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Encyclopedia > Dire Wolf
Dire Wolf

Conservation status
Prehistoric
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Canidae
Genus: Canis
Species: C. dirus
Binomial name
Canis dirus
Leidy, 1858

The Dire Wolf (Canis dirus) is an extinct member of the genus Canis (which contains the other wolves, the Coyote, jackals, and the other canines), and was most common in North America during the Pleistocene. Although it was closely related to the Gray Wolf, it was not the direct ancestor of any species known today. The Dire Wolf co-existed with the Gray Wolf in North America for about 100,000 years. They were one of the abundant Pleistocene megafauna—a wide variety of very large mammals that lived during the Pleistocene. Approximately 10,000 years ago, the Dire Wolf became extinct along with most other North American megafauna. Dire Wolf fossils at the National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC; digital photo taken by User:Postdlf, 2/20/05 {GFDL}} File links The following pages link to this file: Dire Wolf User:Postdlf/images ... Inside the National Museum of Natural History, underneath the rotunda. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in female mammary glands and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in... Families 17, See classification The diverse order Carnivora (IPA: or ; from Latin carō (stem carn-) flesh, + vorāre to devour) includes over 260 species of placental mammals. ... Genera Alopex Atelocynus Canis Cerdocyon Chrysocyon Cuon Cynotherium † Dusicyon † Dasycyon † Fennecus (Part of Vulpes) Lycalopex (Part of Pseudalopex) Lycaon Nyctereutes Otocyon Pseudalopex Speothos Urocyon Vulpes The Canidae (′kanə′dÄ“) family is a part of the order Carnivora within the mammals (Class Mammalia). ... Species Canis adustus Canis aureus Canis dirus (extinct) Canis latrans Canis lupus Canis mesomelas Canis simensis   † also includes dogs. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Joseph Leidy (1823–1891) was an American paleontologist. ... 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... BattleMechs from cover of the book The Legend of the Jade Phoenix by Robert Thurston BattleMechs (often abbreviated Mechs) are large walking war machines that feature prominently in the fictional universe of BattleTech. ... In the BattleTech universe and its related MechWarrior game series, the Dire Wolf class OmniMech was christened the Daishi (A mistranslation of Great Death into Japanese) by a member of the Draconis Combine. ... The Dodo, shown here in a 1651 illustration by Jan Savery, is an often-cited[1] example of modern extinction. ... Species Canis adustus Canis aureus Canis dirus (extinct) Canis latrans Canis lupus Canis mesomelas Canis simensis   † also includes dogs. ... Wolf Wolf Man Mount Wolf Wolf Prizes Wolf Spider Wolf 424 Wolf 359 Wolf Point Wolf-herring Frank Wolf Friedrich Wolf Friedrich August Wolf Hugo Wolf Johannes Wolf Julius Wolf Max Franz Joseph Cornelius Wolf Maximilian Wolf Rudolf Wolf Thomas Wolf As Name Wolf Breidenbach Wolf Hirshorn Other The call... Binomial name Say, 1823 Coyote range The coyote (Canis latrans) also known as the prairie wolf [2]) is a mammal of the order carnivora. ... Species Canis aureus Canis adustus Canis mesomelas A jackal (from Turkish çakal, via Persian shaghal ultimately from Sanskrit sá¹›gālaḥ [1][2]) is any of three (sometimes four) small to medium-sized members of the family Canidae, found in Africa, Asia and Southeastern Europe. ... A canine may refer to: a canine tooth. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... “Gray Wolves” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that New World Pleistocene extinctions be merged into this article or section. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in female mammary glands and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in...


The first specimen of a Dire Wolf was found by Francis A. Linck at the mouth of Pigeon Creek along the Ohio River near Evansville, Indiana in 1854, but the vast majority of fossils recovered have been from the La Brea Tar Pits in California. Nickname: Location in the state of Indiana Country United States State Indiana County Vanderburgh Government  - Mayor Jonathan Weinzapfel (D) Area  - City 40. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles Countys Miracle Mile District. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...

Contents

Characteristics

The Dire Wolf was larger than the Gray Wolf, the largest living wild canid. It averaged about 1.5 metres (5 feet) in length and weighed about 57-79 kilograms (125-175 pounds).


Despite superficial similarities in appearance, there were significant differences between the two species. The legs of the Dire Wolf were proportionally shorter and sturdier than those of the Gray Wolf, which suggests that the Dire Wolf was a poorer runner, and may have scavenged for food or hunted large, slower-moving prey. The hierarchy of scientific classification. ...


The Dire Wolf had a larger, broader head and smaller brain-case than that of a similarly-sized Gray Wolf, and had teeth that were quite massive. Many paleontologists think that the Dire Wolf may have used its relatively large teeth to crush bone, an idea that is supported by the frequency of large amounts of wear on the crowns of their fossilized teeth. Dire Wolf skeletons have been found bearing healed and half-healed injuries similar to the ones found on modern wolves who have been injured while hunting large prey such as bison or horses. This suggests that the Dire Wolf also hunted for large, live prey.


Evolution and extinction

The fossil record suggests that the genus Canis diverged from the small, foxlike Leptocyon in North America sometime in the Late Miocene Epoch 9 to 10 million years ago (Ma), along with two other genera, Urocyon, and Vulpes. Canids soon spread to Asia and Europe (8 Ma) and become the ancestors of modern wolves, jackals, foxes, and the Raccoon Dog. By 4–5 Ma, canids had spread to Africa (Early Pliocene) and South America (Late Pliocene). Leptocyon is an ancient, extinct ancestor of todays foxes and dogs. ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... A division of geologic time less than a period and greater than an age. ... Annum is a Latin noun meaning year. ... Species Urocyon cinereoargenteus Urocyon littoralis The genus Urocyon is a genus contains two (possibly three) Western Hemisphere foxes in the family Canidae, the Gray Fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and the closely-related Island Fox (Urocyon littoralis). ... Species Vulpes bengalensis Vulpes cana Vulpes chama Vulpes corsac Vulpes ferrilata Vulpes lagopus Vulpes macrotis Vulpes pallida Vulpes rueppelli Vulpes velox Vulpes vulpes Vulpes zerda Vulpes is a genus of the Canidae family. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... It has been suggested that tanuki be merged into this article or section. ... The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ...


Over the next nine million years, extensive development and diversification of the North American wolves took place, and by the Mid-Pleistocene (800,000 years ago) Canis ambrusteri appeared and spread across North and South America. It soon disappeared from North America, but probably continued to survive in South America to become the ancestor of the Dire Wolf. (However there is some evidence to suggest that the Dire Wolf may have arisen from other small South American wolves.) The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


During the Late Pleistocene (300,000 years ago) the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) crossed into North America via the Bering Strait land bridge. By 100,000 years ago the Dire Wolf also appeared in North America (probably from South America). Late Pleistocene (also known as Upper Pleistocene or the Tarantian) is a stage of the Pleistocene Epoch. ... Nautical chart of Bering Strait, site of former land bridge between Asia and North America The Bering land bridge, also known as Beringia, was a land bridge roughly 1600 km (1000 miles) north to south at its greatest extent, which joined present-day Alaska and eastern Siberia at various times...


Starting about 16,000 years ago, coinciding with the end of the most recent Ice Age and the arrival of humans in North America, most of the large mammals upon which the Dire Wolf depended for prey began to die out (possibly as a result of climate and/or human-induced changes). Slower than the other wolf species on the continent at the time, primarily the Gray Wolf and Red Wolf, it could not hunt the swifter species that remained and was forced to subsist on scavenging. By 10,000 years ago, the large mammals and the Dire Wolf were extinct, although some fossils found in Arkansas suggest that they may have lived as a relic population in the Ozark mountains as recently as 4,000 years ago. Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... It has been suggested that Charismatic megafauna be merged into this article or section. ... “Gray Wolves” redirects here. ... Binomial name Audubon & Bachman, 1851 The Red Wolf (Canis rufus) is a mammal of the order carnivora. ... Official language(s) English Capital Little Rock Largest city Little Rock Largest metro area Little Rock Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 29th  - Total 53,179 sq mi (137,002 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 261 miles (420 km)  - % water 2. ... A relic is an object, especially a piece of the body or a personal item of someone of religious significance, carefully preserved with an air of veneration as a tangible memorial, Relics are an important aspect of Buddhism, some denominations of Christianity, Hinduism, shamanism, and many other personal belief systems. ... Ozark redirects here. ...


La Brea Tar Pits

A display of some of the thousands of Dire Wolf skulls found in the La Brea tar pits
A display of some of the thousands of Dire Wolf skulls found in the La Brea tar pits

The Dire Wolf is best known for its unusually high representation in the La Brea Tar Pits in California. In total, fossils from more than 3,600 individual Dire Wolves have been recovered from the tar pits, more than any other mammal species. This large number suggests that the Dire Wolf, like modern wolves and dogs, probably hunted in packs. It also gives some insight into the pressures placed on the species near the end of its existence. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x853, 348 KB) Summary Description: Picture of a display of dire wolf skulls at the La Brea tar pits Source: own work Date: 2005-08-01 Author: Pyry Matikainen (pmatikainen) Permission: Licensed under CC-By-SA-2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x853, 348 KB) Summary Description: Picture of a display of dire wolf skulls at the La Brea tar pits Source: own work Date: 2005-08-01 Author: Pyry Matikainen (pmatikainen) Permission: Licensed under CC-By-SA-2. ... La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles Countys Miracle Mile District. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... The Dodo, shown here in a 1651 illustration by Jan Savery, is an often-cited[1] example of modern extinction. ...


Evansville Dire Wolf

The type specimen of the Dire Wolf was found in Evansville, Indiana in the summer of 1854, when the Ohio River was quite low. The specimen, a fossilized jawbone, was obtained by Dr. Joseph Granville Norwood from an Evansville collector named Francis A. Linck. Dr. Norwood, who at that time was the first state geologist of Illinois, sent the specimen to Joseph Leidy at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Dr. Leidy determined that the specimen represented an extinct species of wolf and published a note to that effect in November 1854. In a publication dated 1858, Leidy assigned the name Canis dirus. Type specimens When a new species is discovered, more important than creating a new and unique name for the species is developing a reasonably detailed description. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Indiana Country United States State Indiana County Vanderburgh Government  - Mayor Jonathan Weinzapfel (D) Area  - City 40. ... View of Pittsburgh, the largest metropolitan area on the Ohio River, where the Allegheny River (left) and the Monongahela River (right) join at Point State Park to form the Ohio River Cincinnati, Ohio is a well known city along the Ohio River, historically known for its riverboats. ...


Dr. Norwood's letters to Dr. Leidy, as well as the type specimen itself, are preserved at the Academy in Philadelphia, although one of the letters indicates that the specimen was to be returned to Linck's family, as Linck himself died in August 1854.


See also

// Prepleistocene extinctions A large number of historical orders are extinct, for example dinosaurs, pterosaurs and ammonites. ...

References

Clark Kimberling 1996, "David Dale Owen and Joseph Granville Norwood: Pioneer Geologists in Indiana and Illinois," Indiana Magazine of History 62 (March 1996), Indiana University, pages 2-25.


External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Dire Wolf - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (888 words)
The first specimen of a Dire Wolf was found by Francis Lick on the banks of the Ohio River near Evansville, Indiana in 1854, but the vast majority of fossils recovered have been from the La Brea Tar Pits in California.
The legs of the Dire Wolf were proportionally shorter and sturdier than those of the Gray Wolf, which suggests that the Dire Wolf was a poorer runner, and that like the hyenas, the Dire Wolf may have scavenged for food or hunted large, slower-moving prey.
Dire Wolf is the clans name for the OmniMech Daishi in the Battletech universe.
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