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Encyclopedia > Diplomacy
The United Nations, with its headquarters in New York City, is the largest international diplomatic organization.
The United Nations, with its headquarters in New York City, is the largest international diplomatic organization.

Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of groups or states. It usually refers to international diplomacy, the conduct of international relations through the intercession of professional diplomats with regard to issues of peace-making, trade, war, economics and culture. International treaties are usually negotiated by diplomats prior to endorsement by national politicians. Diplomacy is a strategic board game created by Allan B. Calhamer in 1954 and released commercially in 1959. ... A diplomat is someone who represents a government in its relations with other governments. ... Diplomatics is forensic palaeography. ... Image File history File linksMetadata United_Nations_HQ_-_New_York_City. ... Image File history File linksMetadata United_Nations_HQ_-_New_York_City. ... UN redirects here. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... For other uses, see Negotiation (disambiguation). ... Foreign affairs redirects here. ... -1... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely states and international organizations. ... A politician is an individual involved in politics, sometimes this may include political scientists. ...


The word stems from the Greek word "diploma", which literally means 'folded in two'. In ancient Greece, a diploma was a certificate certifying completion of a course of study, typically folded in two. In the days of the Roman Empire, the word "diploma" was used to describe official travel documents, such as passports and passes for imperial roads, that were stamped on double metal plates. Later, the meaning was extended to cover other official documents such as treaties with foreign tribes. In the 1700s the French called their body of officials attached to foreign legations the corps "diplomatique". The word "diplomacy" was first introduced into the English language by Edmund Burke in 1796, based on the French word "diplomatie".[1] The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Edmund Burke (January 12, 1729[1] – July 9, 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman, author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who served for many years in the British House of Commons as a member of the Whig party. ...


In an informal or social sense, diplomacy is the employment of tact to gain strategic advantage, one set of tools being the phrasing of statements in a non-confrontational, or polite manner. A strategy is a long term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal, most often winning. Strategy is differentiated from tactics or immediate actions with resources at hand by its nature of being extensively premeditated, and often practically rehearsed. ...

Contents

Diplomats and diplomatic missions

A diplomat is someone involved in diplomacy; the collective term for a group of diplomats from a single country who are resident in another country is a diplomatic mission. Ambassador is the most senior diplomatic rank; a diplomatic mission headed by an ambassador is known as an embassy. The collective body of all diplomats of particular country is called that country's diplomatic service. The collective body of all diplomats assigned to a particular country is the diplomatic corps. (See also diplomatic rank.) - Seal on the building of German Embassies. ... For other uses, see Ambassador (disambiguation). ... - Seal on the building of German Embassies. ... A diplomatic service is the body of diplomats and foreign policy officers maintained by the government of a country to communicate with the governments of other countries. ... The diplomatic corps or corps diplomatique is the collective body of foreign diplomats accredited to a particular country or body. ... The system of diplomatic rank has over time been formalised on an international basis. ...


History

Europe

The ability to practice diplomacy is one of the defining elements of a state, and diplomacy has been practiced since the first city-states were formed millennia ago. For most of human history diplomats were sent only for specific negotiations, and would return immediately after their mission concluded. Diplomats were usually relatives of the ruling family or of very high rank in order to give them legitimacy when they sought to negotiate with the other state. A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ...


One notable exception involved the relationship between the Pope and the Byzantine Emperor; papal agents, called apocrisiarii, were permanently resident in Constantinople. After the 8th century, however, conflicts between the Pope and Emperor (such as the Iconoclastic controversy) led to the breaking of close ties. For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... An apocrisiarius (Latinized from the Greek Αποκρισιάριος; sometimes Anglicized as Apocrisiary) was a high diplomatic representative during Late Antiquity and the early medieval period. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Statues in the Cathedral of Saint Martin, Utrecht, attacked in Reformation iconoclasm in the 16th century. ...


Modern diplomacy's origins are often traced to the states of Northern Italy in the early Renaissance, with the first embassies being established in the thirteenth century. Milan played a leading role, especially under Francesco Sforza who established permanent embassies to the other city states of Northern Italy. It was in Italy that many of the traditions of modern diplomacy began, such as the presentation of an ambassadors credentials to the head of state. Northern Italy comprises of two areas belonging to NUTS level 1: North-West (Nord-Ovest): Aosta Valley, Piedmont, Lombardy, Liguria North-East (Nord-Est): Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Veneto, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Emilia-Romagna Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol and Aosta Valley are regions with a... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... Portrait of Francesco Sforza, ca 1460, by Bonifazio Bembo: Sforza insisted on being shown in his worn dirty old campaigning hat. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ...


From Italy the practice was spread to the other European powers. Milan was the first to send a representative to the court of France in 1455. However, Milan refused to host French representatives fearing espionage and that the French representatives would intervene in its internal affairs. As foreign powers such as France and Spain became increasingly involved in Italian politics the need to accept emissaries was recognized. Soon the major European powers were exchanging representatives. Spain was the first to send a permanent representative; it appointed an ambassador to the Court of England in 1487. By the late 16th century, permanent missions became customary. The Holy Roman Emperor, however, did not regularly send permanent legates, as they could not represent the interests of all the German princes (who were in theory subordinate to the Emperor, but in practice independent). For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Coats of arms of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor from 1564 to 1576. ...


During that period the rules of modern diplomacy were further developed. The top rank of representatives was an ambassador. At that time an ambassador was a nobleman, the rank of the noble assigned varying with the prestige of the country he was delegated to. Strict standards developed for ambassadors, requiring they have large residences, host lavish parties, and play an important role in the court life of their host nation. In Rome, the most prized posting for a Catholic ambassador, the French and Spanish representatives would have a retinue of up to a hundred. Even in smaller posts, ambassadors were very expensive. Smaller states would send and receive envoys, who were a rung below ambassador. Somewhere between the two was the position of minister plenipotentiary. For other uses, see Ambassador (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Envoy may refer to: a diplomat Envoy (WordPerfect), a document reader and document file format GMC Envoy, a make of automobile The Envoy, a 1982 album by Warren Zevon The Call Sign For United Kingdom Airline Flyjet Category: ... ...


Diplomacy was a complex affair, even more so than now. The ambassadors from each state were ranked by complex levels of precedence that were much disputed. States were normally ranked by the title of the sovereign; for Catholic nations the emissary from the Vatican was paramount, then those from the kingdoms, then those from duchies and principalities. Representatives from republics were considered the lowest of the low. Determining precedence between two kingdoms depended on a number of factors that often fluctuated, leading to near-constant squabbling. For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... A duchy is a territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess. ... A principality is a monarchical feudatory or sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a Monarch with the title of prince or princess (a synonym is princedom) or (in the widest sense) a Monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

French diplomat Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord is considered one of the most skilled diplomats of all time.
French diplomat Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord is considered one of the most skilled diplomats of all time.

Ambassadors, nobles with little foreign experience and no expectation of a career in diplomacy, needed to be supported by large embassy staff. These professionals would be sent on longer assignments and would be far more knowledgeable than the higher-ranking officials about the host country. Embassy staff would include a wide range of employees, including some dedicated to espionage. The need for skilled individuals to staff embassies was met by the graduates of universities, and this led to a great increase in the study of international law, modern languages, and history at universities throughout Europe. Image File history File links Talleyrand-perigord. ... Image File history File links Talleyrand-perigord. ... Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, 1st Sovereign Prince de Bénévent (February 2, 1754 – May 17, 1838), the Prince of Diplomats,[2] was a French diplomat. ... Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ... Providing a constitution for public international law, the United Nations was conceived during World War II International law is the term commonly used for referring to the system of implicit and explicit agreements that binds together nation-states in adherence to recognized values and standards, differing from other legal systems... A modern language is any human language that is used by societies in the world today. ...


At the same time, permanent foreign ministries began to be established in almost all European states to coordinate embassies and their staffs. These ministries were still far from their modern form, and many of them had extraneous internal responsibilities. Britain had two departments with frequently overlapping powers until 1782. They were also far smaller than they are currently. France, which boasted the largest foreign affairs department, had only some 70 full-time employees in the 1780s.


The elements of modern diplomacy slowly spread to Eastern Europe and Russia, arriving by the early eighteenth century. The entire edifice would be greatly disrupted by the French Revolution and the subsequent years of warfare. The revolution would see commoners take over the diplomacy of the French state, and of those conquered by revolutionary armies. Ranks of precedence were abolished. Napoleon also refused to acknowledge diplomatic immunity, imprisoning several British diplomats accused of scheming against France. Eastern Europe is a concept that lacks one precise definition. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ...


After the fall of Napoleon, the Congress of Vienna of 1815 established an international system of diplomatic rank. Disputes on precedence among nations (and therefore the appropriate diplomatic ranks used) persisted for over a century until after World War II, when the rank of ambassador became the norm. In between that time, figures such as the German Chancellor Otto von Bismark were renowned for international diplomacy. The Congress of Vienna by Jean-Baptiste Isabey, 1819. ... The system of diplomatic rank has over time been formalised on an international basis. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see Ambassador (disambiguation). ...


Asia

A French ambassador in Ottoman dress, painted by Antoine de Favray, 1766, Pera Museum, Istanbul.
A French ambassador in Ottoman dress, painted by Antoine de Favray, 1766, Pera Museum, Istanbul.

Diplomatic relations within the Early Modern era of Asia were depicted as an environment of prestige and Status. It was maintained that one must be of noble ancestry in order to represent an autonomous state within the international arena[2]. Therefore the position of diplomat was often revered as an element of the elitist class within Asia. A state’s ability to practice diplomacy has been one of the underlying defining characteristics of an autonomous state. It is this practice that has been employed since the conception of the first city-states within the international spectrum. Diplomats in Asia were originally sent only for the purpose of negotiation[3]. They would be required to immediately return after their task was completed. The majority of diplomats initially constituted the relatives of the ruling family. A high rank was bestowed upon them in order to present a sense of legitimacy with regards to their presence. Italy, the Ottoman Empire, and China were the first real states that perpetuated environments of diplomacy. During the early modern era diplomacy evolved to become a crucial element of international relations within the Mediterranean and Asia. Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... The Tortoise Trainer by Osman Hamdi Bey (Source&permission: Pera Museum, Ä°stanbul) Pera Museum (Turkish: Pera Müzesi) is a museum in Istanbul, Turkey, founded in 2005 by the Suna and Ä°nan Kıraç Foundation. ... Location of Istanbul on the Bosphorus Strait, Turkey Coordinates: , Country Turkey Region Province Istanbul Founded 667 BC as Byzantium Roman/Byzantine period AD 330 as Nova Roma (original name given in 330 and used during Constantines reign) and later Constantinople (following Constantines death in 337) Ottoman period 1453... The early modern period is a term used by historians to refer to the period in Western Europe and its first colonies, between the Middle Ages and modern society. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Kinship and descent is one of the major concepts of cultural anthropology. ... This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ... For other uses, see Negotiation (disambiguation). ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...


The Ottoman Empire and Diplomacy

Diplomatic traditions outside of Europe were more or less very different. A feature necessary for diplomacy is the existence of a number of states of somewhat equal power, as existed in Italy during the Renaissance, and in Europe for much of the modern period. By contrast, in Asia and the Middle East, China and the Ottoman Empire were reluctant to practice bilateral diplomacy as they viewed themselves to be unquestionably superior to all their neighbours (hence, set up smaller nations as tributaries and vassals). The Ottoman Turks, for instance, would not send missions to other states, expecting representatives to come to Istanbul. It would not be until the nineteenth century that the Ottoman Empire established permanent embassies in other capitals. This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ... Location of Istanbul on the Bosphorus Strait, Turkey Coordinates: , Country Turkey Region Province Istanbul Founded 667 BC as Byzantium Roman/Byzantine period AD 330 as Nova Roma (original name given in 330 and used during Constantines reign) and later Constantinople (following Constantines death in 337) Ottoman period 1453...


The Ottoman Empire was extremely crucial to the spectrum of politics, culture, and economics between Italy and themselves. There were numerous Italian settlements within the Ottoman Empire[4]. This created the arena necessary for the emergence of Italian-Ottoman relations. Italian innovation for trade organizations and commercial experimentation could be attributed to the growing presence within the Ottoman diplomatic and transnational arena. The Genoese and Venetian governments of the early modern era regularly maintained that their atmosphere of commerce depended less and less upon their nautical capabilities, and more and more upon the perpetuation of good relations with the Ottomans[5]. Interactions between various merchants, diplomats, and religious men between the Italian and Ottoman empires helped inaugurate and create new forms of diplomacy and statecraft. Eventually the primary purpose of a diplomat, which was originally a negotiator, evolved into a persona that represented an autonomous state in all aspects of political affairs. It became evident that all other sovereigns felt the need to accommodate themselves diplomatically, due to the emergence of the powerful political environment of the Ottoman Empire[6]. One could come to the conclusion that the atmosphere of diplomacy within the early modern period revolved around a foundation of conformity to Ottoman culture. Alternate uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... Venetian could mean Of Venice/Venetia. ... Public affairs is a catch-all term that includes public policy as well as public administration, both of which are closely related to and draw upon the fields of political science as well as economics. ... Look up Sovereign in Wiktionary, the free dictionary The adjective sovereign is used to refer to the philosophical concept or state of sovereignty. ...


Italy and Diplomacy

The origins of modern diplomacy within the international spectrum of politics, could often be traced back to the states of Northern Italy. This was during the early renaissance, where the first diplomatic embassies were established in the thirteenth century[7]. The state of Milan played an incredible part in the establishment of permanent embassies within the city states of Northern Italy. Various diplomatic traditions were also conceived within Italy. The presentation of an Ambassador’s credentials and acknowledgments are elements that were inaugurated in Italian early modern diplomacy[8]. For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ambassador (disambiguation). ...


The practice of diplomacy and its various intricacies were also spread to various other autonomous European states. Milan created the first diplomatic international gesture in 1455, by sending a representative to the court of France[9]. It was extremely controversial however, that they would not accept the same gesture from France, due to the fears of espionage and intervention in internal affairs. It had eventually become evident that as super powers such as France and Spain grew in size and strength, and there was an overarching necessity to accept any form of diplomatic effort within the international arena. Eventually Italy paved the way for all European power to exchange representatives. By the late 16th century, permanent emissaries were standard practice[10]. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ...


China and Diplomacy

Further information: Foreign relations of Imperial China

The Koreans and Japanese during the Chinese Tang Dynasty (618–907 AD) looked to the Chinese capital of Chang'an as the hub of civilization and emulated its central bureaucracy as the pristine model of governance. The Japanese sent frequent embassies to China in this period, although they halted these trips in 894 during the Tang's imminent collapse. However, there were periods of Chinese history where China was weakened and threatened enough so that skillful international diplomacy was necessary. Imperial China has had a long tradition of foreign relations. ...


One of the earliest realists in international relations theory was the 6th century BC military strategist Sun Tzu, author of The Art of War. He lived during the Warring States Period (403 BC-221 BC), a time in which rival states no longer paid traditional respects of tutelage to the Zhou Dynasty figurehead monarchs and each vied for power and total conquest. However, a great deal of diplomacy in establishing allies, bartering land, and signing peace treaties was necessary for each warring state. Main International relations theory Politics Portal This box:      International relations theory attempts to provide a conceptual model upon which international relations can be analyzed. ... Sun Tzu (孫子 also commonly written in pinyin: Sūn Zǐ) was the author of The Art of War, an influential ancient Chinese book on military strategy (for the most part not dealing directly with tactics). ... For other uses, see The Art of War (disambiguation). ... Alternative meaning: Warring States Period (Japan) The Warring States Period (traditional Chinese: 戰國時代, simplified Chinese: 战国时代 pinyin Zhànguó Shídài) takes place from sometime in the 5th century BC to the unification of China by Qin in 221 BC. It is nominally considered to be the second part of the Eastern... This article is about the ancient Chinese dynasty. ...


After the devastating An Shi Rebellion from 755 to 763, the Tang Dynasty was in no position to reconquer Central Asia and the Tarim Basin. After several conflicts with the Tibetan Empire spanning several different decades, the Tang finally made a truce and signed a peace treaty with them in 841. The An Shi Rebellion (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) took place in China during the Tang Dynasty, from December 16, 755 to February 17, 763. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to... Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin. ... Tibetan plateau Tibet is situated between the two ancient civilizations of China and India, but the tangled mountain ranges of the Tibetan Plateau and the towering Himalayas serve to distance it from both. ...

Portraits of Periodical Offering, a 6th century Chinese painting portraying various emissaries; ambassadors depicted in the painting ranging from those of Hephthalites, Persia to Langkasuka, Baekje, Qiuci, and Wo (Japan).

In the 11th century during the Song Dynasty (960–1279), there were cunning ambassadors such as Shen Kuo and Su Song who achieved diplomatic success with the Liao Dynasty, the often hostile Khitan neighbor to the north. Both diplomats secured the rightful borders of the Song Dynasty through knowledge of cartography and dredging up old court archives. There was also a triad of warfare and diplomacy between these two states and the Tangut Western Xia Dynasty to the northwest of Song China (centered in modern-day Shaanxi). The Portraits of Periodical Offering of Liang with descriptions on the back of each ambassador, 6th century painting from the National Museum of China. ... The Hephthalites, also known as White Huns, were a nomadic people who lived across northern China, Central Asia, and northern India in the fourth through sixth centuries. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Langkasuka (-langkha Sanskrit for resplendent land -sukkha of bliss) was apparently the oldest kingdom on the Malay peninsula. ... Baekje (October 18 BCE–August 660 BCE), originally Sipje, was a kingdom in the southwest of the Korean Peninsula. ... Kucha (Modern Chinese Simplified: 库车, Traditional: 庫車, pinyin KùchÄ“, also romanized Chiu-tzu, Kiu-che, Kuei-tzu. ... For other uses, see Liu Song Dynasty. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Shen Shen Kuo or Shen Kua (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (1031–1095) was a polymathic Chinese scientist and statesman of the Song Dynasty (960–1279). ... Su Song 蘇頌 (1020 – 1101), style Zirong 子容, was a Chinese engineer. ... The Liao Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Liáo Cháo), 907-1125, also known as the Khitan Empire, was an empire in northern China that ruled over the regions of Manchuria, Mongolia, and parts of northern China proper. ... Khitan may refer to: Khitan people Khitan language Khitan script Category: ... Cartography or mapmaking (in Greek chartis = map and graphein = write) is the study and practice of making maps or globes. ... The Tangut, also known as the Western Xia were a Qiangic-Tibetan people who moved to the highlands of western Sichuan sometime before the 10th century AD. They spoke Tangut language a now-extinct Tibeto-Burman language. ... See Xia for other meanings of the Chinese character 夏 xià. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ShÇŽnxÄ«; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal map spelling: Shensi) is a north-central province of the Peoples Republic of China, and includes portions of the Loess Plateau on the middle reaches of the Yellow River as well as the Qinling Mountains across the...


Long before the Tang and Song dynasties, the Chinese had sent envoys into Central Asia, India, and Persia starting with Zhang Qian in the 2nd century BC. Another notable event in Chinese diplomacy was the Chinese embassy mission of Zhou Daguan to the Khmer Empire of Cambodia in the 13th century. Chinese diplomacy was a necessity in the distinctive period of Chinese exploration. Since the Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD), the Chinese also became heavily invested in sending diplomatic envoys abroad on maritime missions into the Indian Ocean, to India, Persia, Arabia, East Africa, and Egypt. Chinese maritime activity was increased dramatically during the commercialized period of the Song Dynasty, with new nautical technologies, many more private ship owners, and an increasing amount of economic investors in overseas ventures. Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Zhang Qian (張騫) was an imperial envoy in the 2nd century BCE, during the time of the Han Dynasty. ... Zhou Daguan (1266-1346 A.D.) was a Chinese diplomat under the Emperor Chengzong of Yuan China. ... Map of Asia and Europe c. ... Chinese exploration was an age of exploratory Chinese travels abroad, on land and by sea, from the 2nd century BC until the 15th century. ... For either of the songs named Sailing, see Sailing (song). ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  Geographic East Africa, including the UN subregion and East African Community East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ...


During the Mongol Empire (1206-1294) the Mongols created something similar to today's diplomatic passport called paiza. The paiza were in three different types (golden, silver, and copper) depending on the envoy's level of importance. With the paiza, there came authority that the envoy can ask for food, transport, place to stay from any city, village, or clan within the empire with no difficulties. Expansion of the Mongol Empire Mongol dominions, ca. ...


Since the 17th century, there was a series of treaties upheld by Qing Dynasty China and Czarist Russia, beginning with the Treaty of Nerchinsk in the year 1689. This was followed up by the Aigun Treaty and the Convention of Peking in the mid 19th century. Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... Tsar, (Bulgarian цар�, Russian царь; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ... Nerchinsk Treaty was the first treaty between Russia and China. ... The Treaty of Aigun was signed by Russia and the Qing Empire on May 28, 1858 in the Manchurian town of Aigun. ... The Convention of Peking (October 18, 1860), also known as the First Convention of Peking, was a treaty between the Qing Government of China and the British Empire, and between China and France, and China and Russia. ...


As European power spread around the world in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries so too did its diplomatic model and system become adopted by Asian countries.


Diplomatic strategy

Real world diplomatic negotiations are very different from intellectual debates in a university where an issue is decided on the merit of the arguments and negotiators make a deal by splitting the difference. Though diplomatic agreements can sometimes be reached among liberal democratic nations by appealing to higher principles, most real world diplomacy has traditionally been heavily influenced by hard power. Hard power is a concept which is mainly used in realism in international relations and refers to national power which comes from military and economic means. ...


The interaction of strength and diplomacy can be illustrated by a comparison to labor negotiations. If a labor union is not willing to strike, then the union is not going anywhere because management has absolutely no incentive to agree to union demands. On the other hand, if management is not willing to take a strike, then the company will be walked all over by the labor union, and management will be forced to agree to any demand the union makes. The same concept applies to diplomatic negotiations.


There are also incentives in diplomacy to act reasonably, especially if the support of other actors is needed. The gain from winning one negotiation can be much less than the increased hostility from other parts. This is also called soft power. Soft power is a term used in international relations theory to describe the ability of a political body, such as a state, to indirectly influence the behavior or interests of other political bodies through cultural or ideological means. ...


Many situations in modern diplomacy are also rules based. When for instance two WTO countries have trade dispute, it is in the interest of both to limit the spill over damage to other areas by following some agreed-upon rules. For other uses of the initials WTO, see WTO (disambiguation). ...


Diplomatic immunity

Main article: Diplomatic immunity

The sanctity of diplomats has long been observed. This sanctity has come to be known as diplomatic immunity. While there have been a number of cases where diplomats have been killed, this is normally viewed as a great breach of honour. Genghis Khan and the Mongols were well known for strongly insisting on the rights of diplomats, and they would often wreak horrific vengeance against any state that violated these rights. Diplomatic immunity is a form of legal immunity and a policy held between governments, which ensures that diplomats are given safe passage and are considered not susceptible to lawsuit or prosecution under the host countrys laws (although they can be expelled). ... Diplomatic immunity is a form of legal immunity and a policy held between governments, which ensures that diplomats are given safe passage and are considered not susceptible to lawsuit or prosecution under the host countrys laws (although they can be expelled). ... This article is about the person. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ...


Diplomatic rights were established in the mid-seventeenth century in Europe and have spread throughout the world. These rights were formalized by the 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, which protects diplomats from being persecuted or prosecuted while on a diplomatic mission. If a diplomat does commit a serious crime while in a host country he may be declared as persona non grata (unwanted person). Such diplomats are then often tried for the crime in their homeland. The Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations is an international treaty on diplomatic intercourse and the privileges and immunities of a diplomatic mission. ... Criminal law (also known as penal law) is the body of law that regulates governmental sanctions (such as imprisonment and/or fines) as retaliation for crimes against the social order. ... Look up Persona non grata in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Diplomatic communications are also viewed as sacrosanct, and diplomats have long been allowed to carry documents across borders without being searched. The mechanism for this is the so-called "diplomatic bag" (or, in some countries, the "diplomatic pouch"). In recent years, however, signals intelligence has led to this use of diplomatic bags being largely discarded. // Diplomacy A diplomatic bag is a shipping container having diplomatic immunity from search or seizure. ... SIGINT stands for SIGnals INTelligence, which is intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether by radio interception or other means. ...


In times of hostility, diplomats are often withdrawn for reasons of personal safety, as well as in some cases when the host country is friendly but there is a perceived threat from internal dissidents. Ambassadors and other diplomats are sometimes recalled temporarily by their home countries as a way to express displeasure with the host country. In both cases, lower-level employees still remain to actually do the business of diplomacy.


Diplomats as a Guarantee

In the Ottoman Empire, the diplomats of Persia and other states were seen as a guarantee of good behavior. If a nation broke a treaty or if their nationals misbehaved the diplomats would be punished. Diplomats were thus used as an enforcement mechanism on treaties and international law. To ensure that punishing a diplomat mattered rulers insisted on high-ranking figures. This tradition is seen by supporters of Iran as a legal basis of the 1979 Iranian hostage crisis. In imitation of alleged previous practices supporters of the Iranian Revolution attempted to punish the United States for its alleged misdeeds by holding their diplomats hostage. Diplomats as a guarantee were also employed sometimes in pre-modern Europe and other parts of Asia. The Iran hostage crisis was a 444-day period during which the new government of Iran after the Iranian Revolution held hostage 66 diplomats and citizens of the United States. ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ...


Diplomacy and espionage

Diplomacy is closely linked to espionage or gathering of intelligence. Embassies are bases for both diplomats and spies, and some diplomats are essentially openly-acknowledged spies. For instance, the job of military attachés includes learning as much as possible about the military of the nation to which they are assigned. They do not try to hide this role and, as such, are only invited to events allowed by their hosts, such as military parades or air shows. There are also deep-cover spies operating in many embassies. These individuals are given fake positions at the embassy, but their main task is to illegally gather intelligence, usually by coordinating spy rings of locals or other spies. For the most part, spies operating out of embassies gather little intelligence themselves and their identities tend to be known by the opposition. If discovered, these diplomats can be expelled from an embassy, but for the most part counter-intelligence agencies prefer to keep these agents in situ and under close monitoring. A military attaché is a military expert who is part of a diplomatic mission. ... The Utterly Butterly wing_walking display team flying Boeing Stearman PT_17 biplanes An airshow is an event at which aviators display their flying skills, normally to the public, but occasionally to invited guests, or employees and their families only. ... Counter Intelligence A uk label started and owned by John Machielsen. ...


The information gathered by spies plays an increasingly important role in diplomacy. Arms-control treaties would be impossible without the power of reconnaissance satellites and agents to monitor compliance. Information gleaned from espionage is useful in almost all forms of diplomacy, everything from trade agreements to border disputes. A spy satellite (officially referred to as a reconnaissance satellite or recon sat) is an Earth observation satellite or communications satellite deployed for military or intelligence applications. ...


Diplomatic resolution of problems

Various processes and procedures have evolved over time for handling diplomatic issues and disputes.


Arbitration and mediations

For more information, see Category:Diplomatic conferences


Nations sometimes resort to international arbitration when faced with a specific question or point of contention in need of resolution. For most of history, there were no official or formal procedures for such proceedings. They were generally accepted to abide by general principles and protocols related to international law and justice. Providing a constitution for public international law, the United Nations was conceived during World War II International law is the term commonly used for referring to the system of implicit and explicit agreements that binds together nation-states in adherence to recognized values and standards, differing from other legal systems...


Sometimes these took the form of formal arbitrations and mediations. In such cases a commission of diplomats might be convened to hear all sides of an issue, and to come some sort of ruling based on international law.


In the modern era, much of this work is often carried out by the International Court of Justice at the Hague, or other formal commissions, agencies and tribunals, working under the United Nations. Below are some examples. See also International Commission of Jurists Peace Palace, seat of the ICJ. Org type Principal Organ Acronyms ICJ, CIJ Head President of the ICJ Dame Rosalyn Higgins DBE Status Active Established 1945 Website www. ... Hague redirects here. ... UN redirects here. ...

  • Hay-Herbert Treaty Enacted after the United States and Britain submitted a dispute to international mediation about the US-Canadian border.

Hay-Herbert Treaty (signed in 1903) is a treaty between Great Britain and United States on the location of the border between Alaska and Canada. ...

Conferences

Other times, resolutions were sought through the convening of international conferences. In such cases, there are fewer ground rules, and fewer formal applications of international law. However, participants are expected to guide themselves through principles of international fairness, logic, and protocol.


Some examples of these formal conferences are:

  • Congress of Vienna (1815) - After Napoleon was defeated, there were many diplomatic questions waiting to be resolved. This included the shape of the map of Europe, the disposition of political and nationalist claims of various ethnic groups and nationalities wishing to have some political autonomy, and the resolution of various claims by various European powers.
  • The Congress of Berlin (June 13 - July 13, 1878) was a meeting of the European Great Powers' and the Ottoman Empire's leading statesmen in Berlin in 1878. In the wake of the Russo-Turkish War, 1877–78, the meeting's aim was to reorganize conditions in the Balkans.

The Congress of Vienna by Jean-Baptiste Isabey, 1819. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... The Congress of Berlin (June 13 - July 13, 1878) was a meeting of the European Great Powers and the Ottoman Empires leading statesmen in Berlin in 1878. ...

Negotiations

Sometimes nations convene official negotiation processes to settle an issue or dispute between several nations which are parties to a dispute. These are similar to the conferences mentioned above, as there are technically no established rules or procedures. However, there are general principles and precedents which help define a course for such proceedings.


Some examples are

  • Camp David accord Convened in 1978 by President Jimmy Carter of the United States, at Camp David to reach an agreement between Prime Minister Mechaem Begin of Israel and President Anwar Sadat of Egypt. After weeks of negotiation, agreement was reached and the accords were signed, later leading directly to the Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty of 1979.

Anwar Sadat (left), Jimmy Carter (center), and Menachem Begin (right) shake hands in celebration of the success of the Camp David Accords The Camp David Accords were signed by Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on September 17, 1978, following twelve days of secret negotiations at... The Israel-Egypt peace treaty (Arabic: معاهدة السلام المصرية الإسرائيلية; transliterated: Muahadat as-Salam al-Masriyah al-Israyliyah) (Hebrew: הסכם שלום ישראל-מצרים; transliterated: Heskem Shalom Yisrael-Mizraim) was signed in Washington, DC, United States, on March 26, 1979, following the Camp David Accords (1978). ... The Russian and Japanese delegates around the negotiating table at the Portsmouth Navy Yard St The Treaty of Portsmouth formally ended the 1904-1905 Russo-Japanese War. ... For other persons named Theodore Roosevelt, see Theodore Roosevelt (disambiguation). ... -1... The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Danish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ...

Diplomatic recognition

Diplomatic recognition is an important factor in determining whether a nation is an independent state. Receiving recognition is often difficult, even for countries which are fully sovereign. For many decades after becoming independent, even many of the closest allies of the Dutch Republic refused to grant it full recognition. Today there are a number of independent entities without widespread diplomatic recognition, most notably the Republic of China on Taiwan. Since the 1970s, most nations have stopped officially recognizing the ROC's existence on Taiwan, at the insistence of the People's Republic of China. Currently, the United States and other nations maintain informal relations through de facto embassies, with names such as the American Institute in Taiwan. Similarly, Taiwan's de facto embassies abroad are known by names such as the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office. This was not always the case, with the US maintaining official diplomatic ties with the ROC, recognizing it as the sole and legitimate government of all of China until 1979, when these relations were broken off as a condition for establishing official relations with Communist China. Diplomatic recognition is a political act by which one state acknowledges an act or status of another state or government, thereby according it legitimacy and expressing its intent to bring into force the domestic and international legal consequences of recognition. ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... The list of unrecognized countries enumerates those geo-political entities which lack general diplomatic recognition, but wish to be recognized as sovereign states. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... The American Institute in Taiwan (AIT) serves as the de facto embassy of the United States in Taiwan. ... A Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office (TECRO), sometimes known as a Taipei Representative Office, is a representative office , established by the Republic of China on Taiwan, in countries that have diplomatic relations, with the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ...


The Palestinian Authority has its own diplomatic service, however Palestinian representatives in most Western countries are not accorded diplomatic immunity, and their missions are referred to as Delegations General. The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ...


Other unrecognized countries include Abkhazia, Transnistria, Somaliland, Nagorno Karabakh, and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. Lacking the economic and political importance of Taiwan, these nations tend to be much more diplomatically isolated. Abkhazia (pronounced or , Apsny, Georgian: Apkhazeti or Abkhazeti, Russian: Abhazia) is an autonomous region of Georgia in the Caucasus. ... For the region during the Second World War, see Transnistria (World War II). ... For other territories formerly called Somaliland, see Somaliland (disambiguation). ... Anthem Azat ou Ankakh Artsakh Free and Independent Artsakh Capital Stepanakert (Khankendi) Official languages Armenian1 Government Unrecognized  -  President Bako Sahakian [1]  -  Prime Minister Anushavan Danielyan Independence from Azerbaijan   -  Referendum December 10, 1991   -  Proclaimed January 6, 1992   -  Recognition none2  Area  -  Total 4,400 km²  1,699 sq mi  Population  -  March 2007... Anthem Ä°stiklâl Marşı(Turkish) Independence March Capital Nicosia Official languages Turkish Government Representative democratic republic1  -  President Mehmet Ali Talat  -  Prime Minister Ferdi Sabit Soyer Sovereignty from Cyprus   -  Proclaimed November 15, 1983   -  Recognition By Turkey   -  Independence from Cyprus   -  Declared November 15, 1983  Area  -  Total 3,355 km² (not ranked) 1...


Though used as a factor in judging sovereignty, Article 3 of the Montevideo Convention states, "The political existence of the state is independent of recognition by other states." The Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States was a treaty signed at Montevideo on December 26, 1933, at the Seventh International Conference of American States. ...


Informal diplomacy

Informal diplomacy (sometimes called Track II diplomacy) has been used for centuries to communicate between powers. Most diplomats work to recruit figures in other nations who might be able to give informal access to a country's leadership. In some situations, such as between the United States and the People's Republic of China a large amount of diplomacy is done through semi-formal channels using interlocutors such as academic members of thinktanks. This occurs in situations where governments wish to express intentions or to suggest methods of resolving a diplomatic situation, but do not wish to express a formal position. An interlocutor (pronounced in-ter-lock-you-ter) describes someone who informally explains the views of a government and also can relay messages back to a government. ... This article is about the institution. ...


Track II diplomacy is a specific kind of informal diplomacy, in which non-officials (academic scholars, retired civil and military officials, public figures, social activists) engage in dialogue, with the aim of conflict resolution, or confidence-building. Sometimes governments may fund such Track II exchanges. Sometimes the exchanges may have no connection at all with governments, or may even act in defiance of governments; such exchanges are called Track III.


Paradiplomacy

Paradiplomacy refers to the international relations conducted by subnational, regional, local or non-central governments. The most ordinary case of paradiplomatic relation refer to co-operation between bordering political entities. However, interest of federal states, provinces, regions etc., may extend over to different regions or to issues gathering local governments in multilateral fora worldwide. Some non-central governments may be allowed to negotiate and enter into agreement with foreign central states.


Cultural diplomacy

Cultural diplomacy is a part of diplomacy. It alludes to a new way of making diplomacy by involving new non governmental and non professional actors in the making of diplomacy. In the frame of globalization, culture plays a major role in the definition of identity and in the relations between people. Joseph Nye points out the importance of having a soft power besides a hard power. When classical diplomacy fails, a better knowledge can help bridging the gap between different cultures. Cultural diplomacy becomes a subject of academic studies based on historical essays on the United States, Europe, and the Cold War. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


See also

TIME Magazine cover from July 17, 2006. ... Diplomacy Monitor is an internet-based tool to monitor diplomacy documents (communiques, official statements, interview transcripts, etc. ... In international relations, the term public diplomacy is a term coined in the 1960s to describe aspects of international diplomacy other than the interactions between national governments. ... - Seal on the building of German Embassies. ... Category: ... The system of diplomatic rank has over time been formalised on an international basis. ... Diplomatic Law is that area of international law that governs permanent diplomatic missions . ... // Economic diplomacy is concerned with economic policy issues, e. ... A minister for foreign affairs, or foreign minister, is a governmental cabinet minister who helps form the foreign policy of a sovereign nation. ... A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ... Foreign policy analysis (FPA) is the systematic study of and research into the processes and theories of foreign policy. ... A foreign policy doctrine is a general statement of foreign policy. ... In international politics, gunboat diplomacy refers to the pursuit of foreign policy objectives with the aid of conspicuous displays of military power—implying or constituting a direct threat of warfare, should terms not be agreeable to the superior force. ... Intercultural competence is the ability of successful communication with people of other cultures. ... Providing a constitution for public international law, the United Nations was conceived during World War II International law is the term commonly used for referring to the system of implicit and explicit agreements that binds together nation-states in adherence to recognized values and standards, differing from other legal systems... Foreign affairs redirects here. ... Multilateralism is an international relations term that refers to multiple countries working in concert. ... A peace treaty is an agreement (a peace treaty) between two hostile parties, usually countries or governments, that formally ends a war or armed conflict. ... Three-Time World Mens Singles Champion Zhuang Zedong (left) and U.S. team member Glenn Cowan (right) on the Chinese team bus in Nagoya, Japan, 1971. ... In international politics, protocol is the etiquette of diplomacy and affairs of state. ... In international relations, the term public diplomacy is a term coined in the 1960s to describe aspects of international diplomacy other than the interactions between national governments. ... In diplomacy and international relations, shuttle diplomacy is the use of a third party to serve as an intermediary or mediator between two parties who do not talk directly. ... Track II diplomacy is a specific kind of informal diplomacy, in which non-officials (academic scholars, retired civil and military officials, public figures, and social activists) engage in dialogue, with the aim of conflict resolution, or confidence-building. ... Transformational Diplomacy is a diplomacy initiative championed by United States Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice for reinvigorating American Foreign Policy and the United States Foreign Service. ...

References

  1. ^ DP S1995R: Diplomacy - An Historical Perspective
  2. ^ “A Brief History of Diplomacy.” E-Diplomat: Global Portal for Diplomats. http://www.ediplomat.com/nd/history.htm.
  3. ^ “A Brief History of Diplomacy.” E-Diplomat: Global Portal for Diplomats. http://www.ediplomat.com/nd/history.htm.
  4. ^ Goffman, Daniel. “Negotiating with the Renaissance State: The Ottoman Empire and the New Diplomacy.” In The Early Modern Ottomans: Remapping the Empire. Eds. Virginia Aksan and Daniel Goffman. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 61-74.
  5. ^ Goffman, Daniel. “Negotiating with the Renaissance State: The Ottoman Empire and the New Diplomacy.” In The Early Modern Ottomans: Remapping the Empire. Eds. Virginia Aksan and Daniel Goffman. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 61-74.
  6. ^ Goffman, Daniel. “Negotiating with the Renaissance State: The Ottoman Empire and the New Diplomacy.” In The Early Modern Ottomans: Remapping the Empire. Eds. Virginia Aksan and Daniel Goffman. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 61-74.
  7. ^ “A Brief History of Diplomacy.” E-Diplomat: Global Portal for Diplomats. http://www.ediplomat.com/nd/history.htm.
  8. ^ “A Brief History of Diplomacy.” E-Diplomat: Global Portal for Diplomats. http://www.ediplomat.com/nd/history.htm.
  9. ^ “A Brief History of Diplomacy.” E-Diplomat: Global Portal for Diplomats. http://www.ediplomat.com/nd/history.htm.
  10. ^ “A Brief History of Diplomacy.” E-Diplomat: Global Portal for Diplomats. http://www.ediplomat.com/nd/history.htm.
  • A Guide to Diplomatic Practice by Sir Ernest Satow, Longmans, Green & Co. London & New York, 1917. A standard reference work used in many embassies across the world (though not British ones). Now in its fifth edition (1998) ISBN 0-582-50109-1
  • Diplomacy: Theory & Practice, 3rd edition, by GR Berridge, Palgrave, Basingstoke, 2005, ISBN 1-4039-9311-4
  • Journey to Become a Diplomat: With a Guide to Careers in World Affairs by George Cunningham, FPA Global Vision Books 2005, ISBN 0-87124-212-5
  • Inside a U.S. Embassy: How the Foreign Service Works for America by Shawn Dorman (Editor), American Foreign Service Association, Second edition February 2003, ISBN 0-9649488-2-6
  • Foreign Ministries: Managing Diplomatic Networks and Optimizing Value by Kishan S. Rana and Jovan Kurbalija (Editors), DiploFoundation, 2007, ISBN 978-99932-53-16-7
  • The 21st Century Ambassador: Plenipotentiary to Chief Executive by Kishan S Rana, DiploFoundation,2004, ISBN 99909-55-18-2
  • Language and Diplomacy by Kurbalija J. and Slavik H. (Editors), DiploProjects, Mediterranean Academy of Diplomatic Studies, Malta, 2001, ISBN 99909-55-15-8. The volume contains collection of paper presented at the international conference. (See of them [1])
  • Renaissance Diplomacy by Garrett Mattingly, Dover Publications, ISBN 978-0486255705

Sir Ernest Mason Satow, G.C.M.G., P.C. (1843-1929), a British scholar-diplomat born to an ethnically German father (Hans David Christoph Satow, born in Swedish-occupied Wismar, naturalised British in 1846) and an English mother (Margaret, nee Mason) in Clapton, North London, and educated at Mill... Garrett Mattingly (1900-1962) was a professor of European history at Columbia University, specializing in early modern diplomatic history. ...

Diplomatic Training Institutions

The Austrian Diplomatic Academy, known as DA as, is the worlds oldest school of international relations, outdating the Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University. ... The Ecolint Logo The International School of Geneva, also known as écolint, is a private international school in Geneva, Switzerland. ... The Geneva School of Diplomacy and International Relations is a university located in Geneva, Switzerland. ... The Ûñǐţœđ Ńàťįōňş Íņţèrnâtïônãl ßhòól of Hanoi (Freedom fighters of the SEA Games, FFSG) is an international school in Hanoi, Vietnam. ... United Nations International School (UNIS) is a private international school in New York City which was founded in 1947 by families whose work related to the United Nations. ... Headquartered in Costa Rica, the United Nations-mandated University for Peace (UPEACE) was established in 1980 as a Treaty Organization by the UN General Assembly. ... The Vienna International School is a non-profit international school made up structurally of the parents of each student at the school, and located in Vienna, Austria. ... Russias leading educational institution in the field of international relations and diplomacy Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Russia-related stubs ... The Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), based in Washington, D.C., is a graduate school devoted to the study of international affairs, economics, diplomacy, and policy research and education. ... It has been suggested that FRUSI be merged into this article or section. ... The School of International Service (SIS) is American Universitys school of advanced international study in the areas of international security, communications, development, economics, peace & conflict resolution, and American foreign policy. ... The Cabot Intercultural Center of The Fletcher School at Tufts University The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, also called simply The Fletcher School, is the oldest graduate school of international relations in the United States. ... The Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service (commonly abbreviated SFS) is a school within Georgetown University in Washington, D.C., United States. ... Robertson Hall, which houses the Woodrow Wilson School. ... The George P. Shultz National Foreign Affairs Training Center (NAFTC) is the U.S. governments primaring training institution for officers and support personnel of the foreign affairs community. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
 Pro Deo Et Mundo (For God and the World) 

Faith based diplomacy for Mediation,peacebuilding and long term conflict resolution, migration diplomacy. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ...

  • http://www.disarmamentinsight.blogspot.com Disarmament Insight] This blog is aimed at negotiators, policy wonks, researchers and anyone curious about disarmament and human security
  • Diplomacy of Small States. An international conference dealing with the issues of foreign policy, negotiation tactics, diplomatic missions, crisis and humanitarian diplomacy of small states. See also conference discussion papers.
  • Modern Diplomacy Reviewed A collection of articles analyzing modern diplomacy from various angles: diplomatic analogy, impact of internet on diplomacy, diplomatic tools and methods, diplomatic representation, good governance, public diplomacy
  • Books written by diplomats [2]
  • Diplomatic Dictionary
  • Diplomacy Quotes [3]
  • World Politics Review: A Foreign Policy and National Security Daily
  • A Shared World: Christians and Muslims in the Early Modern Mediterranean. By: M. Greene. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=Ecy575SBY1cC&oi=fnd&pg=PP9&dq=diplomacy+%2B+early+modern+mediterranean&ots=4qOlQ7Yrqd&sig=N07BVJjJ3tEsJI3ACMKmhNbkUP8
  • “A Brief History of Diplomacy.” E-Diplomat: Global Portal for Diplomats. http://www.ediplomat.com/nd/history.htm.
  • Trading Territories: Mapping the Early Modern World. By: Jerry Brotton. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=nVexxh4nV1EC&oi=fnd&pg=PA7&dq=diplomacy+%2B+early+modern+mediterranean&ots=OTgkahsdS0&sig=ySrTEBcEWgfsxi9L9aA_yLdvTwI
  • Trading Nations: Jews and Venetians in the Early Modern Eastern. By: B Arbel. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=JwgVr2cINXsC&oi=fnd&pg=PP17&dq=diplomacy+%2B+early+modern+mediterranean&ots=-9efQ-L7C7&sig=gzic6Tkl2fmWKWnBy5zPWMGn0Y8
  • Politics and Diplomacy in Early Modern Italy: The Structure of Diplomatic Practice, 1450-1800. By: D Frigo. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=tvEHSKJwjMcC&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=diplomacy+%2B+early+modern+mediterranean&ots=mtQYPIjaUp&sig=1MtYV2F_GOaH0mx6v4y-uW5WAh4
  • Brummett, Palmira. “Imagining the Early Modern Ottoman Space, from World History to Piri Reis.” In The Early Modern Ottomans: Remapping the Empire. Eds. Virginia Aksan
  • Fleet, Kate. “The Ottoman diplomats on eighteenth-century Poland : Contempt or discouragement?” Oriente moderno: vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 97-100, 1999
  • Goffman, Daniel. “Negotiating with the Renaissance State: The Ottoman Empire and the New Diplomacy.” In The Early Modern Ottomans: Remapping the Empire. Eds. Virginia Aksan and Daniel Goffman. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 61-74.
  • Imber, Colin. “Ottoman Seapower and Levantine Diplomacy in the Age of Discovery.” Historian[Allentown], vol.62, no.1, pp.128-129, 1999
  • Wicquefort, Abraham de. 1716. The Embassador and His Functions To Which Is Added, an Historical Discourse, Concerning the Election of the Emperor and the Electors. Trans. John Digby. London: Printed for B. Lintott, pp. 253-56.


  Results from FactBites:
 
Diplomacy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2535 words)
Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between accredited persons (the diploma of the diplomat) representing groups or nations.
Modern diplomacy's origins are often traced to the states of Northern Italy in the early Renaissance, with the first embassies being established in the thirteenth century.
Track II diplomacy is a specific kind of informal diplomacy, in which non-officials (academic scholars, retired civil and military officials, public figures, social activists) engage in dialogue, with the aim of conflict resolution, or confidence-building.
Diplomacy (game) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2904 words)
Diplomacy was the first commercially published game to be played by mail; only chess, which is in the public domain, saw significant postal play earlier.
Diplomacy differs from most war games in several ways: All units move simultaneously, with players writing down their moves during a negotiation period, and all moves are revealed and put into effect simultaneously.
Diplomacy is sometimes played in high school history classes because of its realistic emulation of events and diplomacy between nations.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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