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Encyclopedia > Disability


Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

A disability is a condition or function judged to be significantly impaired relative to the usual standard of an individual of their group. The term is often used to refer to individual functioning, including physical impairment, sensory impairment, cognitive impairment, intellectual impairment, mental illness, and various types of chronic disease. This usage has been described by some disabled people as being associated with a medical model of disability. Disabled is a poem written by Wilfred Owen, a World War I poet. ... Image File history File links Handicapped_Accessible_sign. ... Image File history File links Handicapped_Accessible_sign. ... The International Symbol of Accessibility (ISA), also known as the (International) Wheelchair Symbol, consists of a blue square overlaid in white with a stylized image of a person using a wheelchair. ... Developmental disability is a term used to describe life-long disabilities attributable to mental and/or physical or combination of mental and physical impairments, manifested prior to age twenty-two. ... A mental illness or mental disorder refers to one of many mental health conditions characterized by distress, impaired cognitive functioning, atypical behavior, emotional dysregulation, and/or maladaptive behavior. ... Medicine In medicine, a persistent and lasting condition is said to be chronic (from Greek chronos). ... According to the classic medical notion of disability: Disability is the result of a sexual condition It is intrinsic to the individual (it is part of that individual’s own body) It may reduce the individuals quality of life and causes clear disadvantages A compassionate or just society will...


The human rights or social model by contrast is presented as focussing on the interaction between a person and their environment, highlighting the role of a society in labelling, causing or maintaining disability within that society, including through attitudes or accessibility and favoring the majority. Disabilities may come to people during their life or people may be born disabled. Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... The social model of disability proposes that barriers and prejudice and exclusion by society (purposely or inadvertently) are the ultimate factors defining who is disabled and who is not in a particular society. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... See: Aircraft attitude Attitude (magazine) Attitude (album) Attitude (psychology) Propositional attitude This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... It has been suggested that Easy Access be merged into this article or section. ...


On December 13, 2006, the United Nations formally agreed on the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the first human rights treaty of the 21st century, to protect and enhance the rights and opportunities of the world's estimated 650 million disabled people.[1] is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... UN redirects here. ...


Countries that sign up to the convention will be required to adopt national laws, and remove old ones, so that persons with disabilities would, for example, have equal rights to education, employment, and cultural life; the right to own and inherit property; not be discriminated against in marriage, children, etc; not be unwilling subjects in medical experiments.


In 1976, the United Nations launched its International Year for Disabled Persons (1981), later re-named the International Year of Disabled Persons. The UN Decade of Disabled Persons (1983-1993) featured a World Programme of Action Concerning Disabled Persons. In 1979, Frank Bowe was the only person with a disability representing any country in the planning of IYDP-1981. Today, many countries have named representatives who are themselves individuals with disabilities. The decade was closed in an address before the General Assembly by Robert Davila. Both Bowe and Davila are deaf. In 1984, UNESCO accepted sign language for use in education of deaf children and youth. UN redirects here. ... The year 1981 was proclaimed the International Year of Disabled Persons (IYDP) by the United Nations. ... // Frank G. Bowe (1947-2007) was the Dr. Mervin Livingston Schloss Distinguished Professor for the Study of Disabilities at Hofstra University. ... The word deaf can have very different meanings depending on the background of the person speaking or the context in which the word is used. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Two sign language Intepreters working as a team for a school. ...

Contents

The Disability rights movement

The Disability rights movement, led by individuals with disabilities, began in the 1970s. This Self-advocacy is often seen as largely responsible for the shift toward independent living and accessibility. The term "Independent Living" was taken from 1959 California legislation that enabled people who had acquired a disability due to polio to leave hospital wards and move back into the community with the help of cash benefits for the purchase of personal assistance with the activities of daily living. The disability rights movement aims to improve the quality of life of people with disabilities. ... Self-advocacy is an important term in the disability rights movement. ... Independent Living, as seen by its advocates, is a philosophy, a way of looking at disability and society, and a worldwide movement of people with disabilities who proclaim to work for self-determination, self-respect and equal opportunities. ... It has been suggested that Easy Access be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the disease. ...


With its origins in the US civil rights and consumer movements of the late 1960s, the movement and its philosophy have since spread to other continents influencing people's self-perception, their ways of organizing themselves and their countries' social policy. The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


Adapted sports

Main article: Disabled sports

The Paralympic Games (meaning 'alongside the Olympics') are now held after the (Summer and Winter) Olympics. Image:Part is Marathon 2006-Handbike. ... Silver 2004 The Paralympic Games are a multi-sport event for athletes with physical, mental and sensorial disabilities. ... Olympic Games Summer Olympic Games Medal count Winter Olympic Games Medal count Olympic sports Medal counts Participating NOCs Olympic symbols Olympics WikiProject Olympics Portal Athens 2004 • Beijing 2008 Torino 2006 • Vancouver 2010 ...


In 2006, the Extremity Games was formed for people with physical disabilities, specifically limb loss or limb difference, to be able to compete in extreme sports. The College Park Industries, a manufacturer of prosthetic feet, organized this event to give disabled athletes a venue to compete in this increasingly popular sports genere also referred to as action sports. This annual event held in the summer in Orlando, FL includes competitions in skateboarding, wakeboarding, rock climbing, mountain biking, surfing, moto-x and kayaking. The Extremity Games is a multi-sport, action sports competition, similar to the X Games, for athletes with physical disabilities, specifically people living with limb loss (amputees) and limb difference. ... Extreme sports (now also known as action sports) is a general, somewhat hazily-defined term for a collection of newer sports involving adrenaline-inducing action. ... ...


Current issues

Current issues and debates surrounding 'disability' include social and political rights, social inclusion and citizenship. In developed countries the debate has moved beyond a concern about the perceived cost of maintaining dependent people with a disability to an effort to find effective ways of ensuring people with a disability can participate in and contribute to society in all spheres of life. For the direction right, see left and right or starboard. ... Social exclusion relates to the alienation or disenfranchisement of certain people within a society. ... Citizen redirects here. ...


Many are concerned, however, that the greatest need is in developing nations -- where the vast bulk of the estimated 650 million persons with disabilities reside. A great deal of work -- from basic physical accessibility through education to self-empowerment and self-supporting employment -- is needed.


In the past few years, disability rights activists have also focused on obtaining full sexual citizenship for the disabled.[2] There is the great marathon for disabled people in June 2008.


Definitions and Models

The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), produced by the World Health Organization, distinguishes between body functions (physiological or psychological, e.g. vision) and body structures (anatomical parts, e.g. the eye and related structures). Impairment in bodily structure or function is defined as involving an anomaly, defect, loss or other significant deviation from certain generally accepted population standards, which may fluctuate over time. Activity is defined as the execution of a task or action. The ICF lists 9 broad domains of functioning which can be affected: International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, also known as ICF, is a health status classification of functioning and disability due to the consequences of disease. ... WHO redirects here. ...

  • Learning and applying knowledge
  • General tasks and demands
  • Communication
  • Mobility
  • Self-care
  • Domestic life
  • Interpersonal interactions and relationships
  • Major life areas
  • Community, social and civic life

(see also List of mental disorders)


The introduction to the ICF states that a variety of conceptual models has been proposed to understand and explain disability and functioning, which it seeks to integrate.


The medical model

The medical model is presented as viewing disability as a problem of the person, directly caused by disease, trauma, or other health condition which therefore requires sustained medical care provided in the form of individual treatment by professionals. In the medical model, management of the disability is aimed at "cure", or the individual’s adjustment and behavioral change that would lead to an "almost-cure" or effective cure. In the medical model, medical care is viewed as the main issue, and at the political level, the principal response is that of modifying or reforming healthcare policy. According to the classic medical notion of disability: Disability is the result of a sexual condition It is intrinsic to the individual (it is part of that individual’s own body) It may reduce the individuals quality of life and causes clear disadvantages A compassionate or just society will... Health care or healthcare is one of the worlds largest and fastest growing professions. ...


The social model

The social model of disability sees the issue of "disability" mainly as a socially created problem, and basically as a matter of the full integration of individuals into society (see Inclusion (disability rights)). In this model disability is not an attribute of an individual, but rather a complex collection of conditions, many of which are created by the social environment. Hence, in this model, the management of the problem requires social action, and thus, it is the collective responsibility of society at large to make the environmental modifications necessary for the full participation of people with disabilities in all areas of social life. The issue is both cultural and ideological, requiring individual, community, and large-scale social change. Viewed from this perspective equal access for people with impairment/disability is a human rights issue of major concern. The social model of disability proposes that barriers and prejudice and exclusion by society (purposely or inadvertently) are the ultimate factors defining who is disabled and who is not in a particular society. ... For the concept of inclusion in organizational culture, see the article Inclusion (value and practice). ... Social activists are people who act as the conscience and voice of many individuals within a society. ... The word culture, from the Latin colo, -ere, with its root meaning to cultivate, generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... An ideology is a collection of ideas. ...


Impairment, culture, language and labeling

The American Psychological Association style guide states that, when identifying a person with an impairment, the person's name or pronoun should come first, and descriptions of the impairment/disability should be used so that the impairment is identified, but is not modifying the person. Improper examples would be "A Borderline, a "Blind Person." For instance: people with/who have Down syndrome, a man with/who has schizophrenia (instead of a Schizophrenic man), and a girl with paraplegia/who is paraplegic. It also states that a person's adaptive equipment should be described functionally as something that assists a person, not as something that limits a person (e.g., "A woman who uses a wheelchair" rather than "in" it or "confined" to it. The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization representing psychology in the US. It has around 150,000 members and an annual budget of around $70m. ... Further information: MLA Style Manual American Psychological Association (APA) style is a widely-accepted style of documentation for APA style specifies the names and order of headings, formatting and organization of citations and references, and the arrangement of tables, figures, footnotes, and appendices, as well as other manuscript and documentation... Look up borderline in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Blind can refer to: Look up blind in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Schizophrenia is a psychiatric diagnosis denoting a persistent, often chronic, mental illness variously affecting behavior, thinking, and emotion. ... Paraplegia is an impairment in motor and/or sensory function of the lower extremities. ... Paraplegia is a condition where the lower half of a patients body is paralyzed and cannot move. ...


However, in the UK, the term 'disabled people' is generally preferred to 'people with disabilities'. It is argued under the social model that while someone's impairment (e.g. being unable to walk) is part of them, 'disability' is something created by external societal factors such as a lack of wheelchair access to their workplace.[3] Though this argument can be countered by considering that without that "oppressive" society (ie: in a natural wild setting) the disabled would have little to no chance of survival beyond infancy or the time of their injury. The social model of disability proposes that barriers and prejudice and exclusion by society (purposely or inadvertently) are the ultimate factors defining who is disabled and who is not in a particular society. ...


Many books on disability and disability rights point out that 'disabled' is an identity that one is not necessarily born with, as disabilities are more often acquired than congenital. Some disability rights activists use an acronym TAB, "Temporarily Able-Bodied", as a reminder that many people will develop disabilities at some point in their lives, due to accidents, illness (physical, mental or emotional), or late-emerging effects of genetics. The disability rights movement aims to improve the quality of life of people with disabilities. ... A congenital disorder is a medical condition or defect that is present at or before birth (for example, congenital heart disease). ... Illness (sometimes referred to as ill-health) can be defined as a state of poor health. ...


The late Prime Minister Olof Palme of Sweden, speaking at the Stanford University Law School in the 1970s, summed up the divergence between U.S. and Swedish attitudes towards people with disabilities: Sven Olof Joachim Palme ( ) (30 January 1927 – 28 February 1986) was a Swedish politician. ... (The wind of freedom blows. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ...

  • Americans regard the able-bodied and the disabled as, effectively, actively or not, consciously or subconsciously, two separate species, whereas,
  • Swedes regard them as humans in different life stages: all babies are helpless, cared for by parents; sick people are cared by those who are well; elderly people are cared by those younger and healthier, etc. Able-bodied people are able to help those who need it, without pity, because they know their turn at not being able-bodied will come.

Palme maintained that if it cost the country $US 40,000 per year to enable a person with a disability to work at a job that paid $40,000, the society gained a net benefit, because the society benefited by allowing this worker to participate cooperatively, rather than to be a drain on other people's time and money.[citation needed] In the context of legality, able-bodied refers to an individuals physical capacity for gainful employment or military service. ... Not to be confused with Empathy, Sympathy, or Compassion. ... In the context of legality, able-bodied refers to an individuals physical capacity for gainful employment or military service. ...


Other models

  • The moral model (Bowe, 1978) refers to the attitude that people are morally responsible for their own disability, including, at one extreme, as a result of bad actions of parents if congenital, or as a result of practicing witchcraft if not. This attitude can be seen as a religious fundamentalist offshoot of the original animal roots of human beings, back when humans killed any baby that could not survive on its own in the wild (see Darwinism).
  • The Expert/Professional Model has provided a traditional response to disability issues and can be seen as an offshoot of the Medical Model. Within its framework, professionals follow a process of identifying the impairment and its limitations (using the Medical Model), and taking the necessary action to improve the position of the disabled person. This has tended to produce a system in which an authoritarian, over-active service provider prescribes and acts for a passive client.
  • The Tragedy/Charity Model depicts disabled people as victims of circumstance, deserving of pity. This and Medical Model are probably the ones most used by non-disabled people to define and explain disability.
  • Social Adapted Model[citation needed]
  • Economic Model[citation needed]
  • Empowering Model[citation needed]

A congenital disorder is a medical condition or defect that is present at or before birth (for example, congenital heart disease). ... Fundamentalism is a movement to maintain strict adherence to founding principles. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Charles Darwin Darwinism is a term for the underlying theory in those ideas of Charles Darwin concerning evolution and natural selection. ... Not to be confused with Empathy, Sympathy, or Compassion. ...

Government policies and support

United Kingdom

Under the Disability Discrimination Act (1995, extended in 2005), it is unlawful for organisations to discriminate (treat a disabled person less favourably, for reasons related to the person's disability, without justification) in employment; access to goods, facilities, services; managing, buying or renting land or property; education. Businesses must make "reasonable adjustments" to their policies or practices, or physical aspects of their premises, to avoid indirect discrimination.[1] In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, a number of countries have passed laws aimed at reducing unfair discrimination against disabled people. ...


A number of financial and care support services are available, including Incapacity Benefit and Disability Living Allowance[2].


United States

Discrimination in employment

The US Rehabilitation Act of 1973 requires all organizations that receive government funding to provide accessiblity programs and services. A more recent law, the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), which came in to effect in 1992, prohibits private employers, state and local governments and employment agencies and labor unions from discriminating against qualified individuals with disabilities in job application procedures, hiring, firing, advancement, compensation, job training, or in the terms, conditions and privileges of employment. This includes organizations like retail businesses, movie theaters, and restaurants. They must make "reasonable accommodation" to people with different needs. Protection is extended to anyone with (A) a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of the major life activities of an individual (B) a record of such an impairment or (C) being regarded as having such an impairment. The second and third critiera are seen as ensuring protection from unjust discrimination based on a perception of risk, just because someone has a record of impairment or appears to have a disability or illness (e.g. features which may be erroneously taken as signs of an illness).


African Americans and Disability

According to the 2000 U.S. Census, the African American community has the highest rate of disability at 20.8 percent,[4] slightly higher than the overall disability rate of 19.4%.[4] Although people have come to better understand and accept different types of disability, there still remains a stigma attached to the disabled community. African Americans with a disability are subject to not only this stigma but also to the additional forces of race discrimination. African American women who have a disability face tremendous discrimination due to their condition, race, and gender. Doctor Eddie Glenn of Howard University describes this situation as the "triple jeopardy" syndrome.


Social administration

The US Social Security Administration defines disability in terms of inability to perform substantial gainful activity (SGA), by which it means “work paying minimum wage or better”. The agency pairs SGA with a "listing" of medical conditions that qualify individuals for benefits. The United States Social Security Administration (or SSA[1]) is an independent agency of the United States government established by a law currently codified at 42 U.S.C. Â§ 901. ...


Education

Under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, special educational support is limited to children and youth falling in to one of a dozen disability categories (e.g., specific learning disability) and adds that, to be eligible, students must require both special education (modified instruction) and related services (supports such as speech and language pathology). // The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is a United States federal law that governs how states and public agences provide early intervention, special education, and related services to children with disabilities. ...


Demographics

Difficulties in measuring

The demography of disability is difficult. Counting persons with disabilities is far more challenging than is counting males. That is because disability is not just a status condition, entirely contained within the individual. Rather, it is an interaction between medical status (say, having low vision or being blind) and the environment. Map of countries by population Population growth showing projections for later this century Demography is the statistical study of all populations. ... Low vision is alternatively a general term used to describe lowered visual acuity, and a specific legal term in Canada and the United States used to designate someone with vision of 20/70 or less in the better eye with correction. ... This article is about the visual condition. ...


Estimates worldwide

Estimates of worldwide and country-wide numbers of individuals with disabilities are problematic. The varying approaches taken to defining disability notwithstanding, demographers agree that the world population of individuals with disabilities is very large. The World Health Organization, for example, estimates that there are as many as 600 million persons with disabilities. The United Nations estimate is 650 million. In the United States, for example, Americans with disabilities constitute the third-largest minority (after persons of Hispanic origin and African Americans); all three of those minority groups number in the 30-some millions in America. According to the U.S. Bureau of the Census, as of 2004, there were some 32 million adults (aged 18 or over) in the United States, plus another 5 million children and youth (under age 18). If one were to add impairments -- or limitations that fall short of being disabilities -- Census estimates put the figure at 51 million. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... WHO redirects here. ... UN redirects here. ...


There is also widespread agreement among experts in the field that disability is more common in developing than in developed nations.


Disability insurance—nationalized and private

Disability benefit, or disability pension, is the largest kind of disability insurance, and is provided by government agencies to people who are unable to work due to a disability, temporarily or permanently. In the U.S., disability benefit is provided within the category of Supplemental Security Income, and in Canada, within the Canada Pension Plan. In other countries, disability benefit may be provided under Social security system. This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Supplemental Security Income is a monthly stipend provided to some citizens by the United States federal government. ... The Canada Pension Plan (CPP) is a contributory, earnings-related social insurance program. ... Social security primarily refers to social welfare service concerned with social protection, or protection against socially recognized conditions, including poverty, old age, disability, unemployment and others. ...


Costs of disability pensions are steadily growing in Western countries, mainly European and the United States. It was reported that in the UK, expenditure on disability pensions accounted for 0.9% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 1980, but two decades later had reached 2.6% of GDP.[5][6] Several studies have reported a link between increased sickness absence and elevated risk of future disability pension.[7]


A study by Denmark researchers suggests that information on self-reported days of sickness absence can be used to effectively identify future potential groups for disability pension. [3] These studies may provide useful information for policy makers, case managing authorities, employers, and physicians responsible for interventions aiming at reducing the cost and work disability.


Private, for-profit disability insurance plays a role in providing incomes to disabled people, but the nationalized programs are the safety net that catches most claimants.


Adaptations

Assistive Technology (AT) is a generic term for devices and modifications (for a person or within a society) that help overcome or remove a disability. The first recorded example of the use of a prosthesis dates to at least 1800 BC.[8] Assistive Technology (AT) is a generic term that includes assistive, adaptive, and rehabilitative devices and the process used in selecting, locating, and using them. ... A United States Army soldier plays table football with two prosthetic arms Jon Comer, professional skateboarder with a prosthetic leg. ...


A more recent notable example is the wheelchair, dating from the 17th century. The curb cut is a related structural innovation. Other modern examples are standing frames, text telephones, accessible keyboards, large print, Braille, & speech recognition Computer software. Individuals with disabilities often develop personal or community adaptations, such as strategies to suppress tics in public (for example in Tourette's syndrome), or sign language in deaf communities. Assistive technology or interventions are sometimes controversial or rejected, for example in the controversy over cochlear implants for children. Wheelchair seating in a theater. ... A curb cut (US) or dropped kerb (UK) is a ramp leading smoothly down from a sidewalk to an intersecting street, rather than abruptly ending with a curb and dropping roughly 10-15 cm (4~6 inches). ... A standing frame (also known as a stand, stander, standing technology, standing aid, standing device, standing box, tilt table) is assistive technology used by a child or adult who uses a wheelchair for mobility. ... A telephone handset A touch-tone telephone dial Telephone The telephone or phone (Greek: tele = far away and phone = voice) is a telecommunications device that transmits speech by means of electric signals. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Large font, large type or large print, is a type of book in which the pages and font are much larger. ... Listen to this article ( info/dl) This audio file was created from a revision dated 2006-09-06, and may not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... Speech recognition (in many contexts also known as automatic speech recognition, computer speech recognition or erroneously as voice recognition) is the process of converting a speech signal to a sequence of words in the form of digital data, by means of an algorithm implemented as a computer program. ... Software redirects here. ... Tourette syndrome — also called Tourettes syndrome, Tourette Spectrum (TS), Tourettes disorder, or Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (after its discoverer, Georges Gilles de la Tourette) — is a neurological or neurochemical disorder characterized by tics — involuntary, rapid, sudden movements or vocalizations that occur repeatedly in the same way. ... Two sign language Intepreters working as a team for a school. ... The word deaf can have very different meanings depending on the background of the person speaking or the context in which the word is used. ... Cochlear implants are hearing devices that can help people with certain kinds of hearing impairment or who are entirely deaf. ...


A number of symbols are in use to indicate whether certain accessibility adaptations have been made[4].


Accessible computing

As the personal computer has become more ubiquitous, various organisations have been founded which develop software and hardware which make a computer more accessible for people with disabilities. Some software and hardware, such as SmartboxAT's The Grid, and Freedom Scientific's JAWS has been specifically designed for people with disabilities; other pieces of software and hardware, such as Nuance's Dragon NaturallySpeaking, was not developed specifically for people with disabilities, but can be used to increase accessibility. Ubiquity is the ability to be present everywhere or at several places at once. ... “Software development” redirects here. ... Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... For other uses, see Hardware (disambiguation). ... Freedom Scientific is a corporation which researches, creates and sells technology to blind people, including software which uses voice synthesizers and the braille code. ... JAWS (an acronym for Job Access With Speech) is a screen reader, a software program for visually impaired users produced by the Blind and Low Vision Group at Freedom Scientific of St. ... Nuance Communications is a computer software technology company. ... Dragon NaturallySpeaking is industry leading speech recognition software. ...


Further organisations, such as AbilityNet and U Can Do IT, have been established to provide assessment services which determine which assistive technologies would best assist an individual client, and also to train people with disabilities in how to use computer-based assistive technology. U Can Do IT is a London-based charity which provides one-to-one tuition in Information Technology to people with disabilities. ...


A New Zealand designed keyboard is also now available to disabled persons worldwide. It is designed specifically for disabled peoples needs. This keyboard is called LOMAK.


Reference to

(Use only when necessary) " People with disabilities. Paul has a cognitive disability (diagnosis). Kate has autism (or a diagnosis of...). Ryan has Down syndrome (or a diagnosis of...). Sara has a learning disability (diagnosis). Bob has a physical disability (diagnosis). Mary is of short stature/she’s a little person. Tom has a mental health condition. Nora uses a wheelchair/mobility chair. Steve receives special ed services. Tonya has a developmental delay. Children without disabilities. Communicates with her eyes/device/etc. Customer Congenital disability Brain injury Accessible parking, hotel room, etc. She needs . . . or she uses . . . "[9]


See also

This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Adaptive Recreation is a concept whereby people with disabilities are given the opportunity to participate in recreational activities. ... The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) is the short title of United States Public Law 101-336, 104 Stat. ... Assistive Technology (AT) is a generic term that includes assistive, adaptive, and rehabilitative devices and the process used in selecting, locating, and using them. ... Developmental disability is a term used to describe life-long disabilities attributable to mental and/or physical or combination of mental and physical impairments, manifested prior to age twenty-two. ... At its most basic, the term “etiquette” refers to a set of rules - written and unwritten - governing what constitutes socially acceptable behavior under a variety of circumstances. ... In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, a number of countries have passed laws aimed at reducing unfair discrimination against disabled people. ... The disability rights movement aims to improve the quality of life of people with disabilities. ... The term disability, as it is applied to humans, refers to any condition that impedes the completion of daily tasks using traditional methods. ... Image:Part is Marathon 2006-Handbike. ... Disability studies is an interdisciplinary field of study, which is focused on the contributions, experiences, history, and culture of people with disabilities. ... Ergonomics (from Greek ergon work and nomoi natural laws) is the study of designing objects to be better adapted to the shape of the human body and/or to correct the users posture. ... Easter Seals lily logo, adopted in 1952. ... The Extremity Games is a multi-sport, action sports competition, similar to the X Games, for athletes with physical disabilities, specifically people living with limb loss (amputees) and limb difference. ... Human variability, or human variation, refers to the range of possible values for any measurable characteristic, physical or mental, of human beings. ... Inclusive Development Inclusive development, as defined here, refers to ensuring that all phases of the development cycle (design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation) include a disability dimension and that persons with disabilities are meaningfully participating in development processes and policies. ... Independent Living, as seen by its advocates, is a philosophy, a way of looking at disability and society, and a worldwide movement of people with disabilities who proclaim to work for self-determination, self-respect and equal opportunities. ... International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, also known as ICF, is a health status classification of functioning and disability due to the consequences of disease. ... An invisible disability is a disability that is not (always) immediately apparent to casual observers; that is, it is not visible to the naked eye. ... This article is about the use of the term in the United States and Canada. ... This is a list of disability rights organizations. ... Orthopedic surgery or orthopedics (BE: orthopaedics) is the branch of surgery concerned with acute, chronic, traumatic and recurrent injuries and other disorders of the locomotor system, its musclular and bone parts. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Passing refers to the ability of a person to be regarded as a member of a combination of sociological groups other than his or her own, such as a different race, ethnicity, social class, gender, and/or disability status, generally with the purpose of gaining social acceptance. ... // Psychophobia means fear of the mind or rather fear of the mentally ill. ... This article is about educating students with disabilities or behavioral problems. ... United Cerebral Palsy (UCP), sometimes known as United Cerebral Palsy Associations, is a network of affiliated groups in the United States which works to advance the independence, productivity and full citizenship of people with disabilities (from UCPs mission statement), including people with cerebral palsy. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ ENABLE website UN section on disability
  2. ^ Disability NOW Time To Talk Sex at Disability NOW
  3. ^ e.g. http://www.gcil.org.uk/FileAccess.aspx?id=59
  4. ^ a b Disability Disability rates vary by age, sex, race, and ethnicity.
  5. ^ OECD. Transforming disability into ability: Policies to promote work and income security for disabled people. Paris: OECD Publication Offices. 2003
  6. ^ Labriola M, Lund T. Self-reported sickness absence as a risk marker of future disability pension. Prospective findings from the DWECS/DREAM study 1990-2004. Int J Med Sci 2007; 4:153-158. http://www.medsci.org/v04p0153.htm
  7. ^ Virtanen M, Kivimaki M, Vahtera J, Elovainio M, Sund R, Virtanen P, Ferrie JE. Sickness absence as a risk factor for job termination, unemployment, and disability pension among temporary and permanent employees. Occup Environ Med. 2006;63(3):212-7
  8. ^ Disability Social History Project
  9. ^ People First Language

References

  • Charlotte Pearson (2006) Direct Payments and Personalisation of Care, Edinburgh, Dunedin Academic Press, ISBN 1903765625
  • Frank Bowe, Handicapping America: Barriers to disabled people, Harper & Row, 1978 ISBN 0-06-010422-8
  • Encyclopedia of disability, general ed. Gary L. Albrecht, Thousand Oaks, Calif. [u.a.] : SAGE Publ., 2005
  • David Johnstone, An Introduction to Disability Studies, 2001, 2nd edition, ISBN 1-85346-726-X
  • Michael Oliver, The Politics of Disablement, St. Martin's Press 1997, ISBN 0-333-43293-2
  • Tom Shakespeare, Genetic Politics: from Eugenics to Genome, with Anne Kerr , New Clarion Press, 1999, ISBN 1-873797-25-7
  • Kaushik, R.,1999, " Access Denied: Can we overcome disabling attitudes ," Museum International (UNESCO) , Vol. 51, No. 3, p. 48-52.
  • Glenn, Eddie. March 20, 1997. "African American Women with Disabilities: An Overview."

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Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Location: Bilbao, Spain Formation: - Signed - Established 1996 Superseding pillar: European Communities Director: Jukka Takala Website: osha. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Disability - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1104 words)
This definition, known as the 'social model' of disability, makes a clear distinction between the impairment itself (such as a medical condition that makes a person unable to walk or unable to sit) and the disabling effects of society in relation to that impairment.
Many books on disability and disability rights point out that 'disabled' is an identity that one is not necessarily born with, as disabilities are more often acquired than congenital.
Some disability rights activists use an acronym TAB, Temporarily Able-Bodied, as a reminder that many people will develop disabilities at some point in their lives, due to accidents, illness (physical, mental or emotional), or late-emerging effects of genetics.
Disability (771 words)
The overall disability rate was 19.4 percent, but the rate ranged from 5.8 percent for children under 18 years old, to 13.6 percent for persons 18 to 44 years old, to 29.2 percent for persons 45 to 64 years old, and to 53.9 percent for persons 65 years old and over.
The presence of a disability is associated with lower levels of income and an increased likelihood of being in poverty.
The effect of disability on the likelihood of private coverage was particularly strong among those with a severe disability; only 48.1 percent were covered by a private plan, while 36.2 percent had government coverage, and 15.7 percent had no coverage.
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