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Encyclopedia > Dirty bomb

The term dirty bomb is primarily used to refer to a radiological dispersal device (RDD), a radiological weapon which combines radioactive material with conventional explosives. Though an RDD is designed to disperse radioactive material over a large area, a bomb that uses conventional explosives would likely have more immediate lethal effect than the radioactive material. At levels created from most probable sources, not enough radiation would be present to cause severe illness or death. A test explosion and subsequent calculations done by the United States Department of Energy found that assuming nothing is done to clean up the affected area and everyone stays in the affected area for one year, the radiation exposure would be "fairly high", but not fatal. Recent analysis of the Chernobyl accident fallout confirms this, showing that the effect on many people in the surrounding area, although not those in close proximity, was almost negligible.[1] A radiological weapon (or radiological dispersion device, RDD) is any weapon that is designed to spread radioactive material with the intent to kill, and cause disruption upon a city or nation. ... Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. ... Preparing C-4 explosive This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... The Massive Ordnance Air Blast (MOAB) bomb produced in the United States. ... Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. ... The radiation warning symbol (trefoil). ... The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy and nuclear safety. ... The nuclear power plant at Chernobyl prior to the completion of the sarcophagus. ...

Because a terrorist dirty bomb is unlikely to cause many deaths, many do not consider this to be a weapon of mass destruction. Its purpose would presumably be to create psychological, not physical, harm through ignorance, mass panic, and terror. For this reason dirty bombs are sometimes called "weapons of mass disruption". Additionally, decontamination of the affected area might require considerable time and expense, rendering affected areas partly unusable and causing economic damage. This article is becoming very long. ... Weapons of Mass Destruction is also the name of rapper Xzibits 2004 album. ... In psychology collective hysteria is the name given to a phenomenon of the manifestation of the same hysterical symptoms by more than one person. ... Decontamination of humans is usually done by a three step procedure, separated by sex: removal of clothing, washing, and reclothing. ...

It is thought that during the 1960s the UK Ministry of Defence evaluated RDDs, deciding that a far better effect was achievable by simply using more high explosive in place of the radioactive material.[citation needed] Main Building - The Headquarters of the Ministry of Defence, Whitehall, Westminster, London Tri-service badge of the UK armed forces The Ministry of Defence (MoD) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for implementation of government defence policy and the headquarters of the UK military. ...


Other uses of the term

The term has also been used historically to refer to certain types of nuclear weapons. Due to the inefficiency of early nuclear weapons, only a small amount of the nuclear material would be consumed during the explosion. Little Boy had an efficiency of only 1.4%. Fat Man, which used a different design and a different fissile material, had an efficiency of 14%. Thus, they tended to disperse large amounts of unused fissile material, and the fission products, which are on average much more dangerous, in the form of nuclear fallout. During the 1950s, there was considerable debate over whether "clean" bombs could be produced and these were often contrasted with "dirty" bombs. "Clean" bombs were often a stated goal and scientists and administrators said that high-efficiency nuclear weapon design could create explosions which generated almost all of their energy in the form of nuclear fusion, which does not create harmful fission products. The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... Nuclear material consists of materials used in nuclear systems, such as nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons. ... A post-war Little Boy casing mockup. ... Fat Man is the codename of the atomic bomb that was detonated over Nagasaki, Japan, by the United States on August 9, 1945. ... This article or section should include material from Fissile material In nuclear engineering, a fissile material is one that is capable of sustaining a chain reaction of nuclear fission. ... This article or section should be merged with Fissile Fissile material is composed of atoms that can undergo nuclear fission and sustain a fission chain reaction. ... Fission products are the residues of fission processes. ... Fallout is the residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion, so named because it falls out of the atmosphere into which it is spread during the explosion. ... The first nuclear weapons, though large, cumbersome and inefficient, provided the basic design building blocks of all future weapons. ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ...

But the Castle Bravo accident of 1954, in which a thermonuclear weapon produced a large amount of fallout which was dispersed among human populations, suggested that this was not what was actually being used in modern thermonuclear weapons, which derive around half of their yield from a final fission stage. While some proposed producing "clean" weapons, other theorists noted that one could make a nuclear weapon intentionally "dirty" by "salting" it with a material, which would generate large amounts of long-lasting fallout when irradiated by the weapon core. These are known as salted bombs; a specific subtype often noted is a cobalt bomb. It has been suggested that such a cobalt bomb could destroy all life on earth, although that has been debated. In the post-Cold War age, this usage of the term has largely fallen out of use. A black-and-white photograph of the Castle Bravo mushroom cloud. ... The first nuclear weapons, though large, cumbersome and inefficient, provided the basic design building blocks of all future weapons. ... Irradiation is the process by which an item is exposed to radiation. ... It has been suggested that Cobalt bomb be merged into this article or section. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...

Dirty bombs and terrorism

Since the 9/11 attacks the fear of terrorist groups using dirty bombs has increased significantly, which has been frequently reported in the media [2]. The meaning of the term terrorism used here, can be described by the U.S. Department of Defense's definition, which is "the calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of unlawful violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or ideological objectives" [3]. Although there exists an increased fear of terrorists deploying dirty bombs, there has only ever been two cases of such, and neither was detonated. The first ever attempt of radiological terror was carried out in November 1995 by a group of Chechen separatists, who buried a caesium-137 source wrapped in explosives at the Izmaylovsky Park in Moscow. A Chechen rebel leader alerted the media, the bomb was never activated, and the incident amounted to a mere publicity stunt [4]. The date that commonly refers to the attacks on United States citizens on September 11, 2001 (see the September 11, 2001 Attacks). ... Terrorist redirects here. ... The United States Department of Defense, abbreviated DoD or DOD and sometimes called the Defense Department, is a civilian Cabinet organization of the United States government. ... // Geography The Chechen people are mainly inhabitants of Chechnya, which is internationally recognized as part of Russia. ... Political separatism is a movement to obtain sovereignty and split a territory or group of people (usually a people with a distinctive national consciousness) from one another (or one nation from another; a colony from the metropolis). ... Caesium-137 is a radioactive isotope which is formed mainly by nuclear fission. ... Izmaylovsky Park or Izmailovo Park is a forest-like park (russian:lesopark, urban forest) in the Izmaylovo district of Moscow, Russia. ... Position of Moscow in Europe Coordinates: , Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Government  - Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Area  - City 1,081 km²  (417. ... The media itself often stage stunts for movies and television shows. ...

The caesium filled package uncovered in Moscow’s Izmaylovsky Park.
The caesium filled package uncovered in Moscow’s Izmaylovsky Park.

In December 1998 the second attempt was announced by the Chechen Security Service, who discovered a container filled with radioactive materials attached to an explosive mine. The bomb was hidden near a railway line in the suburban area Argun, 10 miles east of the Chechen capital of Grozny. The same Chechen separatist group as above was suspected to be involved in the incident [5]. It should be noted that despite the enhanced fear of a dirty bombing attack, it is very hard to assess whether the actual risk of such an event has increased significantly [6]. The following discussions on implications/effects and probability of an attack, as well as indications of terror groups planning such, will be based mainly on statistics, qualified guessing and a few comparable scenarios. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Izmaylovsky Park or Izmailovo Park is a forest-like park (russian:lesopark, urban forest) in the Izmaylovo district of Moscow, Russia. ... Argun (Russian: ) is a town in Shalinsky District of the Chechen Republic, Russia, located on the Argun River. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Lets talk about risk control strategies, anyone with more information and willing to share, please do so. ... A graph of a normal bell curve showing statistics used in educational assessment and comparing various grading methods. ...

Effect of a dirty bomb explosion

When dealing with the implications of a dirty bomb attack, there are two main areas to be addressed: (i) the civilian impact, not only dealing with immediate casualties and long term health issues, but also the psychological effect and then (ii) the economical impact. In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ... Psychology (ancient Greek: psyche = soul and logos = word) is the study of mind, thought, and behaviour. ...

With no prior event of a dirty bomb detonation, it is difficult to predict the precise impact. Some insight into the progress of contamination spread can be gained from the tragic radiological accident occurring in Goiânia, Brazil, between September 1987 and March 1988: Two metal scavengers broke into an abandoned radiotherapy clinic and removed a teletherapy source capsule containing powdered caesium-137 with an activity of 50 TBq. They brought it home to one of the men to take it apart and sell it as scrap metal. Later that day both men were showing acute signs of radiation illness with vomiting and one of the men had a swollen hand and diarrhea. A few days later one of the men punctured the 1 mm thick window of the capsule, allowing the powder to leak out and when realizing the powder glowed blue in the dark, brought it back home to his family and friends to show it off. After 2 weeks of spread by contact contamination causing an increasing number of adverse health effects, the correct diagnosis of acute radiation sickness was made at a hospital and proper precautions could be put into procedure. By this time a total of 249 people were contaminated, 151 exhibited both external and internal contamination of which 20 people were seriously ill and 5 people died [7]. The radiation warning symbol (trefoil). ... Nickname: Location in the state of Goiás. ... Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). ... External beam radiotherapy is the most common form of radiotherapy where a patient lies on a couch and an external source of X-rays is pointed at a particular part of the body. ... tera- (symbol: T) is a prefix in the SI system of units denoting 1012, or 1 000 000 000 000. ... The becquerel (symbol Bq) is the SI derived unit of radioactivity, defined as the activity of a quantity of radioactive material in which one nucleus decays per second. ... Vomiting (also throwing up or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose. ... Types 5-7 on the Bristol Stool Chart are often associated with diarrhea Diarrhea (in American English) or diarrhoea (in British English) is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the Greek word διάρροια; literally meaning through-flowing). Acute infectious diarrhea is a common cause... A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... Radiation poisoning, also called radiation sickness, is a form of damage to organic tissue due to excessive exposure to ionizing radiation. ...

Although several analyses have predicted that RDDs will neither sicken nor kill many people [8], the Goiânia incident to some extent predicts the contamination pattern if it is not immediately realized that the explosion spread radioactive material, but also how fatal even very small amounts of ingested radioactive powder can be [9]. This raises new worries of terrorists using powdered alpha emitting material, that if ingested can pose a serious health risk [10], as in the case of now deceased former K.G.B. spy Alexander Litvinenko, who either ate, drank or inhaled polonium-210. “Smoky bombs” based on alpha emitters might easily be just as dangerous as beta or gamma emitting dirty bombs [11]. However, for the majority of people involved in an RDD incident, the radiation health risks (i.e. increased probability of developing cancer later in life due to radiation exposure) are small and comparable to the health risk from smoking five packages of cigarettes or eating ice cream on a daily basis [12]. The fear of radiation is not always logical although the exposure might be minimal; many people find radiation exposure especially frightening because it is something they cannot see nor feel and it thereby becomes an unknown source of danger. Dealing with public fear may prove the greatest challenge in case of an RDD event [13]. Statements from the US government after 9/11 may have contributed unnecessarily to the public fear of a dirty bomb: when Attorney General John Ashcroft on June 10, 2002, announced the arrest of José Padilla, allegedly plotting to detonate such a weapon, he said: An alpha particle is deflected by a magnetic field Alpha radiation consists of helium-4 nuclei and is readily stopped by a sheet of paper. ... The KGB emblem and motto: The sword and the shield KGB (transliteration of КГБ) is the Russian-language acronym for the Committee for State Security, (Russian: Комите́т Госуда́рственной Безопа́сности â–¶(?); transliteration: Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti), and was the umbrella organisation name for (i) the principal Soviet internal Security Agency, (ii) the principal intelligence agency, and (iii... Alexander Valterovich Litvinenko (Russian: ) (30 August 1962[1][2] – 23 November 2006) was a lieutenant-colonel in the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation and later a Russian dissident and writer. ... General Name, Symbol, Number polonium, Po, 84 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 6, p Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (209) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... Alpha radiation consists of helium nuclei and is readily stopped by a sheet of paper. ... This article is about electromagnetic radiation. ... In most common law jurisdictions, the Attorney General is the main legal adviser to the government, and in some jurisdictions may in addition have executive responsibility for law enforcement or responsibility for public prosecutions. ... John David Ashcroft (born May 9, 1942) is an American politician who was the 79th United States Attorney General. ... José Padilla, shown in a drivers license photo released shortly after his arrest. ...

[A] radioactive "dirty bomb" (…) spreads radioactive material that is highly toxic to humans and can cause mass death and injury.

Attorney General John Ashcroft, [14]

This public fear of radiation also plays a big role in why the costs of an RDD impact on a major metropolitan area (such as lower Manhattan) might be equal to or even larger than that of the 9/11 attacks [15]. Assuming the radiation levels are not too high and the area does not need to be abandoned such as the town of Pripyat near the Chernobyl reactor [16], an expensive and time consuming cleanup procedure will begin. This will mainly consist of tearing down highly contaminated buildings, digging up contaminated soil and quickly applying sticky substances to remaining surfaces to adhere the radioactive particles before they penetrate into the building materials [17]. These procedures are the current state of the art for radioactive contamination cleanup, but some experts claim that a complete cleanup of external surfaces in an urban area to current decontamination limits may not be technically feasible [18]. Loss of working hours will be vast during the cleanup period, but even after the procedures have been accomplished and the radiation levels reduced to an acceptable level, there might be residual public fear of the site including possible unwillingness to conduct business as usual in the area. Tourist traffic is likely never to resume [19]. The name Pripyat, also spelled Prypyat, Prypyat, Prypyat, Prypiat, Pripiat, Prypyat, Prypyat, Prypyat, Pripet, etc. ... Chernobyl area. ...

Constructing and obtaining material for a dirty bomb

In order for a terrorist organization to construct and detonate a dirty bomb, they must first acquire radioactive material either by stealing it or buying through legal or illegal channels. Possible RDD material could come from the millions of radioactive sources used worldwide in the industry, for medical purposes and in academic applications mainly for research [20]. Of these sources, only nine reactor produced isotopes stand out as being suitable for radiological terror: americium-241, californium-252, caesium-137, cobalt-60, iridium-192, plutonium-238, polonium-210, radium-226 and strontium-90 [21], and even from these it is possible that radium-226 and polonium-210 do not pose a significant threat [22]. Of these sources the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has estimated that within the U.S., approximately one source is lost every day of the year either because they are lost, abandoned or stolen. Within the European Union the annual estimate is 70 [23]. There exists thousands of such "orphan" sources scattered throughout the world, but of those reported lost, no more than an estimated 20 percent can be classified as a potential high security concern if used in a RDD [24]. Especially Russia is believed to house thousands of orphan sources, which were lost following the collapse of the Soviet Union. A large but unknown number of these sources probably belong to the high security risk category; noteworthy are the very strong Russian beta emitting strontium-90 sources used as thermoelectric power generators for beacons in lighthouses in remote areas [25]. In December 2001, three Georgian woodcutters stumbled over such a power generator and dragged it back to their camp site to use it as a heat source. Within hours they suffered from acute radiation sickness and sought hospital treatment. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) later stated that it contained an amount of strontium equivalent to the amount of radiation released immediately after the Chernobyl accident [26]. Isotopes are any of the several different forms of an element each having different atomic mass (mass number). ... General Name, Symbol, Number americium, Am, 95 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass (243) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number californium, Cf, 98 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (251) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f10 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 28, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... Caesium-137 is a radioactive isotope which is formed mainly by nuclear fission. ... wikipedia sucks big balls For other uses, see Cobalt (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight (244) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number polonium, Po, 84 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 6, p Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (209) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number radium, Ra, 88 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 7, s Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight (226) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number strontium, Sr, 38 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 5, s Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 87. ... NRC headquarters in Rockville, MD. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (or NRC) is a United States government agency that was established by the Energy Reorganization Act in 1974, and was first opened January 19, 1975. ... The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was established as an autonomous organization on July 29, 1957. ... Chernobyl reactor number four after the disaster, showing the extensive damage to the main reactor hall (image center) and turbine building (image lower left) The Chernobyl nuclear disaster was the worst nuclear accident in the history of nuclear power. ...

The Georgia radioactive device and its containment bucket with handles.
The Georgia radioactive device and its containment bucket with handles.

Although there exists a worry that terrorist organizations might obtain radioactive material through a "black market" [27], and there has been a steady increase in illicit trafficking of radioactive sources from 1996 to 2004, these recorded trafficking incidents mainly refer to rediscovered orphan sources without any sign of criminal activity [28], and it has been argued that there is no real evidence for such a market [29]. In addition to the hurdles of obtaining usable radioactive material, there are several conflicting requirements regarding the properties of the material the terrorists need to take into consideration: First, the source should be "sufficiently" radioactive to create direct radiological damage at the explosion or at least to perform societal damage or disruption. Second, the source should be transportable with enough shielding to protect the carrier but not so much that it will be too heavy to manoeuvre. Third, the source should be sufficiently dispersible to effectively contaminate the area around the explosion [30]. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into underground economy. ...

An example of a worst case scenario is a terror organization possessing a source of very highly radioactive material, e.g. a strontium-90 thermal generator, with the ability to create an incident comparable to the Chernobyl accident. Although the detonation of a dirty bomb using such a source might seem terrifying, it would be hard to assemble the bomb and transport it without severe radiation damage and possible death of the perpetrators involved. Shielding the source effectively would make it almost impossible to transport and a lot less effective if detonated.

Because of the three above mentioned constraints in making an effective dirty bomb, RDDs might still be defined as "high-tech" weapons and this is probably why they have not been used up to now [31].

Possibility of terror groups using dirty bombs

The present assessment of the possibility of terrorists using a dirty bomb is based on cases involving one terrorist organization, namely Al-Qaeda. This is because the attempts by this group to acquire a dirty bomb are the most well-described in the literature, in part due to the attention this group received for the involvement in the 9/11 attacks. Other groups may also be working on acquiring a dirty bomb, but they are not considered here due to the lack of publicly available information. Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ...

On 8 May 2002, José Padilla (a.k.a. Abdulla al-Muhajir) was arrested on suspicion that he was an Al-Qaeda terrorist planning to detonate a dirty bomb in the U.S. This suspicion was raised by information obtained from an arrested top Al-Qaeda official in U.S. custody, Abu Zubaydah, who under interrogation revealed that the organization was close to constructing a dirty bomb. Although Padilla had not obtained any radioactive material at the time of arrest, law enforcement authorities uncovered evidence that he was on reconnaissance for usable radioactive material and possible locations for detonation [32]. It has been doubted whether the alleged plotter, José Padilla, was preparing such an attack, and claimed that the arrest was highly politically motivated given the pre 9/11 security lapses by the CIA and FBI [33]. Later, these charges against José Padilla were dropped. Although there was no hard evidence for Al-Qaeda possessing a dirty bomb, there is a broad agreement that Al-Qaeda poses a potential dirty bomb attack threat [34] because they need to overcome the image that the U.S. and its allies are winning the war against terror [35]. A further concern is the argument, that "if suicide bombers are prepared to die flying airplanes into building, it is also conceivable that they are prepared to forfeit their lives building dirty bombs" [36]. If this would be the case, both the cost and complexity of any protective systems needed to allow the perpetrator to survive long enough to both build the bomb and carry out the attack, would be significantly reduced [37]. José Padilla, shown in a drivers license photo released shortly after his arrest. ... Abu Zubaydah is the highest_ranking al-Qaida leader in U.S. custody Abu Zubaydah (1973 - present) (Arabic: ابو زبيدة) was a high_ranking member of al-Qaida and close associate of Osama bin Laden. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ...

More recently Dhiren Barot from North London pleaded guilty of conspiring to murder innocent people within the United Kingdom and United States using a radioactive dirty bomb. He planned to target underground car parks within the UK and buildings in the U.S. such as the International Monetary Fund, World Bank buildings in Washington D.C., the New York Stock Exchange, Citigroup buildings and the Prudential Financial buildings in Newark, New Jersey. He also faces 12 other charges including, conspiracy to commit public nuisance, seven charges of making a record of information for terrorist purposes and four charges of possessing a record of information for terrorist purposes. Experts say if the plot to use the dirty bomb was carried out "it would have been unlikely to cause deaths, but was designed to affect about 500 people." [1] Dhiren Barot (a. ... Parking lot is the American English term that refers to a cleared area that is more or less level and is intended for parking vehicles. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), nicknamed the Big Board, is a New York City-based stock exchange. ... Citigroup Inc. ... This article refers to Prudential Financial, based in the United States. ... Nickname: Map of Newark in Essex County County Essex Founded/Incorporated 1666/1836 Government  - Mayor Cory Booker, term of office 2006–2010 Area [1]  - City 67. ...

Cultural reactions

  • Dirty War, a 2004 BBC/HBO television film, features the detonation of a dirty bomb next to Liverpool Street tube station in Central London.
  • The novel Babylon Rising, Book 3: The Europa Conspiracy (2005) by Tim LaHaye & Lateef Marks includes a plot to detonate a dirty bomb over the George Washington Bridge.
  • In the first season of NUMB3RS, the episode Dirty Bomb (2005), features a group stealing a nuclear waste truck and threatening to turn it into a dirty bomb
  • In the novel A Very Dirty Business (2006) by Cuger Brant, a dirty bomb is detonated in Tunbridge Wells, Kent, England.
  • In the film Right at Your Door (known in the U.S. as Deliver Us From Evil - 2006), several dirty bombs are detonated in the city of Los Angeles.
  • In the second season of Showtime's Sleeper Cell (2006), a terrorist cell plots to plant a dirty bomb aboard an airplane to be detonated over the city of Los Angeles.
  • In the film Goldfinger, Goldfinger has a dirty bomb that he is going to detonate inside Fort Knox for financial gain by contaminating the contents of Fort Knox, making his own deposits of gold more valuable. The bomb is made up of cobalt and iodine.
  • In the sixth season of the television series 24, a planned nuclear bomb in San Francisco turns into a dirty bomb, as the explosion was prevented but the nuclear components were compromised.
  • In Body Count's Murder 4 Hire (2006), in the song Dirty Bomb Ice-T mocks the hysteria he believes was created by dirty bombs, anthrax, and other threats during the post 9-11 period, which he believes are driven by the media.

Dirty War is a 2004 British Broadcasting Corporation, in association with HBO Films, made-for-TV movie thriller/drama about a terrorist attack on Central London, written by Lizzie Mickery and Daniel Percival. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, which is usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ... HBO (Home Box Office) is the premium television programming subsidiary of Time Warner. ... Liverpool Street station Liverpool Street station, also called London Liverpool Street, is a mainline railway station in the north eastern corner of the City of London, in the heart of the financial district, with entrances on Bishopsgate and Liverpool Street itself. ... Central London is a much-used but unofficial and vaguely defined term for the most inner part of London, the capital of England. ... A panel from Tim LaHaye’s multi-million selling ‘’Left Behind’’ series, depicting the fate LaHaye anticipates for those who do not follow Jesus Christ. ... For the bridge in New York that crosses the Harlem River, see Washington Bridge. ... Numb3rs (Numbers; officially NUMB3RS) is an American television show produced by brothers Ridley Scott and Tony Scott. ... This is a list of Numb3rs episodes for the CBS television series Numb3rs. ... Radioactive waste are waste types containing radioactive chemical elements that do not have a practical purpose. ... , Royal Tunbridge Wells (often called simply Tunbridge Wells) is a Wealden town in west Kent in England, just north of the border with East Sussex. ... The Kent coat of arms For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... Right at Your Door (known in the U.S. as Deliver Us From Evil [1]) is a 2006 American thriller about a dirty bomb detonated in Los Angeles, written and directed by Chris Gorak. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Showtime is a subscription television brand used by a number of channels and platforms around the world, but primarily refers to a group of channels in the United States. ... Sleeper Cell is a one-hour drama on the Showtime network that began airing on December 4, 2005. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Goldfinger is the third film in the James Bond series, and the third to star Sean Connery as the MI6 agent. ... This article is about United States Army post. ... wikipedia sucks big balls For other uses, see Cobalt (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number iodine, I, 53 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 5, p Appearance violet-dark gray, lustrous Standard atomic weight 126. ... 24 is an Emmy and Golden Globe award-winning American television series created by Joel Surnow and Robert Cochran, and produced by Imagine Television. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Body Count is a USA rapmetal and hardcore punk band headed by rapper Ice-T, who always refers to it as being a metal band. ... Murder 4 Hire is the fourth album by Ice-Ts hardcore/thrash band Body Count. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... 9-11 can refer to: The September 11, 2001 attacks A collection of interviews of Noam Chomsky by a variety of European publications and individual interviewers during the month after the September 11, 2001 attacks September 11 (month-day date notation) 9 November (day-month date notation) The North American...


  1. ^ BBC report on Chernobyl
  2. ^ Petroff (2007)
  3. ^ US Deparment of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms (April 2007)
  4. ^ King (2004); NOVA, Chronology of events
  5. ^ Edwards (2004); NOVA, Chronology of events
  6. ^ Frost (2005)
  7. ^ King (2004); Zimmerman and Loeb (2004); Sohier and Hardeman (2006)
  8. ^ Reshetin (2005); Dingle (2005)
  9. ^ Zimmerman and Loeb (2004)
  10. ^ Mullen et al. (2002); Reshetin (2005)
  11. ^ Zimmerman (2006)
  12. ^ Ring (2004)
  13. ^ Johnson (2003)
  14. ^ Zimmerman and Loeb (2004)
  15. ^ Zimmerman and Loeb (2004)
  16. ^ "The Lifeless Silence of Pripyat", Time Magazine, June 23, 1986 Online article from Time Magazine
  17. ^ Vantine and Crites (2002); Zimmerman and Loeb (2004); Weiss (2005)
  18. ^ Zimmerman and Loeb (2004)
  19. ^ Zimmerman and Loeb (2004)
  20. ^ Ferguson et al. (2003); Frost (2005)
  21. ^ Frost (2005)
  22. ^ Ferguson et al. (2003)
  23. ^ Ferguson et al. (2003); Zimmerman and Loeb (2004)
  24. ^ Ferguson et al. (2003)
  25. ^ Burgess (2003); Van Tuyle and Mullen (2003); Sohier and Hardeman (2006)
  26. ^ NOVA, Chronology of events
  27. ^ King (2004); Hoffman (2006)
  28. ^ Frost (2005)
  29. ^ Belyaninov (1994); Frost (2005)
  30. ^ Sohier and Hardeman (2006)
  31. ^ Sohier and Hardeman (2006)
  32. ^ Ferguson et al. (2003); Hosenball et al. (2002)
  33. ^ Burgess (2003); King (2004)
  34. ^ King (2004); Ferguson et al. (2003)
  35. ^ Petroff (2007)
  36. ^ Burgess (2003)
  37. ^ Zimmerman and Loeb (2004)

Adam Curtis at the San Francisco International Film Festival in 2005 Adam Curtis (born 1955) is a British television documentary producer. ... The Power of Nightmares is a BBC documentary film series, written and produced by Adam Curtis. ...

External links


  • Belyaninov, K. (1994), "Nuclear nonsense, black-market bombs, and fissile flim-flam", Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 50 (2): 44-50.
  • Dingle, J. (2005), "DIRTY BOMBS: real threat?", Security 42 (4): 48.
  • Edwards, R. (2004), "Only a matter of time?", New Scientist 182 (2450): 8-9.
  • Ferguson, C.D., Kazi, T. and Perera J. (2003) Commercial Radioactive Sources: Surveying the Security Risks, Monterey Institute of International Studies, Center for Nonproliferation Studies, Occasional Paper #11, ISBN 1-885350-06-6, Webpage with PDF file of paper.
  • Frost, R. M. (2005), Nuclear Terrorism After 9/11, Routledge for The International Institute for Strategic Studies, ISBN 0-415-39992-0.
  • Hoffman, B. (2006), Inside Terrorism, Columbia University Press, N.Y., ISBN 0-231-12698-0.
  • Hosenball, M., Hirsch, M. and Moreau, R. (2002) "War on Terror: Nabbing a "Dirty Bomb" Suspect", Newsweek (Int. ed.), ID: X7835733: 28-33.
  • Johnson, Jr., R.H. (2003), "Facing the Terror of Nuclear Terrorism", Occupational Health & Safety 72 (5): 44-50.
  • King, G. (2004), Dirty Bomb: Weapon of Mass Disruption, Chamberlain Bros., Penguin Group, ISBN 1-59609-000-6.
  • Mullen, E., Van Tuyle, G. and York, R. (2002) "Potential radiological dispersal device (RDD) threats and related technology", Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, 87: 309.
  • Petroff, D.M. (2003), "Responding to 'dirty bombs'", Occupational Health and Safety 72 (9): 82-87.
  • Reshetin, V.P. (2005), "Estimation of radioactivity levels associated with a 90Sr dirty bomb event", Atmospheric Environment 39 (25): 4471-4477.
  • Ring, J.P. (2004), "Radiation Risks and Dirty Bombs", The Radiation Safety Journal, Health Physics 86 (suppl. 1): S42-S47.
  • Sohier, A. and Hardeman, F. (2006) "Radiological Dispersion Devices: are we prepared?", Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 85: 171-181.
  • Van Tuylen, G.J. and Mullen, E. (2003) "Large radiological source applications: RDD implications and proposed alternative technologies", Global 2003: Atoms for Prosperity: Updating Eisenhouwer's Global Vision for Nuclear Energy, LA-UR-03-6281: 622-631, ISBN 0894486772.
  • Vantine, H.C. and Crites, T.R. (2002) "Relevance of nuclear weapons cleanup experience to dirty bomb response", Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, 87: 322-323.
  • Weiss, P. (2005), "Ghost town busters", Science news 168 (18): 282-284.
  • Zimmerman, P.D. and Loeb, C. (2004) "Dirty Bombs: The Threat Revisited", Defense Horizons, 38: 1-11.
  • Zimmerman, P.D. (2006), "The Smoky Bomb Threat", New York Times 156 (53798): 33.

See also

  Results from FactBites:
CNN.com In-Depth Specials (587 words)
A "dirty bomb," also known as a radiological weapon, is a conventional explosive such as dynamite that has been packaged with radioactive material, which scatters when the bomb goes off.
A dirty bomb kills or injures through the initial blast of the conventional explosive and by airborne radiation and contamination -- hence the term "dirty." Such bombs could be miniature devices or as big as a truck bomb.
Depending on the sophistication of the bomb, wind conditions, and the speed with which the area of the attack was evacuated, the number of deaths and injuries from a dirty bomb explosion might not be substantially greater than from a conventional bomb explosion.
Dirty Bombs : Public Health Emergency Preparedness : New York City AWARE : NYC DOHMH (1860 words)
A dirty bomb, or radiological dispersion device, is a bomb that combines common explosives, such as dynamite, with radioactive materials, possibly in the form of powder or pellets.
While people in the immediate area of the explosion could be harmed from the explosion, the main purpose of a dirty bomb is to cause widespread fear and make buildings or land unusable for a long period of time.
It is unlikely that the amount of radioactive dirt and dust scattered by a dirty bomb would be enough to cause severe illness.
  More results at FactBites »



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