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Encyclopedia > Diprotodontia
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Diprototdonita
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Diprotodontia
Owen, 1866
Suborders

Vombatiformes
Phalangeriformes
Macropodiformes Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Phyla Porifera (sponges) Ctenophora (comb jellies) Cnidaria Placozoa Subregnum Bilateria  Acoelomorpha  Orthonectida  Rhombozoa  Myxozoa  Superphylum Deuterostomia     Chordata (vertebrates, etc. ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascideiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary... Sir Richard Owen and Dinornis bird skeleton Sir Richard Owen (July 20, 1804 - December 18, 1892) was an English biologist, comparative anatomist and palaeontologist. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Families Phascolarctidae Vombatidae Vombatiformes is one of the two suborders of the large marsupial order Diprotodontia. ...

Diprotodontia is a large taxon of about 120 marsupial mammals including the kangaroos, wallabies, possums, Koala, wombats, and many others. Extinct members include the giant Diprotodon family, and Thylacoleo, the so-called "marsupial lion". Orders Superorder Ameridelphia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Superorder Australidelphia Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Marsupials are mammals in which the female typically has a pouch (called the marsupium, from which the name Marsupial derives) in which it rears its young through early infancy. ... Species Macropus rufus Macropus giganteus Macropus fuliginosus A Kangaroo seen in Canberra A kangaroo is any of several large macropods (the marsupial family that also includes the wallabies, tree kangaroos, wallaroos, pademelons and the quokka: 45 species in all). ... For the Australian national Rugby Union team, nicknamed the Wallabies, see Australia national rugby union team. ... A possum is any of about 25 small to medium-sized arboreal marsupials native to Australia. ... Binomial name Phascolarctos cinereus (Goldfuss, 1817) The Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus; sometimes also spelled Phascolarctus cinereus) is a thickset arboreal marsupial herbivore endemic to Australia, and the only representative of its family, Phascolarctidae. ... Genera and Species Vombatus É. Geoffroy, 1803 Vombatus ursinus (Shaw, 1800) Lasiorhinus Gray, 1863 Lasiorhinus latifrons (Owen, 1845) Lasiorhinus krefftii Owen, 1873 Wombats are Australian marsupials in appearance rather like a small, very short-legged and muscular bear approximately one meter in length, and with a mere nubbin of a tail. ... Species Diprotodon opatum Diprotodon minor Diprotodon loderi Diprotodon annextans Diprotodons were the largest marsupials that ever lived. ... Binomial name Thylacoleo carnifex (Owen, 1858) The Marsupial Lion (Thylacoleo carnifex) is an extinct species of carnivorous marsupial, that lived in Australia from about 24 million years ago, during the late Oligocene, and became extinct about 50,000 years ago, at the end of the last ice age. ...


Diprotodonts are almost all herbivorous: there are a few insectivores and omnivores, but these seem to be relatively recent adaptations from the mainstream herbivorous mould.


Diprotodonts are restricted to Australasia. The earliest known fossils date to the late Oligocene. However it is certain that their genesis lies earlier than that: there are large gaps in Australia's fossil record and virtually no record at all in geologically active New Guinea; the great diversity of known Oligocene diprotodonts suggests that they began to diverge from one well beforehand. Australasia is the area that includes Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea, and the many smaller islands in the vicinity, most of which are the eastern part of Indonesia. ... The Oligocene epoch is a geologic period of time that extends from about 34 million to 23 million years before the present. ...


Many of the largest and least atheletic diprotodonts (along with a wide range of other Australian megafauna) became extinct when humans first arrived in Australia about 50,000 years ago, possibly as a direct result of hunting, but more probably as a result of widespread habitat changes brought about by human activity, fire in particular. Megafauna are the large animals of any particular region or time. ...

A young Western Grey Kangaroo shows its diprotodont lower teeth
Enlarge
A young Western Grey Kangaroo shows its diprotodont lower teeth

There are two key anatomical features that, in combination, identify the diprotodonts. The first of these is that they are diprotodont: they have a pair of large, procumbent incisors on the lower jaw. This is a common feature of many early groups of mammals and mammaliforms. The diprotodont jaw is short, usually with 3 pairs of upper incisors (wombats, like rodents have only one pair), and no lower canines. Download high resolution version (909x716, 124 KB)my own photo File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (909x716, 124 KB)my own photo File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Binomial name Macropus fuliginosus The Western Grey Kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosis) is a large and very common macropod, found across almost the entire southern part of Australia, from just south of Shark Bay to coastal South Australia, western Victoria, and the entire Murray-Darling Basin in New South Wales and Queensland. ... Families See Classification Section The order Rodentia is the most numerous of all the branches on the mammal family tree. ...


Secondly, diprotodonts exhibit syndactyly: they have the second and third digits of the foot fused together up to the base of the claws, leaving the claws themselves separate. Digit 5 (the hallux) is usually absent, and digit 4 is often greatly enlarged.


Syndactyly is not a particularly common condition (though the Australian omnivorous marsupials share it) and is usually explained as an adaptation to a climbing lifestyle. Many modern diprotodonts, however, are strictly terrestrial, and have extensive further adaptations to the feet to suit that lifestyle. This makes the history of the tree kangaroos particularly convoluted: it appears that they had an aboreal lifestyle at some time in the far distant past, then became adapted to a terrestrial existence, developing their very long kangaroo feet, and finally returned to the trees once more, complete with a shortening and broadening of the hind feet and a novel climbing method. Families: Peroryctidae Peramelidae The order Peramelemorphia includes the bandicoots and bilbies: it equates approximately to the mainstream of marsupial omnivores. ... Species About 9; see text. ...


Order Diprotodontia

A typical diprotodont foot. Note the very large 4th toe and the tiny fused toes
Enlarge
A typical diprotodont foot. Note the very large 4th toe and the tiny fused toes

Families Phascolarctidae Vombatidae Vombatiformes is one of the two suborders of the large marsupial order Diprotodontia. ... Binomial name Phascolarctos cinereus Goldfuss, 1817 The Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus; sometimes also spelled Phascolarctus cinereus) is a thickset arboreal marsupial herbivore endemic to Australia, and the only representative of its family, Phascolarctidae. ... Binomial name Vombatus ursinus Shaw, 1800 The wombat is an Australian marsupial in appearance rather like a small, very short-legged and muscular bear approximately 1 metre in length, and with a mere nubbin of a tail. ... my own picture File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... my own picture File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A possum is any of about 25 small to medium-sized arboreal marsupials native to Australia. ... A possum is any of about 25 small to medium-sized arboreal marsupials native to Australia. ... Binomial name Tarsipes rostratus Gervais & Verreaux, 1842 The Honey Possum (Tarsipes rostratus) or Noolbenger is a tiny Australian marsupial weighing just 5 to 10 grams—about half the size of a mouse. ... Subfamilies See text. ... Binomial name Gymnobelideus leadbeateri McCoy, 1867 Leadbeaters Possum (Gymnobelideus leadbeateri) is an endangered possum restricted to small pockets of remaining old growth Mountain Ash forests in the cool, misty highlands of Victoria, Australia. ... Binomial name Petaurus breviceps Waterhouse, 1839 The Sugar Glider (Petaurus breviceps) is a small gliding possum native to eastern and northern mainland Australia, New Guinea, and the Bismarck Archipelago, and introduced to Tasmania. ... Binomial name Petaurus norfolcensis (Kerr, 1792) The Squirrel Glider (Petaurus norfolcensis) is a gliding possum of the Marsupial family Petauridae. ... A possum is any of about 25 small to medium-sized arboreal marsupials native to Australia. ... Genera Acrobates Distoechurus Acrobatidae is a small family of marsupials contains two genera, each with a single species, the Feathertail Glider (Acrobates pygmaeus) from Australia and Feathertail Possum (Distoechurus pennatus) from New Guinea. ... Binomial name Acrobates pygmaeus (Shaw, 1793) The Feathertail Glider (Acrobates pygmaeus) is the worlds smallest gliding mammal. ... Genera See text Macropods are marsupials belonging to the family Macropodidae, which includes kangaroos, wallabies, tree kangaroos, pademelons, and several others. ... The marsupial family Potoridae includes the bettongs, potoroos and rat-kangaroos. ... Binomial name Hypsiprymnodon moschatus Ramsay, 1876 The Musky Rat-kangaroo is a marsupial species found in the rainforests of New Guinea and northeast Australia. ...

Obsolete Taxonomic Schemes

Until recently there were only two suborders in diprotodontia; Vombatiformes which encompassed the wombats and koala and Phalangerida which contained all other families. Currently the families remain the same but the order is divided into tree suborders. Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Families Phascolarctidae Vombatidae Vombatiformes is one of the two suborders of the large marsupial order Diprotodontia. ... Genera and Species Vombatus É. Geoffroy, 1803 Vombatus ursinus (Shaw, 1800) Lasiorhinus Gray, 1863 Lasiorhinus latifrons (Owen, 1845) Lasiorhinus krefftii Owen, 1873 Wombats are Australian marsupials in appearance rather like a small, very short-legged and muscular bear approximately one meter in length, and with a mere nubbin of a tail. ... Binomial name Phascolarctos cinereus (Goldfuss, 1817) The Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus; sometimes also spelled Phascolarctus cinereus) is a thickset arboreal marsupial herbivore endemic to Australia, and the only representative of its family, Phascolarctidae. ... Families Phalangeridae: brushtail possums and cuscuses Burramyidae: pygmy possums Tarsipedidae: Honey Possum Petauridae: (Striped Possum, Leadbeaters Possum, and gliders) Pseudocheiridae: ringtailed possums and allies Potoridae: bettongs, potaroos and rat kangaroos Acrobatidae: (Feathertail Glider and Feathertail Possum) Hypsiprymnodontidae: Musky Rat Kangaroo Macropodidae: kangaroos, wallabies and allies Phalangerida is one of... Order is the opposite of anarchy and chaos. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ...

Mammals
Monotremata

Placentalia: Xenarthra | Dermoptera | Desmostylia | Scandentia | Primates | Rodentia | Lagomorpha | Insectivora | Chiroptera | Pholidota | Carnivora | Perissodactyla | Artiodactyla | Cetacea | Afrosoricida | Macroscelidea | Tubulidentata | Hyracoidea | Proboscidea | Sirenia Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of mammary glands... Families Kollikodontidae (extinct) Ornithorhynchidae - Platypus Tachyglossidae - Echidnas Steropodontidae (extinct) Monotremes (< monos, single + trema, hole; refers to the cloaca) are mammals that are best known for laying eggs, instead of giving birth to live young like marsupials (Metatheria) and placental mammals (Eutheria). ... Orders Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia Xenarthra Dermoptera: Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Placentalia and Eutheria are terms used to describe major groupings within the animal class of Mammalia. ... Families Myrmecophagidae Megalonychidae Bradypodidae Dasypodidae The order Xenarthra is a group of placental mammals, extant today only in the Americas. ... Species  Cynocephalus varigatus  Cynocephalus volans Colugos are arboreal gliding mammals found in South-east Asia. ... Families Desmostylidae Paleoparadoxiidae Genera Ashoroa Behemotops Desmostylus Paleoparadoxia The Desmostylia are an extinct order of marine mammals comprising four genera, known from late Oligocene and Miocene fossil records. ... Genera Tupaia Anathana Urogale Dendrogale Lyonogale Ptilocercus The tree shrews are small, squirrel-like mammals native to the tropical forests of South-east Asia. ... Families 13, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all lemurs, monkeys, apes, and humans. ... Families See Classification Section The order Rodentia is the most numerous of all the branches on the mammal family tree. ... Families Leporidae Ochotonidae The Lagomorphs, order Lagomorpha, are an order of mammals of which there are two families, Leporidae (hares and rabbits), and Ochotonidae (pikas). ... Families Erinaceidae Soricidae Talpidae Solenodontidae The biological order Insectivora in the past was used as a scrapbasket for a variety of small to very small, relatively unspecialized, insectivorous mammals. ... Families Pteropodidae Emballonuridae Rhinopomatidae Craseonycteridae Rhinolophidae Nycteridae Megadermatidae Vespertilionidae Molossidae Antrozoidae Natalidae Myzopodidae Thyropteridae Furipteridae Noctilionidae Mystacinidae Mormoopidae Phyllostomidae Bats are flying mammals in the order Chiroptera with forelimbs developed as wings. ... Species Manis culionensis Manis gigantea Manis temmincki Manis tricuspis Manis tetradactyla Manis crassicaudata Manis pentadactyla Manis javanica Pangolins are mammals with large scales on their skins which can be found in parts of Africa and Asia. ... Families Canidae Felidae Herpestidae Hyaenidae Mephitidae Mustelidae Nandiniidae Odobenidae Pinnipedia Procyonidae Ursidae Viverridae The diverse order Carnivora includes over 260 placental mammals. ... Families Equidae Tapiridae Rhinocerotidae The odd-toed ungulates or Perissodactyla are large to very large browsing and grazing mammals with relatively simple stomachs and a large middle toe. ... Families Suidae Hippopotamidae Tayassuidae Camelidae Tragulidae Moschidae Cervidae Giraffidae Antilocapridae Bovidae The even-toed ungulates form the mammal order Artiodactyla. ... Suborders Mysticeti Odontoceti (see text) The order Cetacea includes whales, dolphins and porpoises. ... Families  Chrysochloridae  Tenrecidae The order Afrosoricida (also known as Tenrecomorpha) contains two families of small mammals that were once considered part of the order Insectivora. ... Genera  Rhynchocyon  Petrodromus  Macroscelides  Elephantulus The small insectivorous mammals endemic to Africa known as elephant shrews are neither elephants nor shrews and, more formally, are the members of the biological order Macroscelidea. ... Binomial name Orycteropus afer Pallas, 1766 The Aardvark (Orycteropus afer) is a medium-sized mammal native to Africa. ... Genera  Procavia  Heterohyrax  Dendrohyrax A hyrax is any of about 11 species of fairly small, thickset, herbivorous mammals in the order Hyracoidea. ... Groups Jozaria (extinct) Anthracobunidae (extinct) Moeritheriidae (extinct) Euproboscidea Numidotheriidae (extinct) Barytheriidae (extinct) Deinotheriidae (extinct) Elephantiformes Phiomiidae (extinct) Palaeomastodontidae (extinct) Hemimastodontidae (extinct) Mammutidea (extinct) Euelephantoidea Choerolophodontidae (extinct) Amebelodontidae (extinct) Gnathabelodontidae (extinct) Gomphotheriidae (extinct) Elephantidae For the plant genus Proboscidea see, Unicorn plant Proboscidea is an order containing only one family of... Families Dugongidae Trichechidae Hydrochichus (extinct) For information about the Gothic metal band, see Sirenia (band) Sirenia are herbivorous mammals of coastal waters. ...

Marsupialia: Didelphimorphia | Paucituberculata | Microbiotheria | Dasyuromorphia | Peramelemorphia | Notoryctemorphia | Diprotodontia Orders Superorder Ameridelphia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Superorder Australidelphia Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Marsupials are mammals in which the female typically has a pouch (called the marsupium, from which the name Marsupial derives) in which it rears its young through early infancy. ... Genera Several; see text The order Didelphimorphia contains the common opossums of the western hemisphere. ... Genera  Caenolestes  Lestoros  Rhyncholestes The biological order Paucituberculata contains the five surviving species of shrew opossum: small, shrew-like marsupials which are confined to the Andes mountains of South America. ... Binomial name Dromiciops gliroides Thomas, 1894 Synonyms The Monito del Monte (little mountain monkey, Dromiciops gliroides or Dromiciops australis) is a semi-arboreal South American marsupial which is thought to be more closely related to the marsupials of Australasia than to those of the Americas. ... Families Thylacinidae Dasyuridae Myrmecobiidae Most carnivorous marsupials belong to the order Dasyuromorphia, including the quolls, dunnarts, Numbat, Tasmanian Devil, and the recently extinct Thylacine. ... Families: Peroryctidae Peramelidae The order Peramelemorphia includes the bandicoots and bilbies: it equates approximately to the mainstream of marsupial omnivores. ... Species The marsupial moles are rare and poorly understood burrowing mammals of the deserts of western Australia. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
ANIMAL BYTES - Order Diprotodontia (171 words)
The Diprotodontia order is composed of 10 Recent families with 40 genera and 131 species.
Diprotodontia is the largest and most diverse of the marsupial orders, however all species in this order share several important characteristics.
The diversity of species within Diprotodontia is exemplified by the size range of its largest and smallest Recent species.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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