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Encyclopedia > Director telephone system
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The Director System was introduced to six cities in the UK from 1922 following the introduction of the automatic telephone exchange in the UK in 1912. [1]. It involved a device (the director) which received dialled digits and automatically translated them to route calls between exchanges in the city; in modern parlance a director incorporated a register-translator and a digit store. Directors were applied to step-by-step switching equipment; crossbar and, later, electronic switches of necessity had such capabilities built into them. Jump to: navigation, search 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... central office = Exchange building in the U.S. telephone exchange = Exchange building in the UK, and is also the UK name for a telephone switch, and also has a technical meaning in U.S. telecoms telephone switch is the U.S. term, but is in increasing use in technical UK... 1912 was a leap year starting on Monday. ...


Each subscriber was given a seven digit number where the first three digits corresponded to the local exchange name, and were chosen to give the name a meaningful mnemonic. This was done by linking each number on the telephone dial to letters: Jump to: navigation, search A mnemonic (pronounced in American English, in British English) is a memory aid. ...

  • 1
  • 2 ABC
  • 3 DEF
  • 4 GHI
  • 5 JKL
  • 6 MN
  • 7 PRS
  • 8 TUV
  • 9 WXY
  • 0 OQ

Thus a subscriber in Wimbledon would be allocated the number WIMbledon 1234; the first three letters, written in capitals, indicated the code to be dialled. The actual trains of pulses from the subscriber's dial would, of course, be 946 1234. As the code (946 in this example) was the same from any telephone in the London director area, this uniformity is an example of a linked numbering scheme. Jump to: navigation, search Wimbledon may refer to: Wimbledon, London, a town in south-west London A constituency based around it, Wimbledon (UK Parliament constituency) Wimbledon station, a train station The Championships, Wimbledon, one of the four Grand Slam tennis tournaments Wimbledon (film), a movie based on the tennis championships... A Linked Numbering Scheme (LNS) is a telephone numbering plan applied to an area of the country where calling between lines on a number of adjacent exchanges is done without using a dialling code. ...


The Director system was adopted by the GPO as a solution for the reorganisation of the London telephone area which would use the existing expertise in step-by-step switching. Western Electric in the U.S. had produced the common-control Panel system for equipping cities, but its basic switching module (the Panel) was comparatively large and the system was for economic reasons far better suited to business than to residential areas. Director switching, by contrast, had much smaller switching modules with distributed control; these could be used economically in suburban areas where the rate of line provision was comparatively light and calling rates were low, as well as in the central business district, which in London meant the City of London. The term General Post Office is used by a number of postal administrations worldwide. ... Jump to: navigation, search Western Electric (sometimes abbreviated WECo) was a US electrical engineering company, the manufacturing arm of AT&T from 1881 to 1995 . ... Jump to: navigation, search The eastern side of the City of London viewed from St. ...


A director translated the first three digits of the subscriber number to a much longer string, which could consist of from one to six digits. These stepped the selectors at the intermediate exchanges on the route giving access to the target exchange. The remaining digits were then forwarded unchanged, to step the local numerical selectors at the target exchange.


With the introduction of Subscriber Trunk Dialling (STD) each city with a Director system was given a 3 digit code where the second digit corresponded to the first letter of the cities name on the telephone dial, with the exception of London which was given a 2 digit code "01": Jump to: navigation, search Subscriber trunk dialling (STD) (also known as subscriber toll dialling) is an obsolete term for the UK telephone system allowing subscribers to dial trunk calls without operator assistance. ...

  • 01 London
  • 021 Birmingham
  • 031 Edinburgh
  • 041 Glasgow
  • 051 Liverpool
  • 061 Manchester

It became increasingly difficult to make meaningful names from number combinations, and names of notable local figures often substituted for abbreviated placenames. The use of letter mnemonics had to be dropped in favour of all figure numbering in 1966. 1966 was a common year starting on Saturday (link goes to calendar) // Events January January 1 - In a coup, Colonel Jean-Bédel Bokassa ousts president David Dacko and takes over the Central African Republic. ...


Calls from Ireland

Until 1992, calls to these cities from Ireland were made using the following codes: Jump to: navigation, search 1992 was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ...

  • 031 London
  • 032 Birmingham
  • 033 Edinburgh
  • 034 Glasgow
  • 035 Liverpool
  • 036 Manchester

In that year, this changed to dialling in the international format 00 44, and the 03 range was withdrawn from use.


Director systems in the US

In the United States, most large cities did not use step-by-step equipment, but Los Angeles was a major exception. Before the advent of electronic switching, directors were commonly used in areas of the city served by GTE. This article is about the largest city in California. ... Categories: Corporation stubs | Communications companies of the United States | Defunct companies | Telephone companies | Public Utilities ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Director telephone system (1227 words)
The Director System was introduced to six cities in the UK from 1922 following the introduction of the automatic telephone exchange in the UK in 1912.
The Director system was adopted by the GPO as a solution for the reorganisation of the London telephone area which would use the existing expertise in step-by-step switching.
Director switching, by contrast, had much smaller switching modules with distributed control; these could be used economically in suburban areas where the rate of line provision was comparatively light and calling rates were low, as well as in the central business district, which in London meant the City of London.
Director telephone system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (569 words)
The Director system was adopted by the GPO as a solution for the reorganisation of the London telephone area which would use the existing expertise in step-by-step switching.
Director switching, by contrast, had much smaller switching modules with distributed control; these could be used economically in suburban areas where the rate of line provision was comparatively light and calling rates were low, as well as in the central business district, which in London meant the City of London.
Director systems in the US In the United States, most large cities did not use step-by-step equipment, but Los Angeles was a major exception.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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