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Encyclopedia > Direct Broadcast Satellite

Direct broadcast satellite (DBS) is a term used to refer to satellite television broadcasts intended for home reception, also referred to as direct-to-home signals. It covers both analog and digital television and radio reception, and is often extended to other services provided by modern digital television systems, including video-on-demand and interactive features. A "DBS service" usually refers to either a commercial service, or a group of free channels available from one orbital position targeting one country. Artists impression of a Boeing 601 satellite, as configured for digital television transmission by SES Astra Satellite television is television delivered by way of communications satellites, as compared to conventional terrestrial television and cable television. ... Video on demand (VOD) systems allow users to select and watch video content over a network as part of an interactive television system. ... Interactive television describes any number of efforts to allow viewers to interact with television content as they view. ...

Contents

Terminology confusion

In certain regions of the world, especially in North America, DBS is used to refer to providers of subscription satellite packages, and has become applied to the entire equipment chain involved. With modern satellite providers in the United States using high power Ku-band transmissions using circular polarization, which result in small dishes, and digital compression (hence bringing in an alternative term, Digital Satellite System, itself likely connected to the proprietary encoding system used by DirecTV, Digital Satellite Service), DBS is often misused to refer to these. DBS systems are often driven by pay television providers, which drives further confusion. Additionally, in some areas it is used to refer to specific segments of the Ku-band, normally 12.2 to 12.7 GHz, as this bandwidth is often referred to as DBS or one of its synonyms. In comparison, European "Ku band" DBS systems can drop as low as 10.7 GHz, which is in fact in the X band. This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... In electrodynamics, circular polarization of electromagnetic radiation is a polarization such that the tip of the electric field vector, at a fixed point in space, describes a circle as time progresses. ... A standard DIRECTV satellite dish with 1 LNB on a roof DirecTV is a direct broadcast satellite (DBS) service based in El Segundo, California, that transmits digital satellite television and audio to households in the United States. ... Digital Satellite Service is the assumed acronym expansion of the DSS digital satellite television transmission system used by DirecTV. Only when digital transmission was introduced did direct broadcast satellite television become popular in North America, which has lead to both DBS and DSS being used interchangable to refer to all... Pay television, or pay-TV, usually refers to subscription-based television services, usually provided by both analogue and digital cable and satellite, but also increasingly by digital terrestrial methods. ... The X band (3-cm radar spot-band) of the microwave band of the electromagnetic spectrum roughly ranges from 5. ...


Adding to the naming complexity, the ITU's original frequency allocation plan for Europe, the Soviet Union and Northern Africa from 1977 introduced a concept of extremely high power spot-beam broadcasting (see Ekran satellite) which they termed DBS, although only a handful of the participating countries even went as far as to launch satellites under this plan, even fewer operated anything resembling a DBS service. This article is about the location. ... World map showing Europe Political map (neighbouring countries in Asia and Africa also shown) Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | North Africa ... Ekran (Экран, Screen) was a Soviet-Russian type of geostationary satellite, developed for a national system of Direct-To-Home television. ...


Commercial DBS services

The first commercial DBS service, Sky Television plc (now BSkyB), was launched in 1989. Sky TV started as a four-channel free-to-air analogue service on the Astra 1A satellite, serving the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland. By 1991, Sky had changed to a conditional access pay model, and launched a digital service, Sky Digital, in 1998, with analogue transmission ceasing in 2001. Since the DBS nomenclature is rarely used in the UK or Ireland, the popularity of Sky's service has caused the terms "minidish" and "digibox" to be applied to products other than Sky's hardware. BSkyB is controlled by News Corporation. Sky Television corporate identity from 1989, maintained by British Sky Broadcasting until 1995 Sky Television plc was a four-channel satellite television service launched by Rupert Murdochs News International on February 5, 1989. ... British Sky Broadcasting (BSkyB — formerly two companies, Sky Television and BSB) is a company that operates Sky Digital, the most popular subscription television service in the UK and Ireland. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Channel, in communications (sometimes called communications channel), refers to the medium through which information is transmitted from a sender (or transmitter) to a receiver. ... Free-to-air is a phrase used to describe television and radio broadcasts which are available without subscription and without decryption (pay-TV). ... Astra 1A was the first satellite launched and operated by Société Européenne des Satellites (SES), now SES Astra. ... U.S. military MILSTAR communications satellite A communications satellite (sometimes abbreviated to comsat) is an artificial satellite stationed in space for the purposes of telecommunications. ... Conditional access (CA) is the protection of content by requiring certain criteria to be met before granting access to the content. ... Sky Digital is the brand name for British Sky Broadcastings digital satellite television service, transmitted from SES Astra satellites located at 28. ... The Minidish is the tradename used for the small-sized satellite dish used by Sky Digital. ... The Digibox is a device marketed by Sky Television in the UK to enable home users to receive digital satellite television broadcasts (satellite receiver). ... News Corporation (abbreviated to News Corp) (NYSE: NWS) is one of the worlds largest media conglomerates. ...


PrimeStar began transmitting an analog service to North America in 1991, and was joined by DirecTV Group's DirecTV, in 1994. At the time, DirecTV's introduction was the most successful consumer electronics debut in American history. Although PrimeStar transitioned to a digital system in 1994, it was ultimately unable to compete with DirecTV, which required a smaller satellite dish and could deliver more programming. DirecTV eventually purchased PrimeStar in 1999 and migrated all PrimeStar subscribers to DirecTV equipment. In 2003, News Corporation purchased a controlling interest in DirecTV's parent company, Hughes Electronics, and renamed the company DirecTV Group. PrimeStar is a now-defunct U.S. direct broadcast satellite organization formed in 1991. ... DirecTV Group Inc. ... A standard DIRECTV satellite dish with 1 LNB on a roof DirecTV is a direct broadcast satellite (DBS) service based in El Segundo, California, that transmits digital satellite television and audio to households in the United States. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... Consumer electronics is electronic equipment intended for use by everyday people. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... News Corporation (abbreviated to News Corp) (NYSE: NWS) is one of the worlds largest media conglomerates. ... Hughes Electronics Corporation was formed in 1985 when Hughes Aircraft was sold by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute to General Motors for $5 billion. ... DirecTV Group Inc. ...


In 1996, EchoStar's Dish Network went online in the United States and, as DirecTV's primary competitor, achieved similar success. AlphaStar also launched but soon went under. 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... Echostar Communications Corporation (NASDAQ: DISH) is the parent company of Dish Network and the maintainer of the satellite fleet that provides the signal which Dish Network markets. ... DISH Network is a direct broadcast satellite (DBS) service that provides satellite television and audio programming to households and businesses in the United States, owned by parent company EchoStar Communications Corporation (NASDAQ: DISH). ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ...


Dominion Video Satellite Inc.'s Sky Angel also went online in the United States in 1996 with its DBS service geared toward the faith and family market. It has since grown from six to 36 TV and radio channels of family entertainment, Christian-inspirational programming and 24-hour news. Dominion, under its former corporate name Video Satellite Systems Inc., was actually the second from among the first nine companies to apply to the FCC for a high-power DBS license in 1981 and is the sole surviving DBS pioneer from that first round of forward-thinking applicants. Sky Angel, although a separate and independent DBS service, uses the satellites, transmission facilities, & receiving equipment used for Dish Network through an agreement with Echostar. Because of this, Sky Angel subscribers also have the option of subscribing to Dish Network's channels as well. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


In 2003, EchoStar attempted to purchase DirecTV, but the U.S. Department of Justice denied the purchase based on anti-competitive concerns.


Free DBS services

Germany is likely the leader in free-to-air DBS, with approximately 40 analogue and 100 digital channels broadcast from the SES Astra 1 position at 19.2E. These are not marketed as a DBS service, but are received in approximately 12 million homes, as well as in any home using the German commercial DBS system, Premiere. Free-to-air is a phrase used to describe television and radio broadcasts which are available without subscription and without decryption (pay-TV). ... SES Astra SA, a subsidiary of SES Global, is a Luxembourg-based corporation which owns and operates the Astra series of geostationary satellites, which transmit approximately 1100 analogue and digital television and radio channels via 176 transponders to 91 million households across Europe. ...


The United Kingdom has approximately 90 free-to-air digital channels, for which a promotional and marketing plan is being devised by the BBC and ITV, to be sold as "Freesat". It is intended to provide a multi-channel service for areas which cannot receive Freeview, and eventually replace their network of UHF repeaters in these areas The British Broadcasting Corporation, invariably known as the BBC (and also informally known as the Beeb or Auntie) is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world, employing 26,000 staff in the UK alone and with a budget of £4 billion. ... ITV (Independent Television) is the name given to the original network of British commercial television broadcasters, set up under the Independent Television Authority (ITA) to provide competition to the BBC. In England, Wales and southern Scotland, the channel has been rebranded to ITV1 by ITV plc, the owners of the... FreeSat is a service similar to Freeview that the BBC and ITV is planning to launch in 2006 on Digital Satellite. ... FreeView is a non-profit free-to-air digital television service planned for New Zealand. ...


India's national broadcaster, Doordarshan, promotes a free-to-air DBS package as "DD Direct +", which is provided as in-fill for the country's terrestrial transmission network. Doordarshan (दूरदर्शन) is a public broadcast terrestrial television channel run by Prasar Bharati, a board nominated by the Government of India. ...


While originally launched as backhaul for their digital terrestrial television service, a large number of French channels are free-to-air on 5W, and have recently been announced as being official in-fill for the DTT network. (Note - this refers to present TV usage, mainly in the USA. In the UK backhaul often means the optical fibre connection from the DSL equipment (DSLAM etc) in a telephone exchange back to the core network). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Digital television. ...


In North America (USA, Canada and Mexico) there are over 80 FTA digital channels available on Intelsat Americas 5, the majority of them are ethnic or religious. Other popular FTA satellites include AMC-4, AMC-6, Galaxy 10R and SatMex 5. A company called GloryStar promotes FTA religious broadcasters on IA-5 and AMC-4. World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... GloryStar Satellite Systems provides direct to home (DTH) satellite reception equipment to viewers of many of the world’s largest Christian broadcast ministries. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Direct Broadcast Satellite (6934 words)
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