FACTOID # 10: The total number of state executions in 2005 was 60: 19 in Texas and 41 elsewhere. The racial split was 19 Black and 41 White.
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
People who viewed "Directives" also viewed:


FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:



(* = Graphable)



Encyclopedia > Directives

The legislative acts of the European Union (EU) can have different forms: regulations, directives, decisions, recommendations and opinions.

A directive fixes the objectives to be pursued by the EU member states, but leaves freedom of choice for the ways of obtaining them (maintaining an obligation to achieve the result): "A directive shall be binding, as to the result to be achieved, upon each Member State to which it is addressed, but shall leave to the national authorities the choice of form and methods." (art. 249 ex.189).

In practice, with the exception of directives related to the common agricultural policy, the Union 'addresses' directives to all member states, and specifies a date by which the states must have put the directive into effect. Individual states frequently miss these deadlines, and when the deadlines slip badly, the European Commission can and does commence proceedings in the European Court of Justice against the countries involved.

Through its case law, the European Court of Justice has provided guidelines for member state judges on how to deal with cases where directives have not been transposed into national law, or have been transposed incorrectly.

  • When national law has multiple possible interpretations, the judge must choose the interpretation that conforms with EU law. This rule also applies to directives not yet transposed into national law.
  • In cases against the state or any state body, directives have 'direct effect'. A state that hasn't transposed a directive on time may not invoke this to its own benefit. 'Direct effect' only applies to rules that are sufficiently clear.
  • Citizens can sue the state for damages caused because of tardy transposition.

This process under which most directives are negotiated between the European Commission which issues the proposal, the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union is called Codecision procedure.

The justification for a directive has to be the needed Harmonisation to reduce market barriers and help to create a European single market.

How each country puts the directive into effect depends on their legal structure, and may vary. For example, in the UK most directives are brought in via statutory instruments but some directives create such major changes to the law that Parliament passes a separate Act to incorporate the changes.

External links

  • UK House of Commons: Report of the EU Legislative Process and scrutiny by national parliaments (http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200102/cmselect/cmeuleg/152-xxxiii/15201.htm).
  • EUR-LEX, European Union Law (http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/).

  Results from FactBites:
California Code of Regulations, Title 8, Section5621. Electrical Equipment. (661 words)
Area between 3 feet and 15 feet from edge of dome,extending in all directions.
Area between 3 feet and 15 feet from point of venting to atmosphere, extending in all directions.
Area between 3 feet and 15 feet from open end of vent, extending in all directions.
BERKELEY / Eyes like dragonfly's developed in UC lab / Team builds device that can see in all directions at once (565 words)
A UC Berkeley engineer, entranced by the uncanny ability of insects like dragonflies and bumblebees to peer in all directions at once, has for the first time created microscopic versions of their compound eyes in the laboratory.
Luke Lee, professor of bioengineering and leader of a research team he calls the Bio-Poets, is reporting today that his synthetic devices made of complex plastic materials can "see" in all directions simultaneously, and could well find uses in fields as varied as medicine, 3-D cameras and even espionage.
The bulbous compound eyes of many insects contain thousands of individual lenses, each of which sees in a single direction, but whose images are melded into a single, wide-angle view that allows the insect to survey its entire neighborhood at once.
  More results at FactBites »



Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m