monosaccharides.
So, even if both component sugars are the same (e.g., glucose), different bond combinations result in disaccharides with different chemical and physical properties.
Depending on the monosaccharide constituents, disaccharides are sometimes crystalline, sometimes water-soluble, and sometimes sweet-tasting.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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