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Encyclopedia > Diplodocus
Diplodocus
Fossil range: Late Jurassic
Diplodocus skull
Diplodocus skull
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Sauropsida
Superorder: Dinosauria
Order: Saurischia
Suborder: Sauropodomorpha
Infraorder: Sauropoda
Family: Diplodocidae
Genus: Diplodocus
Marsh, 1878
Species

D. carnegiei Hatcher, 1901
D. hallorum (Gillette, 1991) Lucas et al., 2004
D. hayi Holland, 1924
D. longus (type)
Species (type) Diplocaulus (double caul) is an extinct genus of leponspondyl amphibian from the Permian period. ... For the British international monthly publication see Diplo magazine. ... Upper Jurassic (also known as Malm) was an epoch of the Jurassic geologic period. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1835x1412, 1496 KB) Diplodocus skull at the Smithsonian museum of Natural History File links The following pages link to this file: Diplodocus Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Reptilia redirects here. ... Orders & Suborders Saurischia Sauropodomorpha Theropoda Ornithischia Thyreophora Ornithopoda Marginocephalia Dinosaurs were vertebrate animals that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for over 160 million years, first appearing approximately 230 million years ago. ... Groups Sauropodomorpha    Saturnalia    Prosauropoda    Sauropoda Theropoda    Eoraptor    Herrerasauridae    Ceratosauria    Tetanurae       Aves(extant) Saurischians (from the Greek Saurischia meaning lizard hip) are one of the two orders/branches of dinosaurs. ... Groups Saturnalia Prosauropoda Sauropoda The Sauropodomorpha were a group of long-necked, herbivorous dinosaurs that eventually dropped down on all fours and became the largest animals that ever the walked the earth. ... Families Brachiosauridae Camarasauridae Cetiosauridae Diplodocidae Dicraeosauridae Euhelopodidae Nemegtosauridae Omeisauridae Rebbachisauridae Titanosauridae/Saltosauridae Vulcanodontidae Sauropoda, the sauropods, are a suborder or infraorder of the saurischian (lizard-hipped) dinosaurs. ... Genera Subfamily Apatosaurinae:    Apatosaurus    Eobrontosaurus Subfamily Diplodocinae:    Barosaurus    Diplodocus    Seismosaurus    Supersaurus Diplodocids, or members of the family Diplodocidae, are sauropod dinosaurs such as the Diplodocus and the Apatosaurus. ... Othniel Charles Marsh (1831-1899) Othniel Charles Marsh (October 29, 1831 - March 18, 1899) was one of the pre-eminent paleontologists of the 19th century, who discovered and named many fossils found in the American West. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... John Bell Hatcher (October 11, 1861 – July 3, 1904) was an American paleontologist most famous for discovering the triceratops. ... In zoological nomenclature, a type is a specimen or a taxon. ...

Synonyms

Seismosaurus Gillette, 1991
In scientific nomenclature, synonyms are different scientific names used for a single taxon. ... Binomial name Seismosaurus hallorum David Gillette, 1991 This article is about the dinosaur. ...

Diplodocus (pronounced /dɪˈplɒdəkəs/,[1][2] /ˌdɪpləʊˈdəʊkəs/[1] or /daɪˈplɒdəkəs/[2]) is a genus of diplodocid sauropod dinosaur whose fossils were first discovered in 1877 by S. W. Williston. The generic name, coined by Othniel Charles Marsh in 1878, is a Neo-Latin term derived from Greek διπλόος (diploos) "double" and δοκός (dokos) "beam",[1] in reference to its double-beamed chevron bones located in the underside of the tail. These bones were initially believed to be unique to Diplodocus; however, they have since then been discovered in other members of the diplodocid family and in non-diplodocid sauropods such as Mamenchisaurus. This chart shows concisely the most common way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is applied to represent the English language. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Genera Subfamily Apatosaurinae:    Apatosaurus    Eobrontosaurus Subfamily Diplodocinae:    Barosaurus    Diplodocus    Seismosaurus    Supersaurus Diplodocids, or members of the family Diplodocidae, are sauropod dinosaurs such as the Diplodocus and the Apatosaurus. ... Families Brachiosauridae Camarasauridae Cetiosauridae Diplodocidae Euhelopodidae Nemegtosauridae Titanosauridae Vulcanodontidae Sauropoda, the sauropods, are a suborder or infraorder of the saurischian (lizard-hipped) dinosaurs. ... Orders & Suborders Saurischia Sauropodomorpha Theropoda Ornithischia Thyreophora Ornithopoda Marginocephalia Dinosaurs were vertebrate animals that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for over 160 million years, first appearing approximately 230 million years ago. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... Samuel Wendell Williston Samuel Wendell Williston (July 10, 1852 – August 30, 1918) was a noted educator and paleontologist. ... Othniel Charles Marsh (1831-1899) Othniel Charles Marsh (October 29, 1831 - March 18, 1899) was one of the pre-eminent paleontologists of the 19th century, who discovered and named many fossils found in the American West. ... New Latin (or Neo-Latin) is a post-medieval version of Latin, now used primarily in International Scientific Vocabulary cladistics and systematics. ... Chevron bones are a series of bones on the underside of the tail of reptiles. ... Genera Subfamily Apatosaurinae:    Apatosaurus    Eobrontosaurus Subfamily Diplodocinae:    Barosaurus    Diplodocus    Seismosaurus    Supersaurus Diplodocids, or members of the family Diplodocidae, are sauropod dinosaurs such as the Diplodocus and the Apatosaurus. ... Species (holotype) Mamenchisaurus (pronounced ma-MENCH-ih-SAW-rus) was first discovered in China by C. C. Young. ...


It lived in what is now western North America at the end of the Jurassic Period. Diplodocus is one of the more common dinosaur fossils found in the Upper Morrison Formation, a sequence of shallow marine and alluvial sediments deposited about 150 to 147 million years ago, in what is now termed the Kimmeridgian and Tithonian stages. The Morrison Formation records an environment and time dominated by gigantic sauropod dinosaurs such as Camarasaurus, Barosaurus, Apatosaurus and Brachiosaurus.[3] North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ... A geologic period is a subdivision of geologic time that divides an era into smaller timeframes. ... The Morrison Formation is a distinctive body of rock in the western United States and Canada that has been the most fertile source of fossils in North America. ... Mega-annum, usually abbreviated as Ma, is a unit of time equal to one million years. ... The Kimmeridgian is a stage of the Late Jurassic Epoch. ... The Tithonian (141-135 MYA) is the most recent faunal stage of the Jurassic era. ... Faunal stages are a subdivision of geologic time used primarily by paleontologists who study fossils rather than by geologists who study rock formations. ... Species (holotype) The Camarasaurus (pronounced KAM-a-rah-SORE-us) was a genera of quadrupedal, herbivorous dinosaurs. ... Species (type) Barosaurus (BAHR-oh-sawr-us) meaning heavy lizard (Greek baros = heavy + sauros = lizard, referring to its heavy neck bones) was a giant, long-tailed, long-necked, plant-eating dinosaur closely related to the more familiar Diplodocus. ... Species Apatosaurus ajax Apatosaurus excelsus Apatosaurus louisae Apatosaurus (pronounced ) meaning deceptive lizard, because its chevron bones were like those of Mosasaurus (Greek apatelos or apatelios = deceptive + sauros = lizard), often mistakenly referred to as Brontosaurus, is a genus of sauropod dinosaurs that lived about 140 million years ago, during the Jurassic... Species (type) ?B. (Giraffatitan) brancai Brachiosaurus (IPA: ) meaning Arm Lizard, from the Greek brachion/βραχιων meaning arm and sauros/σαυρος meaning lizard, was a genus of sauropod dinosaur which lived during the Late Jurassic Period. ...


Diplodocus is among the most easily identifiable dinosaurs, with its classic dinosaur shape, long neck and tail and four sturdy legs. For many years, it was the longest dinosaur known. Its great size may have been a deterrent to the predators Allosaurus and Ceratosaurus: their remains have been found in the same strata, which suggests they coexisted with Diplodocus. Species type (Marsh, 1878) Paul, 1987 Mateus , 2006 jimmadseni Chure, 2000 vide Glut, 2003 Synonyms Creosaurus Marsh, 1878 Labrosaurus Marsh, 1879 Camptonotus Marsh, 1879  ?Epanterias Cope, 1878 Allosaurus (IPA: ) was a large (up to 11. ... Species (type) Marsh, 1884 (Janensch, 1920) Madsen & Wells, 2000 Madsen & Wells, 2000 Ceratosaurus (IPA: ) meaning horned lizard, in reference to the horn on its nose (Greek keras/keratos meaning horn and sauros meaning lizard), was a large predatory dinosaur from the Late Jurassic Period, found in the Morrison Formation of... For other uses, see strata (novel) and strata title. ...

Contents

Description

Skeletal diagram, with humans for scale.

One of the best-known sauropods, Diplodocus was a very large long-necked quadrupedal animal, with a long, whip-like tail. Its forelimbs were slightly shorter than its hind limbs, resulting in a largely horizontal posture. The long-necked, long-tailed animal with four sturdy legs has been mechanically compared with a suspension bridge.[4] In fact, Diplodocus is the longest dinosaur known from a complete skeleton.[4] While dinosaurs such as Supersaurus were probably longer, fossil remains of these animals are only fragmentary.[5] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 228 pixelsFull resolution (2500 × 712 pixel, file size: 192 KB, MIME type: image/png) diplodocus size diagram. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 228 pixelsFull resolution (2500 × 712 pixel, file size: 192 KB, MIME type: image/png) diplodocus size diagram. ... The Zebra is an example of a quadruped. ... Binomial name Supersaurus vivianae Jensen, 1985 Synonyms Dystylosaurus Jensen, 1985 Ultrasauros Olshevsky, 1991 Supersaurus (meaning super lizard) was a diplodocid dinosaur discovered in a rock formation in the U.S. state of Colorado in 1972, alongside bones of a Brachiosaurus. ...


The skull of Diplodocus was very small, compared with the size of the animal, which could reach up to 27 metres (90 feet), of which 6 metres (20 ft) was neck.[6] Diplodocus had small, 'peg'-like teeth that pointed forward and were only present in the anterior sections of the jaws.[7] Its braincase was small. The neck was composed of at least fifteen vertebrae and is now believed to have been generally held parallel to the ground and unable to have been elevated much past horizontal.[8] Modern mass estimates have tended to be in the 10 to 16 tonne (11–17.6 ton) range: 10 tonnes (11 tons);[9] 11.5 tonnes (12.7 tons);[10] 12.7 tonnes (14 tons);[11] and 16 tonnes (17.6 tons).[12] The General Sherman, a Giant Sequoia, is generally considered to be the largest (by volume of its trunk) tree in the world The largest organism found on earth can be measured using a variety of methods. ... metre or meter, see meter (disambiguation) The metre is the basic unit of length in the International System of Units. ... This article is about a foot as a unit of length. ... In sciences dealing with the anatomy of animals, precise anatomical terms of location are necessary for a variety of reasons. ... A diagram of a thoracic vertebra. ... A tonne or metric ton (symbol t), sometimes referred to as a metric tonne, is a measurement of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms. ... Look up ton in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Diplodocus tail, Natural History Museum, London.
Diplodocus - Caudal vertebrae in the tail.

Diplodocus had an extremely long tail, composed of about 80 caudal vertebrae,[13] which is almost double the number some of the earlier sauropods had in their tails (such as Shunosaurus with 43), and far more than contemporaneous macronarians had (such as Camarasaurus with 53). There has been speculation as to whether it may have had a defensive[14] or noisemaking function.[15] The tail may have served as a counterbalance for the neck. The middle part of the tail had 'double beams' (oddly-shaped bones on the underside, which gave Diplodocus its name). They may have provided support for the vertebrae, or perhaps prevented the blood vessels from being crushed if the animal's heavy tail pressed against the ground. These 'double beams' are also seen in some related dinosaurs. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 2. ... For other similarly-named museums see Museum of Natural History. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 2. ... A diagram of a thoracic vertebra. ... In zootomy, several terms are used to describe the location of organs and other structures in the body of bilateral animals. ... Shunosaurus was an unusual sauropod from Jurassic Asia, 170 mya. ... Macronaria is a subfamily of Sauropoda from the Late Jurassic to mid Cretaceous in North America and Africa. ... Species (holotype) The Camarasaurus (pronounced KAM-a-rah-SORE-us) was a genera of quadrupedal, herbivorous dinosaurs. ...


Discovery and species

Several species of Diplodocus were described between 1878 and 1924. The first skeleton was found at Como Bluff, Wyoming by Benjamin Mudge and Samuel Wendell Williston in 1878, and was named Diplodocus longus ('long double-beam'), by paleontologist Othniel Charles Marsh in 1878.[16] Diplodocus remains have since been found in the Morrison Formation of the western U.S. States of Colorado, Utah, Montana and Wyoming. Fossils of this animal are common, except for the skull, which is often missing from otherwise complete skeletons. Although not the type species, D. carnegiei is the most completely known and most famous due to the large number of casts of its skeleton in museums around the world. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Como Bluff is a long ridge extending east-west, located about 6 miles between the towns of Rock River and Medicine Bow, Wyoming. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... Benjamin Franklin Mudge (August 11, 1817 – November 21, 1879) was an American lawyer, geologist and paleontologist who was the first state geologist of Kansas, and known for his avid collection of fossils. ... Samuel Wendell Williston Samuel Wendell Williston (July 10, 1852 – August 30, 1918) was a noted educator and paleontologist. ... Paleontology, palaeontology or palæontology (from Greek: paleo, ancient; ontos, being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils. ... Othniel Charles Marsh (1831-1899) Othniel Charles Marsh (October 29, 1831 - March 18, 1899) was one of the pre-eminent paleontologists of the 19th century, who discovered and named many fossils found in the American West. ... The Morrison Formation is a distinctive body of rock in the western United States and Canada that has been the most fertile source of fossils in North America. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Helena Largest city Billings Area  Ranked 4th  - Total 147,165 sq mi (381,156 km²)  - Width 255 miles (410 km)  - Length 630 miles (1,015 km)  - % water 1  - Latitude 44°26N to 49°N  - Longitude 104°2W to 116°2W Population  Ranked... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... For other uses of Skull, see Skull (disambiguation). ...


The two Morrison Formation sauropod genera Diplodocus and Barosaurus had very similar limb bones. In the past, many isolated limb bones were automatically attributed to Diplodocus but may, in fact, have belonged to Barosaurus.[17]


Valid species

  • D. longus, the type species, is known from two skulls and a caudal series from the Morrison Formation of Colorado and Utah.[18]
  • D. carnegiei, named after Andrew Carnegie, is the best known, mainly due to a near-complete skeleton collected by Jacob Wortman, of the Carnegie Museum of Natural History in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and described and named by John Bell Hatcher in 1901.
  • D. hayi, known from a partial skeleton discovered by William H. Utterback in 1902 near Sheridan, Wyoming, was described in 1924.[19]
  • D. hallorum, better known as Seismosaurus hallorum. In 2004, a presentation at the annual conference of the Geological Society of America made a case for Seismosaurus being a junior synonym of Diplodocus.[20] This was followed by a much more detailed publication in 2006, which not only renamed the species Diplodocus hallorum, but also speculated that it could prove to be the same as D. longus.[21]

A type species fixes the name of a genus (or of a taxon in a rank lower than genus). ... Andrew Carnegie (last name pronounced , )[1] (November 25, 1835 – August 11, 1919) was a Scottish industrialist, businessman, a major philanthropist, and the founder of Pittsburghs Carnegie Steel Company which later became U.S. Steel. ... The Carnegie Museums of Pittsburgh are operated by the Carnegie Institute and are located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ... “Pittsburgh” redirects here. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... John Bell Hatcher (October 11, 1861 – July 3, 1904) was an American paleontologist most famous for discovering the triceratops. ... Sheridan is a city in Sheridan County, Wyoming, United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... Binomial name Diplodocus hallorum (David Gillette, 1991) vide Lucas , 2004 Synonyms Seismosaurus hallorum David Gillette, 1991 This article is about the dinosaur. ... The Geological Society of America (or GSA) is a nonprofit organization dedicated to the advancement of the geosciences. ... Binomial name Seismosaurus hallorum David Gillette, 1991 This article is about the dinosaur. ... In zoological nomenclature, synonyms are different scientific names that pertain to the same taxon, for example two names for the same species. ...

Nomina dubia (doubtful species)

  • D. lacustris is a nomen dubium, named by Marsh in 1884, from remains of a smaller animal from Morrison, Colorado.[22] These remains are now believed to have been from an immature animal, rather than from a separate species.[23]

In scientific classification, a nomen dubium (Latin for doubtful name, plural nomina dubia) is a scientific name that is valid but of unknown or doubtful application: that is, it may be impossible to determine whether a specimen belongs to that group or not. ... Morrison is a town in Jefferson County, Colorado, in the United States. ...

Paleobiology

Due to a wealth of skeletal remains, Diplodocus is one of the best-studied dinosaurs. Many aspects of its lifestyle have been subjects of various theories over the years.


Habitat

Marsh and then Hatcher[24] assumed the animal was aquatic, because of the position of its nasal openings at the apex of the cranium. Similar aquatic behavior was commonly depicted for other large sauropods such as Brachiosaurus and Apatosaurus. The idea of an aquatic existence was later debunked, as the water pressure on the chest wall of Diplodocus was proven to have been too great for the animal to have breathed. Since the 1970s, general consensus has the sauropods as firmly terrestrial animals, browsing on trees. However, a more recent theory suggests a likely riparian habitat for Diplodocus. John Bell Hatcher (October 11, 1861 – July 3, 1904) was an American paleontologist most famous for discovering the triceratops. ... Species (type) ?B. (Giraffatitan) brancai Brachiosaurus (IPA: ) meaning Arm Lizard, from the Greek brachion/βραχιων meaning arm and sauros/σαυρος meaning lizard, was a genus of sauropod dinosaur which lived during the Late Jurassic Period. ... Species Apatosaurus ajax Apatosaurus excelsus Apatosaurus louisae Apatosaurus (pronounced ) meaning deceptive lizard, because its chevron bones were like those of Mosasaurus (Greek apatelos or apatelios = deceptive + sauros = lizard), often mistakenly referred to as Brontosaurus, is a genus of sauropod dinosaurs that lived about 140 million years ago, during the Jurassic... A riparian zone schematic from the Everglades. ...


Posture

A classic depiction of Diplodocus by Mary Woodward (1905), with neck high up in the air and tail on the ground, a posture now generally believed to be incorrect.
A classic depiction of Diplodocus by Mary Woodward (1905), with neck high up in the air and tail on the ground, a posture now generally believed to be incorrect.
Another outmoded depiction of Diplodocus by Oliver P. Hay (1910), with a high head and sprawled limbs.
Another outmoded depiction of Diplodocus by Oliver P. Hay (1910), with a high head and sprawled limbs.[25]

The depiction of Diplodocus' posture has changed considerably over the years. For instance, a classic 1910 reconstruction by Oliver P. Hay depicts two Diplodocus with splayed lizard-like limbs on the banks of a river. Hay argued that Diplodocus had a sprawling, lizard-like gait with widely-splayed legs,[26] and was supported by Gustav Tornier. However, this hypothesis was put to rest by W. J. Holland, who demonstrated that a sprawling Diplodocus would have needed a trench to pull its belly through.[27] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 496 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 620 pixel, file size: 169 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Diplodocus as depicted by Hay in 1910. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 496 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 620 pixel, file size: 169 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Diplodocus as depicted by Hay in 1910. ...


Later, diplodocids were often portrayed with their necks held high up in the air, allowing them to graze from tall trees. More recently, scientists have argued that the heart would have had trouble sustaining sufficient blood pressure to oxygenate the brain. Furthermore, more recent studies have shown that the structure of the neck vertebrae would not have permitted the neck to bend far upwards.[28][29] Genera Subfamily Apatosaurinae:    Apatosaurus    Eobrontosaurus Subfamily Diplodocinae:    Barosaurus    Diplodocus    Seismosaurus    Supersaurus Diplodocids, or members of the family Diplodocidae, are sauropod dinosaurs such as the Diplodocus and the Apatosaurus. ...

Current posture with horizontal neck, NHM, London.

As with the related genus Barosaurus, the very long neck of Diplodocus is the source of much controversy among scientists. A 1992 Columbia University study of Diplodocid neck structure indicated that the longest necks would have required a 1.6 ton heart. The study proposed that animals like these would have had rudimentary auxiliary 'hearts' in their necks, whose only purpose was to pump blood up to the next 'heart'.[4] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 2. ... For other similarly-named museums see Museum of Natural History. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Alma Mater Columbia University in the City of New York is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ...

Modern depiction of Diplodocus with horizontal neck, flexible whip tail, keratinous spines and nostrils low on the snout.
Modern depiction of Diplodocus with horizontal neck, flexible whip tail, keratinous spines and nostrils low on the snout.

While the long neck has traditionally been interpreted as a feeding adaptation, a recent study[30] suggests that the oversized neck of Diplodocus and its relatives may have been primarily a sexual display, with any other feeding benefits coming second. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


Diet

Diplodocus has highly unusual teeth compared to other sauropods. The crowns are long and slender, elliptical in cross-section, while the apex forms a blunt triangular point.[31] The most prominent wear facet is on the apex, though unlike all other wear patterns observed within sauropods, Diplodocus wear patterns are on the labial (cheek) side of both the upper and lower teeth.[31] What this means is Diplodocus and other diplodocids had a radically different feeding mechanism than other sauropods. Unilateral branch-stripping is the most likely feeding behaviour of Diplodocus,[32][33][34] as it explains the unusual wear patterns of the teeth (coming from tooth-food contact). In unilateral branch stripping, one tooth row would have been used to strip foliage from the stem, while the other would act as a guide and stabiliser. With the elongated preorbital (in-front of the eyes) region of the skull, longer portions of stems could be stripped in a single action.[31] Also the palinal (backwards) motion of the lower jaws could have contributed two significant roles to feeding behaviour: 1) an increased gape, and 2) allowed fine adjustments of the relative positions of the tooth rows, creating a smooth stripping action.[31]


With a laterally and dorsoventrally flexible neck, and the possibilty of using its tail and rearing up on its hind limbs (tripodal ability), Diplodocus would have had the ability to browse at many levels (low, medium, and high), up to approximately 10 metres (33 ft) from the ground.[35] The neck's range of movement would have also allowed the head to graze below the level of the body, leading some scientists to speculate on whether Diplodocus grazed on submerged water plants, from riverbanks. This concept of the feeding posture is supported by the relative lengths of front and hind limbs. Furthermore, its peglike teeth may have been used for eating soft water plants.[28]


Other anatomical aspects

a) skull, b) classic rendering of the head with nostrils on top, c) Bakker's theory of a trunk, d) modern depiction with nostrils low on the snout and a possible resonating chamber.
a) skull, b) classic rendering of the head with nostrils on top, c) Bakker's theory of a trunk, d) modern depiction with nostrils low on the snout and a possible resonating chamber.

The head of Diplodocus has been widely depicted with the nostrils on top due to the position of the nasal openings at the apex of the skull. There has been speculation over whether such a configuration meant that Diplodocus may have had a trunk.[36] A recent study[37] surmised there was no paleoneuroanatomical evidence for a trunk. It noted that the facial nerve in an animal with a trunk, such as an elephant, is large as it innervates the trunk. The evidence suggests that the facial nerve is very small in Diplodocus. Studies by Lawrence Witmer (2001) indicated that, while the nasal openings were high on the head, the actual, fleshy nostrils were situated much lower down on the snout.[38] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The facial nerve is the seventh (VII) of twelve paired cranial nerves. ...


Recent discoveries have suggested that Diplodocus and other diplodocids may have had narrow, pointed keratinous spines lining their back, much like those on an iguana.[39][40] This radically different look has been incorporated into recent reconstructions, notably Walking with Dinosaurs. It is unknown exactly how many diplodocids had this trait, and whether it was present in other sauropods. Not to be confused with kerogen or carotene. ... Species Lesser Antillean Iguana, Green Iguana, Iguanas are lizards native to tropical areas of Central and South America and the Caribbean. ... The factual accuracy of part of this article is disputed. ...


Reproduction and growth

While there is no evidence for Diplodocus nesting habits, other sauropods such as the titanosaurian Saltasaurus have been associated with nesting sites.[41][42] The titanosaurian nesting sites indicate that may have laid their eggs communally over a large area in many shallow pits, each covered with vegetation. It is possible that Diplodocus may have done the same. The documentary Walking with Dinosaurs portrayed a mother Diplodocus using an ovipositor to lay eggs, but it was pure speculation on the part of the documentary. Families Brachiosauridae Camarasauridae Cetiosauridae Diplodocidae Euhelopodidae Nemegtosauridae Titanosauridae Vulcanodontidae Sauropoda, the sauropods, are a suborder or infraorder of the saurischian (lizard-hipped) dinosaurs. ... Genera and Families Andesaurus Family Titanosauridae Epachthosaurus Argentinosaurus Antarctosaurus Malawisaurus Argyrosaurus Gondwanatitan Aeolosaurus Baurutitan Trigonosaurus Alamosaurus Isisaurus Subfamily Nemegtosaurinae Subfamily Saltasaurinae For the Titanosaurus featured in the Godzilla film series, see Titanosaurus (Godzilla). ... Binomial name Saltasaurus loricatus Bonaparte & Powell, 1980 Saltasaurus was a small sauropod of the late Cretaceous, characterized by a diplodocid-type head (with blunt teeth only in the back of the mouth) and was the first discovered with small bony plates embedded in its skin. ... The factual accuracy of part of this article is disputed. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Following a number of bone histology studies, Diplodocus, along with other sauropods, grew at a very fast rate, reaching sexual maturity at just over a decade, though continuing to grow throughout their lives.[43][44][45] Previous thinking held that sauropods would keep growing slowly throughout their lifetime, taking decades to reach maturity. This article is about the skeletal organs. ... A thin section of lung tissue stained with hematoxylin and eosin. ... Sexual maturity is the age/stage when an organism can reproduce. ...


Classification

Diplodocus is both the type genus of, and gives its name to Diplodocidae, the family to which it belongs.[22] Members of this family, while still massive, are of a markedly more slender build when compared with other sauropods, such as the titanosaurs and brachiosaurs. All are characterised by long necks and tails and a horizontal posture, with forelimbs shorter than hindlimbs. Diplodocids flourished in the Late Jurassic of North America and possibly Africa[13] and appear to have been replaced ecologically by titanosaurs during the Cretaceous. Type specimens When a new species is discovered, more important than creating a new and unique name for the species is developing a reasonably detailed description. ... Genera Subfamily Apatosaurinae:    Apatosaurus    Eobrontosaurus Subfamily Diplodocinae:    Barosaurus    Diplodocus    Seismosaurus    Supersaurus Diplodocids, or members of the family Diplodocidae, are sauropod dinosaurs such as the Diplodocus and the Apatosaurus. ... Genera and Families Andesaurus Family Titanosauridae Epachthosaurus Argentinosaurus Antarctosaurus Malawisaurus Argyrosaurus Gondwanatitan Aeolosaurus Baurutitan Trigonosaurus Alamosaurus Isisaurus Subfamily Nemegtosaurinae Subfamily Saltasaurinae For the Titanosaurus featured in the Godzilla film series, see Titanosaurus (Godzilla). ... Species (type) For many decades, Brachiosaurus (brack-ee-oh-SORE-us) was the largest dinosaur known. ... // The Cretaceous Period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ...


A subfamily, Diplodocinae, was erected to include Diplodocus and its closest relatives, including Barosaurus. More distantly related is the contemporaneous Apatosaurus, which is still considered a diplodocid although not a diplodocine, as it is a member of the subfamily Apatosaurinae.[46][47] The Portuguese Dinheirosaurus and the African Tornieria have also been identified as close relatives of Diplodocus by some authors.[48][49] Species (type) Barosaurus (BAHR-oh-sawr-us) meaning heavy lizard (Greek baros = heavy + sauros = lizard, referring to its heavy neck bones) was a giant, long-tailed, long-necked, plant-eating dinosaur closely related to the more familiar Diplodocus. ... Species Apatosaurus ajax Apatosaurus excelsus Apatosaurus louisae Apatosaurus (pronounced ) meaning deceptive lizard, because its chevron bones were like those of Mosasaurus (Greek apatelos or apatelios = deceptive + sauros = lizard), often mistakenly referred to as Brontosaurus, is a genus of sauropod dinosaurs that lived about 140 million years ago, during the Jurassic... Binomial name Dinheirosaurus lourinhanensis Bonaparte and Mateus, 1999 Dinheirosaurus (Porto Dinheiro reptile) is a genus of diplodocid sauropod dinosaur hailing from the upper section of the Late Jurassic strata of the Camadas de Alcobaça Formation located in central-western Portugal at Porto Dinheiro, Lourinhã. The material found was at... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Torniera (Torniers) was a sauropod dinosaur from Late Jurassic Tanzania. ...


The Diplodocoidea comprises the diplodocids, as well as dicraeosaurids, rebbachisaurids, Suuwassea,[46][47] Amphicoelias[49] and possibly Haplocanthosaurus,[50] and/or the nemegtosaurids.[6] This clade is the sister group to, Camarasaurus, brachiosaurids and titanosaurians; the Macronaria.[6][50] Together they comprise Neosauropoda; the largest, most diverse and successful group of sauropodomorph dinosaurs. Genera Amargasaurus Dicraeosaurus Brachytrachelopan Dicraeosauridae is a family of sauropod dinosaurs known from the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous of Africa and South America. ... Genera Limaysaurus Nigersaurus Rayososaurus Rebbachisaurus Rebbachisauridae is a so far still poorly known family of sauropod dinosaurs known from mostly fragmentary fossil remains from the Cretaceous of South America, Africa, and Europe. ... Species Suuwassea emilieae Suuwassea emilieae is a diplodocoid sauropod dinosaur found in the Upper Jurassic strata of the Morrison Formation, located in Southern Carbon County, Montana, USA. The fossil remains, recovered in a series of expeditions during a period spanning the years 1999 and 2000, described by Harris et al. ... Species (type) Cope, 1878b Amphicoelias (IPA pronunciation //, meaning doubly hollow, from the Greek amphi: on both sides, and koilos: hollow, concave) was a genus of herbivorous sauropod dinosaur, which may have included the largest dinosaur ever discovered, . Based on surviving descriptions of a single fossil bone, may have been the... Haplocanthosaurus (One Spined Lizard) was a sauropod that closely resembled Cetiosaurus. ... Families Brachiosauridae Camarasauridae Cetiosauridae Diplodocidae Euhelopodidae Nemegtosauridae Titanosauridae Vulcanodontidae Sauropoda, the sauropods, are a suborder or infraorder of the saurischian (lizard-hipped) dinosaurs. ... A clade is a term belonging to the discipline of cladistics. ... Genera Brachiosaurus Cedarosaurus Giraffatitan Lusotitan Brachiosauridae is a family of dinosaurs, whose members are known as Brachiosaurids. ... Groups Saturnalia Prosauropoda Sauropoda The Sauropodomorpha were a group of long-necked, herbivorous dinosaurs that eventually dropped down on all fours and became the largest animals that ever the walked the earth. ...


In popular culture

A statue of Diplodocus carnegiei in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Diplodocus has been a famous and much-depicted dinosaur. Much of this has probably been due to its wealth of skeletal remains and former status as the longest known dinosaur. However, the donation of many mounted skeletal casts around the world a century ago[51] did much to familarise it to people worldwide. Casts of Diplodocus skeletons are still displayed in many museums worldwide, including an unusual D. hayi in the Houston Museum of Natural Science, and D. carnegiei in the Natural History Museum in London, the Natural Science Museum in Madrid, Spain, the Senckenberg Museum in Frankfurt, Germany, the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago and, of course, the original is still on display at the Carnegie Museum of Natural History in Pittsburgh. A mounted skeleton of D. longus is at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D. C., while a mounted skeleton of D. hallorum (formerly Seismosaurus), which may be the same as D. longus, can be found at the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science. Image File history File links Statue of Diplodocus carnegii by Adam Retchless This statue is in front of the Carnegie Museum of Natural History in Pittsburgh, PA. This photo was taken on 4 May 2004. ... Image File history File links Statue of Diplodocus carnegii by Adam Retchless This statue is in front of the Carnegie Museum of Natural History in Pittsburgh, PA. This photo was taken on 4 May 2004. ... “Pittsburgh” redirects here. ... Template:Reqcleanup The Houston Museum of Natural Science is a museum located in Houston, Texas. ... For other similarly-named museums see Museum of Natural History. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Motto: (Spanish for From Madrid to Heaven) Location Coordinates: , Country Spain Autonomous Community Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid Province Madrid Administrative Divisions 21 Neighborhoods 127 Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón Jimémez (PP) Area  - Land 607 km² (234. ... T. Rex The Senckenberg Museum in Frankfurt is the largest museum of natural history in Germany. ... For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago The Field Museum of Natural History, in Chicago, Illinois, USA, sits on Lake Shore Drive next to Lake Michigan, part of a scenic complex known as Museum Campus Chicago. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... The Carnegie Museums of Pittsburgh are operated by the Carnegie Institute and are located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ... Inside the National Museum of Natural History, underneath the rotunda. ... ... The Entrance to the Museum The Atrium The New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science is a natural history and science museum in Albuquerque, New Mexico near Old Town Albuquerque. ...


Diplodocus has been a frequent subject in dinosaur films, both factual and fictional. It was featured in the second episode of the award-winning BBC television series Walking with Dinosaurs. The episode "Time of the Titans" follows the life of a simulated Diplodocus 152 million years ago. The animated feature Fantasia features many sauropods in the Rite of Spring sequence, some narrower-headed ones of which may be Diplodocus.It also appeared in The Ballad Of Big Al and The Lost World (2001 film).In literature, James A. Michener's book Centennial has a chapter devoted to Diplodocus, narrating the life and death of one individual. The factual accuracy of part of this article is disputed. ... Fantasia is a 1940 motion picture, produced by Walt Disney and first released on November 13, 1940 in the United States. ... The Rite of Spring is a ballet with music by the Russian composer Igor Stravinsky. ... Big Al looking over some trees. ... The 2001 adaptation of The Lost World by Arthur Conan Doyle was made by the BBC and A&E. It consisted of two 75-minute episodes which were first aired in the UK on December 25 and 26, 2001, and in the USA on October 6 and 7, 2002. ... James Albert Michener (February 3, 1907? - October 16, 1997) was the American author of such books as Tales of the South Pacific (for which he won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1948), Hawaii, The Drifters, Centennial, The Source, The Fires of Spring, Chesapeake, Caribbean, Caravans, Alaska, Texas, and Poland. ... Centennial was a novel written by American author James Michener and published in 1974. ...

Footnotes

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The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a comprehensive multi-volume dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP). ... The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD) is an American dictionary of the English language published by Boston publisher Houghton-Mifflin, the first edition of which appeared in 1969. ... Othniel Charles Marsh (1831-1899) Othniel Charles Marsh (October 29, 1831 - March 18, 1899) was one of the pre-eminent paleontologists of the 19th century, who discovered and named many fossils found in the American West. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert T. Bakker Dr. Robert T. Bakker (Bob Bakker), born March 24, 1945, in Bergen County, New Jersey, is an American paleontologist who has helped re-shape modern theories about dinosaurs, particularly by adding support to the theory that some dinosaurs were homeothermic (warm-blooded). ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Dinosaurs Portal
  • Diplodocus in the Dino Directory
  • Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid
  • Diplodocus Marsh, by J.B. Hatcher 1901 - Its Osteology, Taxonomy, and Probable Habits, with a Restoration of the Skeleton. Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum, Volume 1, Number 1, 1901. Full text, Free to read.
  • Carnegie Museum of Natural History - History
  • Skeletal restorations of diplodocids including D. carnegii, D. longus, and D. hallorum, from Scott Hartman's Skeletal Drawing website.
  • Chapter 5: The Amphibious Dinosaurs - Brontosaurus, Diplodocusw, Etc. Sub-Order Opisthocœlia (Cetiosauria or Sauropoda by W. D. Matthew, who is credited amongst other accomplishments as authorship of the family Dromaeosauridae, and former Curator of Vertebrate Paleontology at the American Museum of Natural History in New York; Originally published in 1915

  Results from FactBites:
 
Diplodocus (148 words)
Diplodocus (Latin: "double-beam") is a type of dinosaur of subgroup Sauropoda[?].
The first Diplodocus skeleton of was found in 1897 in Como Bluff, Wyoming[?] by Earl Douglass[?] and Samuel Wlliston[?] in 1877 and was named Diplodocus longus ("long double-beam") by paleontologist Othniel Marsh[?] in 1878.
Diplodocus remains have been found in the Western United States of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.
Diplodocus - LoveToKnow 1911 (535 words)
DIPLODOCUS, a gigantic extinct land reptile discovered in rocks of Upper Jurassic age in western North America, the bestknown example of a Sauropodous Dinosaur.
Shortly afterwards plaster casts of the finest specimens were prepared under the direction of Mr J. Hatcher and Dr W. Holland, and these were skilfully combined to form the cast of a completely reconstructed skeleton, which was presented to the British Museum by Andrew Carnegie in 1905.
The cast of the reconstructed skeleton of Diplodocus carnegii measures 84 ft. in length and 12 ft. 9 in.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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