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Encyclopedia > Dioxin

Dioxin is the common name for the group of compounds classified as polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs). PCDDs, which are members of the family of halogenated organic compounds, have been shown to bioaccumulate in humans and wildlife due to their lipophilic properties, and are known teratogens, mutagens, and suspected human carcinogens. Halocarbon compounds are chemicals in which one or more carbon atoms are linked by covalent bonds with one or more halogen atoms: fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine. ... To bioaccumulate literally means to accumulate in a biological system. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... In biology, a mutagen (Latin, literally origin of change) is an agent that changes the genetic information (usually DNA) of an organism and thus increases the number of mutations above the natural background level. ... In pathology, a carcinogen is any substance or agent that promotes cancer. ...

Contents

Chemical structure

The skeletal formula and substituent numbering scheme of the parent compound dibenzo-p-dioxin
The skeletal formula and substituent numbering scheme of the parent compound dibenzo-p-dioxin

The basic structure of PCDDs comprises two benzene rings joined by a double oxygen bridge. Chlorine atoms are attached to the basic structure at any of 8 different places on the molecule, positions 1–4 and 6–9. There are 75 different types of PCDD congeners (herein, a congener means a related dioxin compound). The toxicity of PCDDs depends on the number and position of the chlorine atoms; only congeners that have chlorines in the 2, 3, 7, and 8 positions have been found to be significantly toxic. Out of the 75 PCDD compounds, only 7 congeners have chlorine atoms in the relevant positions to be considered toxic by the NATO Committee on the Challenges to Modern Society (NATO/CCMS) international toxic equivalent (I-TEQ) scheme. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x641, 57 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Dioxin Talk:Dioxin ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x641, 57 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Dioxin Talk:Dioxin ... A skeletal formula is a three-dimensional model of the molecule that demonstrates the molecular shape, including bond angles. ... In organic chemistry, a substituent is an atom or group of atoms substituted in place of a hydrogen atom on the parent chain of a hydrocarbon. ... Benzene, C6H6, PhH, or benzol is a colorless and flammable liquid with a pleasant, sweet smell. ... A congener (from Latin roots meaning born together or within the same race or kind) has several different meanings depending on the field in which it is used. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ...


Historical perspective

Concentrations of dioxins in nature prior to industrialization, due to natural combustion and geological processes, were generally about three times lower than today [1] [2]. The first intentional synthesis of chlorinated dibenzodioxin dates back to 1872. Today, concentrations of dioxins are found in all humans, with higher levels commonly found in persons living in more industrialized countries. The most toxic dioxin, 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), became well known as a contaminant of Agent Orange, a herbicide used in the Vietnam War[3]. Later, dioxins were found in Times Beach, Missouri, USA [4] and Love Canal, New York, USA [5] and Seveso, Italy [6]. More recently, dioxin has been in the news with the poisoning of President Viktor Yushchenko of Ukraine, 2004 [7]. For other uses, see Agent Orange (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Official language(s) English Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Largest metro area St Louis[1] Area  Ranked 21st  - Total 69,709 sq mi (180,693 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 300 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... Love Canal is a neighborhood in Niagara Falls, New York, United States of America (USA). ... “NY” redirects here. ... Seveso is an Italian town and comune of 19,872 inhabitants situated in the Province of Milan, in the Region of Lombardy. ... Viktor Andriyovych Yushchenko (Ukrainian: Віктор Андрійович Ющенко) (born 23 February 1954) is the president of Ukraine. ...


Sources of dioxin

The United States Environmental Protection Agency Dioxin Reassessment Report is possibly the most comprehensive review of dioxin, but other countries now have substantial research. Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom all have substantial research into body burdens and sources. Tolerable daily, monthly or annual intakes have been set by the World Health Organization and a number of governments. Dioxin enters the general population almost exclusively from ingestion of food, specifically through the consumption of fish, meat, and dairy products since dioxins are fat-soluble and readily climb the food chain [8]. EPA redirects here. ... This article, image, template or category should belong in one or more categories. ... Body burden is the amount of a harmful substance that is permanently present in a persons body. ... The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that acts as a coordinating authority on international public health. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Occupational exposure is an issue for some in the chemical industry, or in the application of chemicals, notably herbicides. Inhalation has been a problem for people living near substantial point sources where emissions are not adequately controlled. In many developed nations there are now emissions regulations which have alleviated some concerns, although the lack of constant sampling of dioxin emissions causes concern about the understatement of emissions. In Belgium, through the introduction of a process called AMESA, constant sampling showed that periodic sampling understated emissions by a factor of 30 to 50 times. Few facilities have constant sampling. A herbicide is a pesticide used to kill unwanted plants. ... Adsorption Method for Sampling of Dioxins and Furans (AMESA) is an automatic system used for dioxin and furan emissions monitoring in industrial processes which require official approval in compliance with environmental regulations. ...


Most controversial is the United States Environmental Protection Agency assessment's (draft) finding that any reference dose that were to be set would be far below current average intakes. EPA redirects here. ... A reference dose is the minimum safe dose when dealing with toxic non-carcinogens. ...


Children are passed substantial body burdens by their mothers, and breastfeeding increases the child's body burden[citation needed]. Children's body burdens are often many times above the amount implied by tolerable intakes which are based on body weight. Breast fed children usually have substantially higher dioxin body burdens than non breast fed children until they are about 8 to 10 years old. The WHO still recommends breast feeding for its other benefits. Breastfeeding an infant Symbol for breastfeeding (Matt Daigle, Mothering magazine contest winner 2006) Breastfeeding is the feeding of an infant or young child with milk from a womans breasts. ... The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that acts as a coordinating authority on international public health. ...


Dioxins are produced in small concentrations when organic material is burned in the presence of chlorine, whether the chlorine is present as chloride ions or as organochlorine compounds, so they are widely produced in many contexts. According to the most recent US EPA data the major sources of dioxin are: General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides. ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... An organochlorine compound is an organic compound of chlorine. ...

  • Coal fired utilities
  • Metal smelting
  • Diesel trucks
  • Land application of sewage sludge
  • Burning treated wood
  • Trash burn barrels

These sources together account for nearly 80% of dioxin emissions.


When the original US EPA inventory of dioxin sources was done in 1987, incineration represented over 80% of known dioxin sources. As a result, US EPA implemented new emissions requirements. These regulations have been very successful in reducing dioxin stack emissions from incinerators. Incineration of municipal solid waste, medical waste, sewage sludge, and hazardous waste together now produce less than 3% of all dioxin emissions.


In incineration, dioxins can also reform in the atmosphere above the stack as the exhaust gases cool through a temperature window of 600 to 200°C. The most common method of reducing dioxins reforming or forming de novo is through rapid (30 millisecond) quenching of the exhaust gases through that 400°C window [9]. Incinerator emissions of dioxins have been reduced by over 90% as a result of new emissions control requirements. Incineration is now a very minor contributor to dioxin emissions. Layers of Atmosphere—not to scale (NOAA) [1] Earths atmosphere is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth and retained by the Earths gravity. ... Quenching is a general term for non-radiative de-excitation. ...

A chart illustrating how much dioxin the average American consumes per day.

Dioxins are also generated in reactions that do not involve burning — such as bleaching fibers for paper or textiles, and in the manufacture of chlorinated phenols, particularly when reaction temperature is not well controlled. Affected compounds include the wood preservative pentachlorophenol, and also herbicides such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (or 2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T). Higher levels of chlorination require higher reaction temperatures and greater dioxin production. See Agent Orange for more on contamination problems in the 1960s. Dioxins may also be formed during the photochemical breakdown of the common antimicrobial compound triclosan [10]. Image File history File links Dioxin_chart. ... Image File history File links Dioxin_chart. ... Pentachlorophenol (C6HCl5O) is a synthetic fungicide which is an organochloride. ... A herbicide is a pesticide used to kill unwanted plants. ... 2,4-D (or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) is a common systemic herbicide used in the control of broadleaf weeds. ... 2,4,5- trichlorophenoxyacetic acid is a herbicide used to defoliate broad leafed plants. ... For other uses, see Agent Orange (disambiguation). ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... Photochemistry is the study of the interaction of light and chemicals. ... Triclosan (chemically 5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol) is a potent wide spectrum antibacterial and antifungal agent. ...


Dioxins are also in typical cigarette smoke[citation needed]. Dioxin in cigarette smoke was noted as "understudied" by the US EPA in its "Re-Evaluating Dioxin" (1995). In that same document, the US EPA acknowledged that dioxin in cigarettes is "anthropogenic" (man-made, "not likely in nature"). Nevertheless, the use of chlorine-containing tobacco pesticides and chlorine-bleached cigarette papers remains legal[citation needed]. According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services[1], the following carcinogens are found in cigarette smoke: Chemical Amount (per cigarette) Acetaldehyde 980 micrograms to 1. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ...


Dioxins are present in minuscule amounts in a wide range of materials used by humans — including practically all substances manufactured using plastics, resins, or bleaches.[citation needed] Such materials include tampons, and a wide variety of food packaging substances[citation needed]. The use of these materials means that all Western humans receive at least a very small daily dose of dioxin[citation needed]—however, it is disputed whether such exceptionally tiny exposures have any clinical relevance[citation needed]. It is even controversially discussed whether dioxins might have a non-linear dose-response curve with beneficial health effects in a certain lower dose range, a phenomenon called hormesis[citation needed]. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the chemical substance. ... A diagram of a tampon in the vagina A tampon with applicator The elements of a tampon with applicator. ... A very low dose of a chemical agent may trigger from an organism the opposite response to a very high dose. ...


Dietary sources of dioxin in the United States have been analyzed by the EPA and scientists from other organizations. Summaries of the primary dietary sources are depicted in the following two figures (note pg = picogram, or one trillionth of a gram, or 10−12, or 0.000000000001 g) [8]. EPA redirects here. ...


Toxicity

Dioxins are absorbed primarily through dietary intake of fat, as this is where they accumulate in animals and humans. In humans, the highly chlorinated dioxins are stored in fatty tissues and are neither readily metabolized nor excreted. The estimated elimination half-life for highly clorinated dioxins (4-8 chlorine atoms) in humans ranges from 7.8 to 132 years [11]. Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ...


The persistence of a particular dioxin congener in an animal is thought to be a consequence of its structure. It is believed that dioxins with few chlorines, which thus contain hydrogen atoms on adjacent pairs of carbons, can more readily be oxidized by cytochromes P450.[citation needed] The oxidized dioxins can then be more readily excreted rather than stored for long time.[citation needed] Cytochrome P450 Oxidase (CYP2E1) Cytochrome P450 oxidase (commonly abbreviated CYP) is a generic term for a large number of related, but distinct, oxidative enzymes (EC 1. ...

Structure of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)
Structure of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)

2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is the most toxic of the congeners. Other dioxin congeners (or mixtures thereof) are given a toxicity rating from 0 to 1, where TCDD = 1. This toxicity rating is called the Toxic Equivalence Factor, or TEF. TEFs are consensus values and, because of the strong species dependence for toxicity, are listed separately for mammals, fish, and birds. TEFs for mammalian species are generally applicable to human risk calculations. The TEFs have been developed from detailed assessment of literature data to facilitate both risk assessment and regulatory control [12]. Many other compounds may also have dioxin-like properties, particularly non-ortho PCBs, some of which can have TEFs as high as 0.1. Image File history File links Dioxin-2D-skeletal. ... Image File history File links Dioxin-2D-skeletal. ... (Redirected from 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) Dioxins form a family of toxic chlorinated organic compounds that bioaccumulate in humans and wildlife due to their fat solubility. ... A congener (from Latin roots meaning born together or within the same race or kind) has several different meanings depending on the field in which it is used. ... Labelling transformers containing PCBs Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic compounds with 1 to 10 chlorine atoms are attached to biphenyl and a general structure of C12H10-xClx. ...


The total dioxin toxic equivalence (TEQ) value expresses the toxicity as if the mixture were pure TCDD. The TEQ approach and current TEFs have been adopted internationally as the most appropriate way to estimate the potential health risks of mixture of dioxins. Recent data suggest that this type of linear scaling factor may not be the most appropriate treatment for complex mixtures of dioxins; further research into non-linear toxicity models is required to substantiate this hypothesis. To do: 20th century mathematics chaos theory, fractals Lyapunov stability and non-linear control systems non-linear video editing See also: Aleksandr Mikhailovich Lyapunov Dynamical system External links http://www. ...


Dioxins and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are subject to the Stockholm Convention. The treaty obliges signatories to take measures to eliminate where possible, and minimize where not possible to eliminate, all sources of dioxin. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes. ... Stockholm Convention is an international agreement on persistent organic pollutants (POPs). ... Single European Act A treaty is a binding agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely states and international organizations. ...


Health effects in humans

Dioxins build up primarily in fatty tissues over time (bioaccumulate), so even small exposures may eventually reach dangerous levels. In 1994, EPA reported that dioxin is a probable carcinogen, but notes that non-cancer effects (reproduction and sexual development, immune system) may pose an even greater threat to human health. TCDD, the most toxic of the dibenzodioxins, has a half-life of approximately 8 years in humans, but at high concentrations, the elimination rate is enhanced by metabolism [13]. The health effects of dioxins are mediated by their action on a cellular receptor, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) [14]. To bioaccumulate literally means to accumulate in a biological system. ... TCDD may refer to any of the following: 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin — a type of dioxin. ... Aryl hydrocarbon receptor or AhR is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor that binds to HSP90 in the cytoplasm while inactivated. ...


Dioxins also accumulate in food chains in a fashion similar to other chlorinated compounds (bioaccumulate). This means that even small concentrations in contaminated water can be concentrated up a food chain to dangerous levels due to the long biological half life and low solubility of dioxins. To bioaccumulate literally means to accumulate in a biological system. ...


Exposure to high levels of dioxin in humans causes a severe form of persistent acne, known as chloracne [15]. Other effects in humans may include: Chloracne is an acne-like eruption of blackheads, cysts, and pustules associated with over-exposure to certain halogenic aromatic hydrocarbons, such as chlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans. ...

  • Central and Peripheral Nervous System pathology[18]
  • Thyroid disorders[19]

Tooth enamel is the hardest and most highly mineralized substance of the body , and with dentin, cementum, and dental pulp is one of the four major parts of the tooth. ... Types of teeth Molars are used for grinding up foods Carnassials are used for slicing food. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ...

Health effects in other animals

While it has been difficult to prove that dioxins cause specific health effects in humans due to the lack of controlled dose experiments, studies in animals have shown that dioxin causes a wide variety of toxic effects. In particular, TCDD has been shown to be teratogenic, mutagenic, carcinogenic, immunotoxic, and hepatotoxic. Furthermore, alterations in multiple endocrine and growth factor systems have been reported. The most sensitive effects, observed in multiple species, appear to be developmental, including effects on the developing immune, nervous, and reproductive systems [23]. These effects are caused at body burdens close to those reported in humans. Teratogenesis is a medical term from the Greek, literally meaning monster making. ... In biology, a mutagen (Latin, literally origin of change) is an agent that changes the genetic information (usually DNA) of an organism and thus increases the number of mutations above the natural background level. ... In pathology, a carcinogen is any substance or agent that promotes cancer. ... An immunotoxin is a chemical that can cause immune system malfunction with exposure. ... Hepatotoxicity (from hepatic toxicity) is chemical-driven liver damage. ... The endocrine system is a control system of ductless endocrine glands that secrete chemical messengers called hormones that circulate within the body via the bloodstream to affect distant organs. ... Growth factor is a protein that acts as a signaling molecule between cells (like cytokines and hormones) that attaches to specific receptors on the surface of a target cell and promotes differentiation and maturation of these cells. ... A request has been made on Wikipedia for this article to be deleted in accordance with the deletion policy. ... Nervous can refer to: Anxiety Nervous system Categories: Disambiguation ... Reproduction is the creation of one thing as a copy of, product of, or replacement for a similar thing, e. ... Body burden is the amount of a harmful substance that is permanently present in a persons body. ...


Among the animals for which TCDD toxicity has been studied, there is strong evidence for the following effects:

In rodents, including rats [24], mice [25], hamsters and guinea pigs [26]; birds [27]; and fish [28].
In rodents [24] [29] and fish [30]
  • Hepatotoxicity (liver toxicity)
In rodents [29]; chickens [31]; and fish [32]
  • Endocrine disruption
In rodents[citation needed] and fish [33]
  • Immunosuppression
In rodents[34] and fish[35].

Teratogenesis is a medical term from the Greek, literally meaning monster making. ... Neoplasia (literally: new growth) is abnormal, disorganized growth in a tissue or organ, usually forming a distinct mass. ... In mammals, the adrenal gland (also known as suprarenal glands) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit on top of the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad, near or at + renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of corticosteroids and catecholamines... Squamous cells are basically types of cells which can be identified histologically by the fact that they look flattened and thin under a microscope. ... Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, also called hepatoma) is a primary malignancy (cancer) of the liver. ...

Studies of dioxin's effects in Vietnam

US veterans' groups and Vietnamese groups, including the Vietnamese government, have convened scientific studies to explore their belief that dioxins were responsible for a host of disorders, including tens of thousands of birth defects in children, amongst Vietnam veterans as well as an estimated one million Vietnamese, through their exposure to Agent Orange during the Vietnam War, which was found to be highly contaminated with TCDD. Several exposure studies showed that some US Vietnam Veterans who were exposed to Agent Orange had serum TCDD levels up to 600 ppt (parts per trillion) many years after they left Vietnam, compared to general population levels of approximately 1 to 2 ppt of TCDD. In Vietnam, TCDD levels up to 1,000,000 ppt have been found in soil and sediments from Agent Orange contaminated areas 3 to 4 decades after spraying. In addition, elevated levels have been measured in food and wildlife in Vietnam [36]. Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... For other uses, see Agent Orange (disambiguation). ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


The most recent study, paid for by the National Academy of Sciences, was released in an April 2003 report. This report is currently (March 2007) being revised for release again later in 2007. President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Centers for Disease Control found that dioxin levels in Vietnam veterans [37] were in no way atypical when compared against the rest of the population. The only exception existed for those who directly handled Agent Orange. These were members of Operation Ranch Hand. Long-term studies of the members of Ranch Hand have thus far uncovered a possibility of elevated risks of diabetes. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta is recognized as the lead United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people by providing credible information to enhance health decisions, and promoting health through strong partnerships with state health departments and other organizations. ... Operation Ranch Hand was a part of the Vietnam War, lasting from 1962 until 1971. ...


Dioxin exposure incidents

  • In the 1960s, parts of the Spolana chemical plant in Neratovice, Czechoslovakia, were heavily contaminated by dioxins, when the herbicide 2,4,5-T (also a component of Agent Orange) was produced there. Workers in this factory were exposed to high concentrations of dioxins at that time. Dozens of them fell seriously ill. A possibly large amount of dioxins was flushed from the factory into the Labe river during the 2002 European flood. No direct consequences of this incident have thus far been recorded.
  • In May 1999, there was a dioxin crisis in Belgium: quantities of dioxin had entered the food chain through contaminated animal feed. 7,000,000 chickens and 60,000 pigs had to be slaughtered. This scandal was followed by a landslide change in government in the elections one month later.
  • On September 11, 2001, explosions released massive amounts of dust into the air. The air was measured for dioxin from September 23, 2001, to November 21, 2001, and reported to be "likely the highest ambient concentration that have ever been reported." [in history]. The United States Environmental Protection Agency report dated October 2002 and released in December of 2002 titled "Exposure and Human Health Evaluation of Airborne Pollution from the World Trade Center Disaster" authored by the EPA Office of Research and Development in Washington states that dioxin levels recorded at a monitoring station on Park Row near City Hall Park in New York between October 12 and 29, 2001, averaged 5.6 parts per trillion, or nearly six times the highest dioxin level ever recorded in the U.S. Dioxin levels in the rubble of the World Trade Centers were much higher with concentrations ranging from 10 to 170 parts per trillion. The report did no measuring of the toxicity of indoor air.
  • In a 2001 case study [15], physicians reported clinical changes in a 30 year old woman who had been exposed to a massive dosage (144,000 pg/g blood fat) of dioxin equal to 16,000 times the normal body level; the highest dose of dioxin ever recorded in a human. She suffered from chloracne, nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain, loss of appetite, leukocytosis, anemia, amenorrhoea and thrombocytopenia. However, other notable laboratory tests, such as immune function tests, were relatively normal. The same study also covered a second subject who had received a dosage equivalent to 2,900 times the normal level, who apparently suffered no notable negative effects other than chloracne. These patients were provided with olestra to accelerate dioxin elimination [44].
  • In 2004, a notable individual case of dioxin poisoning, Ukrainian politician Viktor Yushchenko was exposed to the second-largest measured dose of dioxins, according to the reports of the physicians responsible for diagnosing him. This is the first known case of a single high dose of TCDD dioxin poisoning, and was diagnosed only after a toxicologist recognized the symptoms of chloracne while viewing television news coverage of his condition [45].
  • In the early 2000s, residents of the city of New Plymouth, New Zealand, report many illnesses of people living around and working at the Dow Chemical plant. This plant ceased production of 2,4,5-T in 1987.
  • 1,995 people are suing DuPont, claiming dioxin emissions from its plant in DeLisle, Mississppi, caused their cancers, illnesses or loved one's death. In August 2005, Glenn Strong, an oyster fisherman with the rare blood cancer multiple myeloma, was awarded $14 million from DuPont. In another case, parents claim dioxin from pollution caused the death of their 8 year old daughter; the trial is expected to begin May 2007. DuPont's DeLisle plant is one of three titanium dioxide facilities (including Edgemoor, DE, and New Johnsonville, TN) that are the largest producers of dioxin in the country, according to the US EPA's Toxic Release Inventory.

1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... 2,4,5- trichlorophenoxyacetic acid is a herbicide used to defoliate broad leafed plants. ... Nitro is a city located in West Virginia. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Philips HQ in Amsterdam Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.), usually known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is one of the largest electronics companies in the world, founded and headquartered in the Netherlands. ... Solvay may refer to the Solvay process Ernest Solvay, its inventor Solvay, [1] - a Belgian pharmaceuticals, chemicals and plastics company Solvay Conference the Solvay Business School Solvay, New York This is a disambiguation page—a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Nickname: Motto: Heldhaftig, Vastberaden, Barmhartig (Valiant, Determined, Compassionate) Location of Amsterdam Coordinates: , Country Province Government  - Mayor Job Cohen (PvdA)  - Aldermen Lodewijk Asscher Hennah Buyne Carolien Gehrels Tjeerd Herrema Maarten van Poelgeest Marijke Vos  - Secretary Erik Gerritsen Area [1][2]  - City 219 km²  (84. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... A tonne or metric ton (symbol t), sometimes referred to as a metric tonne, is a measurement of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms. ... For other uses, see Agent Orange (disambiguation). ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Seveso disaster was an industrial accident that occurred around 12:37 pm July 10, 1976 in a small chemical manufacturing plant approximately 25 km north of Milan in the Lombardy region in Italy. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Love Canal is a neighborhood in Niagara Falls, New York, United States of America (USA). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Times Beach, Missouri was a small town of 2,240 residents in St. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... Location of Neratovice in the Czech Republic Neratovice is a town in the Central Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic. ... A herbicide is a pesticide used to kill unwanted plants. ... For other uses, see Agent Orange (disambiguation). ... The Elbe River (Czech Labe, Sorbian/Lusatian Łobjo, Polish Łaba, German Elbe) is one of the major waterways of central Europe. ... In August of 2002 a 100-year flood caused by over a week of continuous heavy rains ravaged Europe, killing dozens, dispossessing thousands, and causing damages of billions of dollars in the Czech Republic, Austria, Germany, Slovakia, Poland, Hungary, Romania and Croatia. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar). ... Times Beach, Missouri was a small town of 2,240 residents in St. ... EPA redirects here. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). ... A halls of residence, British English (almost always halls and not hall) or a residence hall (North American English) is a type of residential accommodation for large numbers of students. ... Main quad at SUNY at New Paltz, with Jacobson Faculty Tower and Old Main in the background The State University of New York at New Paltz is a public university in New Paltz, New York. ... This article is about the year. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In agriculture, fodder or animal feed is any foodstuff that is used specifically to feed livestock, such as cattle, sheep, chickens and pigs. ... The World Trade Center on fire The September 11, 2001 attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001. ... EPA redirects here. ... “NY” redirects here. ... World trade centers arose in the United States and Japan in the 1970s, spearheaded by New York Citys World Trade Center. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Chloracne is an acne-like eruption of blackheads, cysts, and pustules associated with over-exposure to certain halogenic aromatic hydrocarbons, such as chlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Vomiting (also throwing up or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose. ... literally, an adjective which means of, relating to or characterised by the epigastrium. An abdominal pain or an abdominal viscus might be described as epigastric. The superior and inferior epigastric arteries are considered an important feature of the anterior abdominal wall. ... Anorexia (deriving from the Greek α(ν)- (a(n)-, a prefix that denotes absence) + όρεξη (orexe) = appetite) is the decreased sensation of appetite. ... Leukocytosis is an elevation of the white blood cell count (the leukocyte count) above the normal range. ... This article discusses the medical condition. ... Amenorrhoea (BE) or amenorrhea (AmE) is the absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age. ... Thrombocytopenia (or -paenia, or thrombopenia in short) is the presence of relatively few platelets in blood. ... A ball and stick model of Olestra, showing a central sucrose molecule with ester-linked fatty acids Olestra (also known by its brand name Olean) is an artificial fat substance created by Procter & Gamble in 1968. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Viktor Andriyovych Yushchenko (Ukrainian:  ) (born February 23, 1954) is the current President of Ukraine. ... New Plymouth is the port and main city in the Taranaki region on the west coast of the North Island of New Zealand. ...

References

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  45. ^ Yushchenko's acne points to dioxin poisoning. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... EPA redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... EPA redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • "Rhodes Remediation" Website about remediation of dioxin contaminated Homebush Bay and land in Rhodes, a suburb of Sydney, NSW, Australia. Union Carbide was the polluter.
  • "Researcher Dispels Myth of Dioxins and Plastic Water Bottles" Johns Hopkins Researcher explains the facts about Dioxin
  • "Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment" Includes discussion of methods of evaluating risk of low concentrations, and Toxic Equivalency
  • IARC monograph: "Polychlorinated Dibenzo-para-dioxins"

  Results from FactBites:
 
Dioxin Homepage (1848 words)
Dioxin is a general term that describes a group of hundreds of chemicals that are highly persistent in the environment.
Dioxin is formed as an unintentional by-product of many industrial processes involving chlorine such as waste incineration, chemical and pesticide manufacturing and pulp and paper bleaching.
Dioxin pollution is also affiliated with paper mills which use chlorine bleaching in their process and with the production of Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) plastics and with the production of certain chlorinated chemicals (like many pesticides).
FDA/CFSAN - Questions and Answers about Dioxins (7140 words)
Dioxins are formed as a result of combustion processes such as commercial or municipal waste incineration and from burning fuels (like wood, coal or oil).
Dioxins can also be formed when household trash is burned and as a result of natural processes such as forest fires.
Dioxins that remain in the environment from past releases are sometimes called "reservoir sources" of dioxins.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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