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Encyclopedia > Diphenhydramine
Diphenhydramine
Systematic (IUPAC) name
2-benzhydryloxy-N,N-dimethyl-ethanamine
Identifiers
CAS number 58-73-1
ATC code D04AA32 D04AA33, R06AA02
PubChem 3100
DrugBank APRD00587
Chemical data
Formula C17H21NO 
Mol. mass 255.355 g/mol
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 86% bound to plasma protein
Protein binding 98 to 99%
Metabolism Various cytochrome P450 liver enzymes (cyp 2D6 (80%) ,cyp 3A4 (10%)
Half life 2-8 hours
Excretion 94% through the urine, 6% through feces
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

B Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... The DrugBank database available at the University of Alberta is a unique bioinformatics and cheminformatics resource that combines detailed drug (i. ... A chemical formula is an easy way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... The molecular mass (abbreviated Mr) of a substance, formerly also called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. ... A drugs efficacy may be affected by the degree to which it binds to the proteins within blood plasma. ... Drug metabolism is the metabolism of drugs, their biochemical modification or degradation, usually through specialized enzymatic systems. ... The biological half-life of a substance is the time required for half of that substance to be removed from an organism by either a physical or a chemical process. ... The kidneys are important excretory organs in vertebrates. ... The pregnancy category of a pharmaceutical agent is an assessment of the risk of fetal injury due to the pharmaceutical, if it is used as directed by the mother during pregnancy. ...

Legal status

Over-the-counter, non-regulated The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction. ...

Routes Oral, parenteral (IM), suppository
Indicated for:

Other uses:
In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body. ... An H1 antihistamine is a histamine antagonist which serves to reduce or eliminate effects mediated by histamine, an endogenous chemical mediator released during allergic reactions, through action at the H1 receptor. ... For the album by Bright Eyes, see Motion Sickness. ... A sedative is a substance that depresses the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in calmness, relaxation, reduction of anxiety, sleepiness, and slowed breathing, as well as slurred speech, staggering gait, poor judgment, and slow, uncertain reflexes. ... Hypnotic drugs are a class of drugs that induce sleep, used in the treatment of severe insomnia. ...

Contraindications:
  • Use in neonates and premature infants
  • Use in nursing mothers
  • Use as a local anesthetic
  • Use in people with hypersensitivity to diphenhydramine hydrochloride and other antihistamines of similar chemical structure
Non-medical use/abuse:
  • Used as a deliriant/hallucinogen
Side effects:

Severe: In human anatomy, the extrapyramidal system is a neural network located in the brain that is part of the motor system involved in the coordination of movement. ... The term antipsychotic is applied to a group of drugs used to treat psychosis. ... In medicine, a contraindication is a condition or factor that increases the risk involved in using a particular drug, carrying out a medical procedure or engaging in a particular activity. ... Recreational drug use is the use of psychoactive drugs for recreational purposes rather than for work, medical or spiritual purposes, although the distinction is not always clear. ... An adverse drug reaction (abbreviated ADR) or adverse drug event (abbreviated ADE) is an expression that describes the unwanted, negative consequences associated with the use of given medications. ...

Atypical sensations: Heart attack redirects here. ... Cardiac arrhythmia is any of a group of conditions in which the electrical activity of the heart is irregular or is faster or slower than normal. ... For other uses, see Coma (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sensation and perception psychology. ...

  • Feelings of heaviness, hearing disturbance

Cardiovascular: The circulatory system or cardiovascular system is the organ system which circulates blood around the body of most animals. ...

  • Hypertension in sensitive individuals

Ear, nose, and throat: For other uses, see Ear (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nose (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Throat (disambiguation). ...

  • Dryness of the nose and throat, heartburn

Endocrinal: The endocrine system is a control system of ductless endocrine glands that secrete chemical messengers called hormones that circulate within the body via the bloodstream to affect distant organs. ...

  • Increased or decreased appetite

Eye: For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ...

  • Dryness of the eyes, redness of the eyes, yellowing of the eyes

Gastrointestinal: For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and...

  • Constipation, nausea

Hematological: Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are present in the blood and help carry oxygen to the rest of the cells in the body Blood is a circulating tissue composed of fluid plasma and cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets). ...

  • Hepatotoxicity in extremely large dosages

Musculoskeletal: For other uses of Muscles, see Muscles (disambiguation). ... Skeleton is also a winter sport: see skeleton (sport). ...

  • Incoordination, slow muscle response, fasciculations (twitching), restlessness, extrapyramidal side-effects, restless-leg syndrome

Neurological: A fasciculation (or muscle twitch) is a small, local, involuntary muscle contraction (twitching) visible under the skin arising from the spontaneous discharge of a bundle of skeletal muscle fibers. ... Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the central and peripheral nervous systems. ...

  • Confusion, clouded thinking, drowsiness, hallucinations, delirium, euphoria, short-term memory loss

Psychological: Psychology (ancient Greek: psyche = soul and logos = word) is the study of mind, thought, and behaviour. ...

  • Agitation, anxiety, emotional lability, depression, excitability (especially in children), paranoia

Respiratory: In animal physiology, respiration is the transport of oxygen from the ambient air to the tissue cells and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. ...

  • Decreased respiration

Skin: This article is about the organ. ...

Urogenital and reproductive: Photosensitivity is the amount to which an object reacts upon receiving photons of light. ... A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, narrowly defined, is any of those parts of the body (which are not always bodily organs according to the strict definition) which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in an complex organism; namely: Male: penis (notably the glans penis... Reproduction is the creation of one thing as a copy of, product of, or replacement for a similar thing, e. ...

  • Urinary retention, sexual dysfunction, vaginal dryness, decreased libido

Miscellaneous:

  • ?

Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (trade name Benadryl as produced by Johnson & Johnson, or Dimedrol outside the U.S. & Canada. Nytol as a sleeping pill) is an over-the-counter (OTC) antihistamine, antiemetic, sedative and hypnotic. It may also be used for the treatment of extrapyramidal side effects of typical antipsychotics. It is a member of the ethanolamine class of antihistaminergic agents. Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (trade name Benadryl®, or Dimedrol outside the US) is an over-the-counter (OTC) antihistamine and sedative. ... Johnson & Johnson (NYSE: JNJ) is an international Pharmaceutical and Medical Devices manufacturer founded in 1885. ... Nytol is a brand of sleeping pill produced by GlaxoSmithKline. ... Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines that may be sold without a prescription, in contrast to prescription drugs. ... An H1 antihistamine is a histamine antagonist which serves to reduce or eliminate effects mediated by histamine, an endogenous chemical mediator released during allergic reactions, through action at the H1 receptor. ... An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea. ... A sedative is a substance that depresses the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in calmness, relaxation, reduction of anxiety, sleepiness, and slowed breathing, as well as slurred speech, staggering gait, poor judgment, and slow, uncertain reflexes. ... Hypnotic drugs are a class of drugs that induce sleep, used in the treatment of severe insomnia. ... In human anatomy, the extrapyramidal system is a neural network located in the brain that is part of the motor system involved in the coordination of movement. ... Typical antipsychotics (sometimes referred to as conventional antipsychotics or conventional neuroleptics) are a class of antipsychotic drugs first developed in the 1950s and used to treat psychosis (in particular, schizophrenia), and are generally being replaced by atypical antipsychotic drugs. ... Ethanolamine, also called 2-aminoethanol or monoethanolamine (often abbreviated as MEA), is an organic chemical compound which is both a primary amine (due to an amino group in its molecule) and a primary alcohol (due to a hydroxyl group). ... An antihistamine is a drug which serves to reduce or eliminate effects mediated by histamine, an endogenous chemical mediator released during allergic reactions, through action at the histamine receptor. ...


Diphenhydramine is an anticholinergic, possessing 58 per cent of the anti-muscarinic power of atropine and was discovered during the search for synthetic alternatives to scopolamine which would be easier to work with. An anticholinergic agent is a member of a class of pharmaceutical compounds which serve to reduce the effects mediated by acetylcholine in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. ... Atropine is a tropane alkaloid extracted from the deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) and other plants of the family Solanaceae. ... Scopolamine, also known as hyoscine, is a tropane alkaloid drug obtained from plants of the family Solanaceae (nightshades), such as henbane or jimson weed (Datura species). ...


Diphenhydramine was one of the first known antihistamines, invented in 1943 by Dr. George Rieveschl.[1] It became the first FDA-approved prescription antihistamine in 1946.[2] Dr. George Rieveschl (January, 1916 [1] – September 27, 2007) was an American chemical engineering professor. ...


The brand Benadryl is currently trademarked in the United States by Pfizer, however many drug store chains and retail outlets manufacture less-costly generic versions under their own store brands. “(TM)” redirects here. ... Pfizer Incorporated (NYSE: PFE) is a major pharmaceutical company, which ranks number one in the world in sales[2]. The company is based in New York City. ... A generic drug (pl. ...

Contents

Pharmacological action

Diphenhydramine works by blocking the effect of histamine at H1 receptor sites. This results in effects such as the reduction of smooth muscle contraction, making diphenhydramine a popular choice for treatment of the symptoms of allergic rhinitis, hives, motion sickness, and insect bites and stings. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot Refseq Location Pubmed search The H1 receptor is a histamine receptor, and thus an important target for clinically important drugs, and is likely one of the most important receptors for modulating mammalian circadian cycles. ... Transmembrane receptors are integral membrane proteins, which reside and operate typically within a cells plasma membrane, but also in the membranes of some subcellular compartments and organelles. ... Smooth muscle Layers of Esophageal Wall: 1. ... For the play, see Hay Fever. ... Urticaria or Hives is a relatively common form of allergic reaction that causes. ... For the album by Bright Eyes, see Motion Sickness. ...


In the 1960s it was found that diphenhydramine inhibits reuptake of the neurotransmitter serotonin. This discovery led to a search for viable antidepressants with similar structures and fewer side effects, culminating in the invention of fluoxetine (Prozac), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). A similar search had previously led to the synthesis of the first SSRI zimelidine from chlorpheniramine, also an antihistamine. Reuptake, or re-uptake, is the reabsorption of a neurotransmitter by the neurotransmitter transporter of a pre-synaptic neuron after it has performed its function of transmitting a neural impulse. ... Chemical structure of D-aspartic acid, a common amino acid neurotransmitter. ... For the professional wrestling stable, see Ravens Nest#Serotonin. ... Prozac, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Venlafaxine An antidepressant is a psychiatric medication or other substance (nutrient or herb) used for alleviating depression or dysthymia (milder depression). ... Prozac redirects here. ... SSRI redirects here; for other uses, see SSRI (disambiguation). ... // General Remars and History Zimelidine is a pyridylallylamine and has a structure different from other antidepressants. ... Chlorphenamine (INN) or chlorpheniramine (USAN, former BAN), commonly marketed as its salt chlorphenamine maleate (CPM), is first-generation antihistamine used in the prevention of the symptoms of allergic conditions such as rhinitis and urticaria. ...


Common use and dosage

Diphenhydramine is a first-generation antihistamine drug. Despite being one of the oldest antihistamines on the market, it is largely the most effective antihistamine available either by prescription or over-the-counter, and has been shown to exceed the effectiveness of even the latest prescription drugs.[3] Consequently, it is frequently used when an allergic reaction requires fast, effective reversal of the often dangerous effects of a massive histamine release. However, it is not always the drug of choice for treating allergies. An H1 antihistamine is a histamine antagonist which serves to reduce or eliminate effects mediated by histamine, an endogenous chemical mediator released during allergic reactions, through action at the H1 receptor. ...


It is known that diphenhydramine has sedative properties. Many new antihistamines have been introduced without the side effect of sedation. The drug is also used as a sleep aid and is an ingredient in many sleep aids, such as Unisom gelcaps (however, the tablet form of Unisom contains Doxylamine, a different active ingredient[4]), and most notably Tylenol PM where it is combined with acetaminophen (paracetamol), and Nytol and Sominex which have diphenhydramine as the only active ingredient. Several generic and store brands of antihistamines and sleep aids also contain solely diphenhydramine, such as Tylenol Simply Sleep. A sedative is a substance that depresses the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in calmness, relaxation, reduction of anxiety, sleepiness, and slowed breathing, as well as slurred speech, staggering gait, poor judgment, and slow, uncertain reflexes. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with hypnotic. ... Unisom is the Pfizer brand name for an over-the-counter sleep-aid medication. ... This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ... Tylenol PM is the trademark for a mixture of paracetamol (acetaminophen) and diphenhydramine, distributed by Johnson & Johnson. ... Acetaminophen (USAN) or paracetamol (INN), is a popular analgesic and antipyretic drug that is used for the relief of fever, headaches, and other minor aches and pains. ... Paracetamol (INN) (IPA: ) or acetaminophen (USAN), is the active metabolite of phenacetin, a so-called coal tar analgesic. ...


Diphenhydramine is widely used in nonprescription sleep aids with a maximum recommended dose of 50mg (as the hydrochloride salt) being mandated by the FDA. In the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and other countries, a 50 to 100mg recommended dose is permitted, though in the case of New Zealand the purchaser is required to provide the pharmacist with their name, address and other personal identification to be later logged in a national police data base following any purchase of over the counter medications containing diphenhydramine such as Unisom.[citation needed] Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines that may be sold without a prescription, in contrast to prescription drugs. ... In chemistry, hydrochlorides are salts resulting, or regarded as resulting, from the reaction of hydrochloric acid with an organic base (mostly amines). ... Unisom is the Pfizer brand name for an over-the-counter sleep-aid medication. ...


There are also topical formulations of diphenhydramine available, including creams, lotions, gels, and sprays. They are used to relieve itching, and have the advantage of causing much less systemic effect (i.e. drowsiness) than oral forms.[citation needed]


Side effects

Like many other first-generation antihistamines, diphenhydramine is a potent anticholinergic agent. This leads to profound drowsiness as a very common side-effect, along with the possibilities of motor impairment (ataxia), dry mouth and throat, flushed skin, rapid or irregular heartbeat (tachycardia), blurred vision at nearpoint owing to lack of accommodation (cycloplegia), abnormal sensitivity to bright light (photophobia), pupil dilation (mydriasis), urinary retention (ischuria), constipation, difficulty concentrating, short-term memory loss, visual disturbances, hallucinations, irritability, itchy skin, confusion, erectile dysfunction, and delirium. Some side effects such as twitching may be delayed until the drowsiness begins to cease and the person is in more of an awakening mode. Diphenhydramine also has local anesthetic properties, and has been used for patients allergic to common local anesthetics like lidocaine.[5] Severe, prolonged twitching and muscle spasm have also been experienced. An anticholinergic agent is a member of a class of pharmaceutical compounds which serve to reduce the effects mediated by acetylcholine in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. ... For other uses, see Ataxia (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Cycloplegia is the paralysis of the ciliary muscle, resulting in a loss of accommodation. ... Photophobia (also light sensitivity) or fear of light, is a symptom of excessive sensitivity to light and the aversion to sunlight or well-lit places. ... Mydriasis is an excessive dilation of the pupil due to disease or drugs. ... Urinary retention also known as ischuria is a lack of ability to urinate. ... A local anesthetic is a drug that reversibly inhibits the propagation of signals along nerves. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Lidocaine (INN) (IPA: ) or lignocaine (former BAN) (IPA: ) is a common local anesthetic and antiarrhythmic drug. ...


The most common cardiac dysrhythmias associated with diphenhydramine overdose are sinus bradycardia, elongated S-T segment interval, and premature ventricular contraction. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Diphenhydramine is similar in its effects to dimenhydrinate (Dramamine), its 8-chlorotheophylline salt, although the latter is approximately 60% the potency in terms of required dosage and is slightly less sedating. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Some patients have an allergic reaction to diphenhydramine in the form of hives. [6] [7]


Recreational use

Diphenhydramine is used both clinically and recreationally as a potentiator of opioids[citation needed] and recreationally as a deliriant, depressant, or booster for alcohol. Mixing medications with sedating antihistamines other than under medical supervision can be quite dangerous. In clinical terms, a potentiator is a reagent that enhances sensitization of an antigen. ... == LOL == // The deliriants (or anticholinergics) are a special class of acetylcholine-inhibitor dissociatives. ... A depressant, referred to in slang as a downer, is a chemical agent that diminishes the function or activity of a specific part of the body. ...


Those who use diphenhydramine recreationally take a higher dose than recommended. The mental effects are described by many as "dreaming while awake"[citation needed] involving visual and auditory hallucinations that, unlike those experienced with most psychedelic drugs, often cannot be readily distinguished from reality. People who consume a high recreational dose can possibly find themselves in a hallucination which places them in a familiar situation with people and friends and rooms they know, while in reality being in a totally different setting. Inexperienced users of hallucinogens are liable to panic. Recreational drug use is the use of psychoactive drugs for recreational purposes rather than for work, medical or spiritual purposes, although the distinction is not always clear. ... A fractal pattern similar to the spiral patterns that may be seen as the result of some psychedelic drug experiences. ... Panic is the primal urge to run and hide in the face of imminent danger. ...


Many users report a side effect profile consistent with tropane glycoalkaloidal poisoning.[citation needed] This is due to antagonism of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in both the central and autonomic nervous system which inhibits various signal transduction pathways. In the CNS, diphenhydramine readily crosses the blood-brain barrier, exerting effects within the visual and auditory cortex. Chemical structure of tropane Tropane (C8H15N, 8-methyl-8-aza-bicyclo[3. ... Chemical structure of ephedrine, a phenethylamine alkaloid An alkaloid is a nitrogen-containing naturally occurring compound, produced by a large variety of organisms, including fungi, plants, animals, and bacteria. ... Antagonists will block the binding of an agonist at a receptor molecule, inhibiting the signal produced by a receptor-agonist coupling. ... Muscarinic receptors are those membrane bound acetylcholine receptors that are more sensitive to muscarine than to nicotine. ... The chemical compound acetylcholine, often abbreviated as ACh, was the first neurotransmitter to be identified. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In biology, signal transduction refers to any process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another, most often involving ordered sequences of biochemical reactions inside the cell, that are carried out by enzymes and linked through second messengers resulting in what is thought of as... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a membranic structure that acts primarily to protect the brain from chemicals in the blood, while still allowing essential metabolic function. ... Brodmann area 17 (primary visual cortex) is shown in red in this image which also shows area 18 (orange) and 19 (yellow) The visual cortex refers to the primary visual cortex (also known as striate cortex or V1) and extrastriate visual cortical areas such as V2, V3, V4, and V5. ... The primary auditory cortex is the region of the brain that is responsible for processing of auditory (sound) information. ...


Other CNS effects occur within the limbic system and hippocampus, causing confusion and temporary amnesia. Toxicology also manifests in the autonomic nervous system, primarily at the neuromuscular junction, resulting in ataxia and extrapyramidal side-effects, and at sympathetic post-ganglionic junctions, causing urinary retention, pupil dilation, tachycardia, irregular urination, and dry skin and mucous membranes. Considerable overdosage can lead to myocardial infarction (heart attack), serious ventricular dysrhythmias, coma and death. Such a side-effect profile is thought to give ethanolamine-class antihistamines a relatively low abuse liability. The specific antidote for diphenhydramine poisoning is physostigmine, usually given by IV in hospital. A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... The limbic system is a historically defined set of brain structures that support a variety of functions including emotion and memory. ... For other uses, see Hippocampus (disambiguation). ... Look up Confusion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Confusion can have the following meanings: Unclarity or puzzlement, e. ... For other uses, see Amnesia (disambiguation). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A neuromuscular junction is the junction of the axon terminal of a motoneuron with the motor end plate, the highly-excitable region of muscle fiber plasma membrane responsible for initiation of action potentials across the muscles surface. ... For other uses, see Ataxia (disambiguation). ... In human anatomy, the extrapyramidal system is a neural network located in the brain that is part of the motor system involved in the coordination of movement. ... The Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) is a branch of the autonomic nervous system. ... This is a dorsal root ganglion (DRG) from a chicken embryo (around stage of day 7) after incubation overnight in NGF growth medium stained with anti-neurofilament antibody. ... Urinary retention also known as ischuria is a lack of ability to urinate. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Manneken Pis of Brussels. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosa) are linings of ectodermic origin, covered in epithelium, that line various body cavities and internal organs. ... Heart attack redirects here. ... Cardiac arrhythmia is any of a group of conditions in which the electrical activity of the heart is irregular or is faster or slower than normal. ... For other uses, see Coma (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ... Ethanolamine, also called 2-aminoethanol or monoethanolamine (often abbreviated as MEA), is an organic chemical compound which is both a primary amine (due to an amino group in its molecule) and a primary alcohol (due to a hydroxyl group). ... Physostigmine is a parasympathomimetic, specifically, an irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor obtained from the Calabar bean. ...


The opioid-potentiating dose is between 10 and 75 mg depending on body size and length of diphenhydramine use.[citation needed]


See also

Akathisia (or acathisia) is an often extremely unpleasant subjective sensation of inner restlessness that manifests itself with an inability to sit still or remain motionless, hence the origin of its name: Greek a (without) + kathesis (sitting). ... Acrivastine is a medication used for the treatment of allergies and hay fever. ... Cetirizine hydrochloride (IPA sɛ.ˈtɪɹ.ɪ.ˌzin) is a major metabolite of hydroxyzine, and a racemic selective H1 receptor antagonist used in the treatment of allergies, hay fever, angioedema, and urticaria. ...

External links

PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ...

References

Notes

  1. ^ George Rieveschl, 91, Allergy Reliever, Dies - New York Times
  2. ^ James Ritchie. UC prof, Benadryl inventor dies. Business Courier of Cincinnati. Retrieved on 2007-10-23.
  3. ^ Raphael GD, Angello JT, Wu MM, Druce HM (2006). "Efficacy of diphenhydramine vs desloratadine and placebo in patients with moderate-to-severe seasonal allergic rhinitis.". Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 96 (4): 606-614. PMID 16680933. 
  4. ^ Chattem: Unisom.
  5. ^ Postgraduate Medicine: Local anesthesia
  6. ^ Heine, A. (1996). Diphenhydramine: a forgotten allergen? Contact Dermatitis, 35(5), 311-2.
  7. ^ Coskey, R.J. (1983). Contact dermatitis caused by diphenhydramine hydrochloride. Journal of the Americal Academy of Dermatology, 8(2), 204-6.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Sources

Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A histamine antagonist is an agent which serves to inhibit the release or action of histamine. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Ethers can refer to: In internet routing, the term associated with hosts In Organic chemistry, the plural of ether This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Carbinoxamine is an antihistamine. ... Clemastine is an over-the-counter antihistamine sold in the United States under the name Tavist. ... Chlorphenoxamine is an antipruritic. ... Diphenylpyraline is an antihistamine. ... This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ... Orphenadrine (Norflex®, Disipal®, Banflex®, Flexon® and others) is an anticholinergic and NMDA receptor antagonist [1]drug belonging to the ethanolamine class of antihistamines. ... Phenyltoloxamine is an antihistamine with sedative and analgesic effects. ... Categories: Stub | Antihistamines ... Chlorphenamine (INN) or chlorpheniramine (USAN, former BAN), commonly marketed as its salt chlorphenamine maleate (CPM), is first-generation antihistamine used in the prevention of the symptoms of allergic conditions such as rhinitis and urticaria. ... Dexbrompheniramine maleate is an antihistamine used to treat allergic conditions such as hay fever or urticaria. ... Dexchlorpheniramine maleate (Polaramine®, Schering) is an antihistamine used to treat allergic conditions such as hay fever or urticaria. ... Dimetindene is an antipruritic. ... Pheniramine maleate is an antihistamine used to treat allergic conditions such as hay fever or urticaria. ... Talastine (also known as Aganon and Ahanon) is an antihistamine. ... Ethylene diamine (EDA), or 1,2-diaminoethane, is an organic compound from the amines group. ... Chloropyramine is a classical (old or first generation) antihistamine drug approved in some Eastern European countries for the treatment of allergic conjuctivitis, allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, and other atopic (allergic) conditions. ... Histapyrrodine is an antihistamine with anticholinergic properties. ... Mepyramine[1] is a first generation antihistamine. ... Methapyrilene is a pyridine antihistamine. ... Tripelennamine (INN, also known as pyribenzamine) is a first generation pyridine antipruritic and antihistamine in the ethylenediamine class. ... Phenothiazines are the largest of the 5 main classes of antipsychotic drugs. ... Alimemazine (INN), also known as trimeprazine (former BAN and USAN; trade names Nedeltran, Panectyl, Repeltin, Therafene, Theralen, Theralene, Vallergan, Vanectyl, or Temaril), commonly provided as a tartrate salt, is a phenothiazine derivative that is used as an antipruritic (it prevents itching from causes such as eczema or poison ivy, by... Hydroxyethylpromethazine is a promethazine derivative used as an antihistamine. ... Isothipendyl is an antipruritic. ... Mequitazine is an antihistamine. ... Methdilazine is an antihistamine. ... Oxomemazine is an antihistamine. ... Promethazine is a first-generation H1 receptor antagonist antihistamine and antiemetic medication. ... Basic piperazine structure Piperazine is a six-sided organic ring compound containing two opposing nitrogen atoms (see image). ... Buclizine is an antihistamine of the piperazine derivative family. ... Cetirizine hydrochloride (IPA sÉ›.ˈtɪɹ.ɪ.ËŒzin) is a major metabolite of hydroxyzine, and a racemic selective H1 receptor antagonist used in the treatment of allergies, hay fever, angioedema, and urticaria. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... Cinnarizine is an anti histaminic drug which is mainly used for the contol of vomiting due to motion sickness. ... Cyclizine is an antihistamine drug used to treat nausea, vomiting and dizziness associated with motion sickness, vertigo and post-operative following administration of general anaesthesia and opioids. ... Hydroxyzine (pronounced ) is a first-generation antihistamine, of the piperazine class that is an H1 receptor antagonist. ... Xyzal Levocetirizine (as levocetirizine dihydrochloride) is a third generation non-sedative antihistamine, developed from the second generation antihistamine cetirizine. ... Meclizine (proposed INN is meclozine) is an antihistamine, considered to be an antiemetic. ... Niaprazine (Nopron) is a piperazine derivative drug which acts as a sedating antihistamine. ... Oxatomide is a piperazine antihistamine. ... Antazoline is an antihistamine used to relieve nasal congestion and in eye drops, usually in combination with naphazoline, to relieve the symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis. ... Azatadine is an antihistamine. ... Bamipine is an antihistamine employed as an antipruritic. ... Cyproheptadine (usually as cyproheptadine hydrochloride, trade name Periactin) is an antihistaminic and antiserotonergic agent. ... Deptropine (INN, also known as dibenzheptropine) is an antihistamine with anticholinergic properties. ... Dimebon (Dimebolin) is an antihistamine drug which has been used clinically in Russia since 1983. ... Ebastin is non sedating H1 antihistamine Does not penetratethe blood brain barrier and thus allow an effective blocked of H1 receptor in peripheral tissue without centeral side effect i. ... Epinastine hydrochloride (Elestat®) is an antihistamine that is used in eye drops to treat allergic conjunctivitis. ... Ketotifen fumarate (Zaditor®) is an H1-antihistamine available in two forms. ... Mebhydroline is an antihistamine. ... Mizolastine is an antihistamine. ... Phenindamine is an antihistamine. ... Pimethixene is an antihistamine often used to treat hyperactivity, anxiety, sleep disorders, and allergy. ... Pyrrobutamine is an antihistamine. ... Rupatadine is a new selective histamine H1 receptor and platelet-activating factor (PAF) antagonist. ... Triprolidine hydrochloride is an over-the-counter antihistamine. ... Acrivastine is a medication used for the treatment of allergies and hay fever. ... Astemizole is a second generation antihistamine that has a long duration of action. ... Azelastine hydrochloride is an antihistamine and mast cell stabilizer available as a nasal spray (Astelin®) for hay fever and as eye drops (Optilar®) for allergic conjunctivitis. ... Desloratadine is a drug used to treat allergies. ... Fexofenadine hydrochloride (brand names include Allegra® and Telfast®) is an antihistamine drug used in the treatment of hayfever and similar allergy symptoms. ... Loratadine is a drug used to treat allergies, and marketed for its nonsedating properties. ... Terfenadine is an antihistamine formerly used for the treatment of allergic conditions. ... In medicine, a topical medication is applied to body surfaces such as the skin or mucous membranes such as the vagina, nasopharynx, or the eye. ... Bamipine is an antihistamine employed as an antipruritic. ... Chloropyramine is a classical (old or first generation) antihistamine drug approved in some Eastern European countries for the treatment of allergic conjuctivitis, allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, and other atopic (allergic) conditions. ... Chlorphenoxamine is an antipruritic. ... Clemastine is an over-the-counter antihistamine sold in the United States under the name Tavist. ... Dimetindene is an antipruritic. ... Isothipendyl is an antipruritic. ... Mepyramine[1] is a first generation antihistamine. ... Promethazine is a first-generation H1 receptor antagonist antihistamine and antiemetic medication. ... Thenalidine is an antihistamine used as an antipruritic. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In physiology, corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. ... Antazoline is an antihistamine used to relieve nasal congestion and in eye drops, usually in combination with naphazoline, to relieve the symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis. ... Azelastine hydrochloride is an antihistamine and mast cell stabilizer available as a nasal spray (Astelin®) for hay fever and as eye drops (Optilar®) for allergic conjunctivitis. ... Emedastine difumarate (Emadine®) is an antihistamine used in eye drops to treat allergic conjunctivitis. ... Epinastine hydrochloride (Elestat®) is an antihistamine that is used in eye drops to treat allergic conjunctivitis. ... Ketotifen fumarate (Zaditor®) is an H1-antihistamine available in two forms. ... Montelukast is a leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) used for the maintenance treatment of asthma and to relieve symptoms of seasonal allergies. ... Olopatadine hydrochloride is an antihistamine and mast cell stabilizer, usually sold as a prescription eye drop (0. ... Antipruritics, also known as anti-itch drugs, are medications that inhibit the itching (Latin: pruritus) that is often associated with sunburns, allergic reactions, eczema, psoriasis, chickenpox, fungal infections, insect bites and stings like those from mosquitoes, fleas, and mites, and contact dermatitis and urticaria caused by plants such as poison... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... An H1 antihistamine is a histamine antagonist which serves to reduce or eliminate effects mediated by histamine, an endogenous chemical mediator released during allergic reactions, through action at the H1 receptor. ... In medicine, a topical medication is applied to body surfaces such as the skin or mucous membranes such as the vagina, nasopharynx, or the eye. ... Thonzylamine is an antihistamine used as an antipruritic. ... Mepyramine[1] is a first generation antihistamine. ... Thenalidine is an antihistamine used as an antipruritic. ... Tripelennamine (INN, also known as pyribenzamine) is a first generation pyridine antipruritic and antihistamine in the ethylenediamine class. ... Chloropyramine is a classical (old or first generation) antihistamine drug approved in some Eastern European countries for the treatment of allergic conjuctivitis, allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, and other atopic (allergic) conditions. ... Promethazine is a first-generation H1 receptor antagonist antihistamine and antiemetic medication. ... Tolpropamine is an antihistamine used as an antipruritic. ... Dimetindene is an antipruritic. ... Clemastine is an over-the-counter antihistamine sold in the United States under the name Tavist. ... Bamipine is an antihistamine employed as an antipruritic. ... Isothipendyl is an antipruritic. ... Chlorphenoxamine is an antipruritic. ... Anesthesia (AE), also anaesthesia (BE), is the process of blocking the perception of pain and other sensations. ... Lidocaine (INN) (IPA: ) or lignocaine (former BAN) (IPA: ) is a common local anesthetic and antiarrhythmic drug. ... Cinchocaine (or Dibucaine) is an amide local anesthetic. ... Oxybuprocaine is the name of a local anesthetic, which is used especially in ophthalmology and otolaryngology. ... Benzocaine is a local anesthetic commonly used as a topical pain reliever. ... Quinisocaine (INN) or dimethisoquin (BAN and USAN) is a topical anesthetic used as an antipruritic. ... Tetracaine (INN, also known as amethocaine; trade name Pontocaine) is a potent local anesthetic of amino ester group. ... Pramocaine (INN and BAN, also known as pramoxine) is a topical anesthetic used as an antipruritic. ... == LOL == // The deliriants (or anticholinergics) are a special class of acetylcholine-inhibitor dissociatives. ... An anticholinergic agent is a member of a class of pharmaceutical compounds which serve to reduce the effects mediated by acetylcholine in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. ... The general group of pharmacological agents commonly known as hallucinogens can be divided into three broad categories: psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants. ... Atropine is a tropane alkaloid extracted from the deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) and other plants of the family Solanaceae. ... Hyoscyamine is a chemical compound, a tropane alkaloid it is the levo-isomer to atropine. ... Scopolamine, also known as hyoscine, is a tropane alkaloid drug obtained from plants of the family Solanaceae (nightshades), such as henbane or jimson weed (Datura species). ... Benactyzine is an anticholinergic drug. ... Dicyclomine is an anticholinergic that blocks muscarinic receptors. ... N-ethyl-3-piperidyl benzilate (JB-318) is an anticholinergic drug related to the chemical warfare agent 3-Quinuclidinyl benzilate. ... N-methyl-3-piperidyl benzilate (JB-336) is an anticholinergic drug related to the chemical warfare agent 3-Quinuclidinyl benzilate. ... QNB redirects here. ... Cyclizine is an antihistamine drug used to treat nausea, vomiting and dizziness associated with motion sickness, vertigo and post-operative following administration of general anaesthesia and opioids. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ... Promethazine is a first-generation H1 receptor antagonist antihistamine and antiemetic medication. ... Benzydamine, available as the hydrochloride, is a locally-acting nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with local anaesthetic and analgesic properties providing both rapid and extended pain relief as well as a significant anti-inflammatory treatment for the painful inflammatory conditions of the mouth and throat. ... // General Remarks and Chemistry Biperiden is an antiparkinsonian agent of the anticholinergic type. ... // Introduction Trihexyphenidyl is an antiparkinson agent of the antimuscarinic class of agents and is chemically a tertiary amine. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
MedFriendly.com: Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (2326 words)
Diphenhydramine hydrochloride is the generic name (meaning it is not a brand name) for a medication that relieves allergy symptoms, hypersensitive reactions, motion sickness, and uncontrollable muscle movements.
Diphenhydramine hydrochloride is available in capsule form, tablet form, syrup form, injectable form (through a muscle or vein), cream form, gel form, stick form, spray form, and in an elixir (a clear, sweet, part-alcoholic liquid that is taken by mouth) form.
The dose of diphenhydramine hydrochloride that should be taken varies according to the reason for why this medication is being taken, the form in which the medication is taken, the age of the person, and the weight of the person.
diphenhydramine: Information From Answers.com (2094 words)
Diphenhydramine is an antihistamine, used to treat allergies, motion sickness, allergic reactions, insomnia, cough, nausea, and phenothiazine drug-induced abnormal muscle movement.
Diphenhydramine is an antihistamine that dries, sedates, and is distributed throughout the body.
Diphenhydramine also is used for allergic reactions involving the eyes (allergic conjunctivitis), to prevent or treat active motion sickness, and for mild cases of Parkinsonism, including drug-induced Parkinsonism.
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