The Dionysia was a large religious festival in ancient Athens in honour of the god Dionysus, the central event of which was the performance of tragedies and comedies. It was the secondmost important festival after the Panathenaia. The Dionysia actually comprised two related festivals, the Rural Dionysia and the City Dionysia, which took place in different parts of the year. They were also an essential part of the Dionysian Mysteries. Athens (Greek: Î‘Î¸Î®Î½Î±  AthÃna) is the largest city and capital of Greece, located in the Attica periphery of central Greece. ...
Dionysus with a leopard, satyr and grapes on a vine, in the Palazzo Altemps (Rome, Italy) Dionysus or Dionysos (from the Ancient Greek Î”Î¹ÏŽÎ½Ï…ÏƒÎ¿Ï‚ or Î”Î¹ÏŒÎ½Ï…ÏƒÎ¿Ï‚, associated with the Italic Liber), the Thracian god of wine, represents not only the intoxicating power of wine, but also its social and beneficial influences. ...
In general usage a tragedy is a play, movie or sometimes a real world event with a sad outcome. ...
Greek comedy is the name given to a wide genre of theatrical plays written, and performed, in Ancient Greece. ...
The Panathenaic Games were a set of games held every four years in Athens in Ancient Greece. ...
Maened The Dionysian Mysteries probably began as an ancient initiation society, or family of similar societies, centred on a primeval nature god (and his consort), apparently associated with horned animals, serpents and solitary predators (primarily big cats), later known to the Greeks in the eclectic figure of Dionysus. ...
Rural Dionysia
The Dionysia was originally a rural festival in Eleutherae, Attica (Dionysia ta kat' agrous), probably celebrating the cultivation of vines. It was probably a very ancient festival perhaps not originally associated with Dionysus. This "rural Dionysia" was held during the winter in the month of Poseideon (roughly corresponding to December). The central event was the pompe, the procession, in which phalloi were carried by phallophoroi. Also participating in the pompe were kanephoroi (young girls carrying baskets), obeliaphoroi (who carried long loaves of bread), skaphephoroi (who carried other offerings), hydriaphoroi (who carried jars of water), and askophoroi (who carried jars of wine). Eleutheræ is a city in the northern Attica, along the border with Boeotia. ...
Attica (in Greek: Î‘Ï„Ï„Î¹ÎºÎ®, Attike; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a periphery (subdivision) in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece. ...
The term vine was originally a term for the plant on which grapes grew, from the word for wine (Greek oinos), for which grapes were grown. ...
The Attic calendar is the calendar that was in use in ancient Attica, the ancestral territory of the Athenian polis. ...
This article is about the symbol of the erect penis. ...
East frieze of the Parthenon from the socalled Ergastinai (â€œweaversâ€) section, possibly depicting the karephoroi handing the kanoun to the male figure on the extreme left. ...
After the pompe, there were contests of dancing and singing, and choruses (led by a choregos) would perform dithyrambs. Some festivals may have included dramatic performances, possibly of the tragedies and comedies that had been produced at the City Dionysia the previous year. This was more common in the larger towns such as Piraeus and Eleusis. In tragic plays of ancient Greece, the chorus (choros) is believed to have grown out of the Greek dithyrambs and tragikon drama. ...
The dithyramb was originally an ancient Greek hymn sung to the god Dionysus. ...
It has been suggested that Kaminia (Piraeus), Greece be merged into this article or section. ...
Eleusis (Game) The cardgame invented by Robert Abbott in 1962, and later popularized in 1977 by Martin Gardner in his Mathematical Games column in Scientific American magazine. ...
Because the various towns in Attica held their festivals on different days, it was possible for spectators to visit more than one festival per season. It was also an opportunity for Athenian citizens to travel outside the city if they did not have the opportunity to do so during the rest of the year. This also allowed travelling companies of actors to perform in more than one town during the period of the festival. The comic playwright Aristophanes parodied the Rural Dionysia in his play The Acharnians. Sketch of Aristophanes Aristophanes (Greek: , ca. ...
Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Acharnians in Greek The Acharnians (Ancient Greek: / AkharneÄ©s) is a comedic play by the ancient Greek satirist Aristophanes. ...
City Dionysia Origins The City Dionysia (Dionysia ta en Astei, also known as the Great Dionysia, Dionysia ta Megala) was the urban part of the festival, possibly established during the tyranny of Pisistratus in the 6th century BC. This festival was held about three months after the rural Dionysia, during the month of Elaphebolion (corresponding to the end of March and the beginning of April), probably to celebrate the end of winter and the harvesting of the year's crops. According to tradition the festival was established after Eleutherae, a town on the border between Attica and Boeotia, chose to become part of Attica. The Eleuthereans brought a statue of Dionysus to Athens, which was initially rejected by the Athenians. Dionysus then punished the Athenians with a plague that was cured by a procession of citizens carrying phalloi. This page is about the religious concept of Tyranny. ...
Peisistratos or Peisistratus (Greek: )[1] (ca. ...
(2nd millennium BC  1st millennium BC  1st millennium) The 6th century BC started on January 1, 600 BC and ended on December 31, 501 BC. // Monument 1, an Olmec colossal head at La Venta The 5th and 6th centuries BC were a time of empires, but more importantly, a time...
The Attic calendar is the calendar that was in use in ancient Attica, the ancestral territory of the Athenian polis. ...
Eleutheræ is a city in the northern Attica, along the border with Boeotia. ...
Boeotia or Beotia (//, (Greek Î’Î¿Î¹Ï‰Ï„Î¹Î±; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was the central area of ancient Greece. ...
The urban festival was a relatively recent invention, and fell under the auspices of the eponymous archon rather than the basileus, to whom religious festivals were given when the office of archon was created in the 7th century BC. This is a list of the eponymous archons of Athens. ...
A silver coin of the Seleucid king Antiochus I Soter. ...
(2nd millennium BC  1st millennium BC  1st millennium) The 7th century BC started on January 1, 700 BC and ended on December 31, 601 BC. // Overview Events Ashurbanipal, king of Assyria who created the the first systematically collected library at Nineveh A 16th century depiction of the Hanging Gardens of...
Pompe and Proagon The archon prepared for the City Dionysia as soon as he was elected, by choosing two paredroi and ten epimeletai to help organize the festival. On the first day of the festival the pompe was held, in which citizens, metics, and representatives from Athenian colonies marched to the Theatre of Dionysus on the southern slope of the Acropolis, carrying the wooden statue of Dionysus Eleutherus (the "leading" or the eisagoge). As with the Rural Dionysia, they also carried phalloi, made out of wood or bronze, and a cart pulled a much larger phallus. Basketcarriers and water and winecarriers participated in the pompe here as in the Rural Dionysia. In ancient Greece, the term metic meant resident alien, a person who did not have citizen rights in their Greek citystate (polis) of residence. ...
Theatre of Dionysus as viewed from the Acropolis. ...
Acropolis of Athens from the southwest with the Propylaea and the Temple of Nike (left centre) and the theatre of Herodes Atticus (below left) Acropolis (Gr. ...
During the height of the Athenian Empire in the mid5th century BC, various gifts and weapons showcasing Athens' strength were carried as well. Also included in the procession were bulls to be sacrificed in the theatre. The most conspicuous members of the procession were the choregoi, who were dressed in the most expensive and ornate clothing. After the pompe the choregoi led their choruses in the dithyrambic competitions. These were extremely competitive, and the best flute players and poets (such as Simonides and Pindar) offered their musical and lyrical services. After these competitions, the bulls were sacrificed, and a feast was held for all the citizens of Athens. A second procession, the komos, occurred afterwards, which was most likely a drunken revelry through the streets. The Delian League was an association of Greek citystates in the 5th century BC. As it was led by Athens, it is sometimes pejoratively referred to as the Athenian Empire. ...
(2nd millennium BC  1st millennium BC  1st millennium) The 5th century BC started on January 1, 500 BC and ended on December 31, 401 BC. // The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ...
Bold textil8jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjpooSimonides of Ceos (ca. ...
Pindar (or Pindarus) (522 BC â€“ 443 BC), perhaps the greatest of the nine lyric poets of ancient Greece, was born at Cynoscephalae, a village in Thebes. ...
Komos or Chorus? Revellry scene from an Attic Komast cup ca. ...
The next day, the playwrights announced the titles of the plays to be performed, and judges were selected by lot (the proagon). It is unknown where the proagon originally took place, but after the mid5th century BC it was held in the Odeon of Pericles on the Acropolis. The proagon was also used to give praise to notable citizens, or often foreigners, who had served Athens in some beneficial way during the year. During the Peloponnesian War, orphaned children of those who had been killed in battle were also paraded in the Odeon, possibly to honour their fathers. The proagon could be used for other announcements as well; in 406 BC the death of the playwright Euripides was announced there. Pericles or Perikles (c. ...
For the earlier war beginning in 460 BC, see First Peloponnesian War. ...
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A statue of Euripides Euripides (Greek: Î•Ï…ÏÎ¹Ï€Î¯Î´Î·Ï‚) (c. ...
Dramatic performances During the pompe, the Theatre of Dionysus was purified by the sacrifice of a young pig. According to tradition, the first performance of tragedy at the Dionysia was by the playwright and actor Thespis (from whom we have the word "thespian") in 534 BC. His prize was a goat, a common symbol of Dionysus, and possibly the origin of the word "tragedy" (which perhaps means "goatsong"). This article is about the pig genus. ...
Thespis of Icaria (6th century BCE) is claimed to be the first person ever to appear on stage as an actor in a play although the reality is undoubtedly more complex. ...
Centuries: 7th century BC  6th century BC  5th century BC Decades: 580s BC  570s BC  560s BC  550s BC  540s BC  530s BC  520s BC  510s BC  500s BC  490s BC  480s BC Events and Trends 538 BC  Babylon occupied by Jews transported to Babylon are allowed to return to...
Species See Species and subspecies The goat is a mammal in the genus Capra, which consists of nine species: the Ibex, the West Caucasian Tur, the East Caucasian Tur, the Markhor, and the Wild Goat. ...
The next three days of the festival were devoted to the tragic plays. Three playwrights performed three tragedies and one satyr play each, one set of plays per day. Most of the extant Greek tragedies, including those of Aeschylus, Euripides, and Sophocles, were performed at the Theatre of Dionysus. The archons, epimeletai, and judges (agonothetai) watched from the front row. On the sixth day of the festival, five comedies (such as those of Aristophanes) were performed. Comedies were of secondary importance at the Dionysia, and were instead more important to the Lenaia festival earlier in the year. Nevertheless, it was considered a greater honour to win the comedic prize at the Dionysia. Papposilenus playing the crotals, theatrical type of the satyr play, Louvre Satyr plays were an ancient Greek form of tragicomedy, similar to the modernday burlesque style. ...
This article is about the ancient Greek playwright. ...
A statue of Euripides Euripides (Greek: Î•Ï…ÏÎ¹Ï€Î¯Î´Î·Ï‚) (c. ...
Sophocles (ancient Greek: ; 495 BC  406 BC) was the second of three great ancient Greek tragedians. ...
Theatre of Dionysus as viewed from the Acropolis. ...
The Lenaia was a dramatic but one of the lesser festivals in Athens and Ionia in ancient Greece. ...
After the classical period in the 5th century BC, older plays could be performed again. It seems that audiences may have preferred this to the production of new plays of inferior quality. The number of plays performed also fluctuated; during the Peloponnesian War, there were usually only three comedies, and comedies were omitted altogether by the 2nd century BC. There do not seem to have been any new tragedies after the 2nd century AD, older plays being exclusively performed by that point. This article describes the ancient classical period: for the classical period in music (second half of the 18th century): see Classical music era. ...
(2nd millennium BC  1st millennium BC  1st millennium) The 2nd century BC started on January 1, 200 BC and ended on December 31, 101 BC. // Coin of Antiochus IV. Reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ...
The 2nd century is the period from 101  200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ...
Another procession and celebration was held on the final day, when the judges chose the winners of the tragedy and comedy performances. The winning playwrights won a wreath of ivy, although, when old plays were performed, the producer was awarded the prize rather than the longdead playwright. Species Hedera algeriensis â€“ Algerian Ivy Hedera azorica â€“ Azores Ivy Hedera canariensis â€“ Canaries Ivy Hedera caucasigena Hedera colchica â€“ Caucasian Ivy Hedera cypria Hedera helix â€“ Common Ivy Hedera hibernica â€“ Irish Ivy Hedera maderensis â€“ Madeiran Ivy Hedera maroccana Hedera nepalensis â€“ Himalayan Ivy Hedera pastuchowii â€“ Pastuchovs Ivy Hedera rhombea â€“ Japanese Ivy Hedera sinensis...
Significance Dionysus was often seen as the god of everything uncivilized, of the innate wildness of humanity that the Athenians had tried to control. The Dionysia was probably a time to let out their inhibitions through highly emotional tragedies or irreverent comedies. During the pompe there was also an element of rolereversal  lowerclass citizens could mock and jeer the upper classes, or women could insult their male relatives. This was known as aischrologia or tothasmos, a concept also found in the Eleusinian Mysteries. The Eleusinian Mysteries were initiation ceremonies held every five years for the cult of Demeter and Persephone based at Eleusis in ancient Greece. ...
The plays themselves could highlight ideas that would not normally be spoken or shared in everyday life. Aeschylus' The Persians, for example, while patriotic to Athens, showed sympathy towards the Persians, which may have been politically unwise under normal circumstances. The parodies of Aristophanes mocked the politicians and other celebrities of Athens, even going so far as producing an antiwar play (Lysistrata) at the height of the Peloponnesian War. The circumstances of the Dionysia allowed him to get away with criticisms he would not normally be allowed to voice. The Persians (Î ÎÏÏƒÎ±Î¹) is a tragedy by the ancient Greek playwright Aeschylus. ...
The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named FÃ¢rsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ...
Lysistrata (Attic: Î›Ï…ÏƒÎ¹ÏƒÏ„ÏÎ¬Ï„Î·, Doric: Î›Ï…ÏƒÎ¹ÏƒÏ„ÏÎ¬Ï„Î±), Aristophanes antiwar comedy, written in 411 BC, has female characters, led by the eponymous Lysistrata, barricading the public funds building and withholding sex from their husbands to secure peace and end the Peloponnesian War. ...
For the earlier war beginning in 460 BC, see First Peloponnesian War. ...
Notable winners of the City Dionysia Tragedy Centuries: 6th century BC  5th century BC  4th century BC Decades: 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC  480s BC  470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC Years: 489 BC 488 BC 487 BC 486 BC 485 BC  484 BC  483 BC 482 BC...
This article is about the ancient Greek playwright. ...
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The Persians (Î ÎÏÏƒÎ±Î¹) is a tragedy by the ancient Greek playwright Aeschylus. ...
Centuries: 4th century BC  5th century BC  6th century BC Decades: 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC  470s BC  460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 476 BC 475 BC 474 BC 473 BC 472 BC  471 BC  470 BC 469 BC 468...
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Sophocles (ancient Greek: ; 495 BC  406 BC) was the second of three great ancient Greek tragedians. ...
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Wikisource has original text related to this article: Î•Ï€Ï„Î¬ ÎµÏ€Î¯ Î˜Î®Î²Î±Ï‚ The Seven Against Thebes is a mythic narrative that finds its classic statement in the play by Aeschylus (467 BCE) concerning the battle between the Seven led by Polynices and the army of Thebes headed by Eteocles and his supporters, traditional Theban...
Centuries: 4th century BC  5th century BC  6th century BC Decades: 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC  460s BC  450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC Years: 468 BC 467 BC 466 BC 465 BC 464 BC  463 BC  462 BC 461 BC...
The Suppliants (Greek Hiketides, also translated as The Suppliant Maidens) is a play by Aeschylus. ...
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The Oresteia is a trilogy of tragedies about the end of the curse on the House of Atreus, written by Aeschylus. ...
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A statue of Euripides Euripides (Greek: Î•Ï…ÏÎ¹Ï€Î¯Î´Î·Ï‚) (c. ...
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Antigone by Frederic Leighton, 1882 Antigone (Eng. ...
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Euripides wrote two tragedies dealing with the myth of Hippolytus, which in ancient times were distinguished as: Hippolytus Veiled, or Hippolytos Kalyptomenos, or Hippolytos with his head covered Hippolytus Bearer of the Garland, or Hippolytos Stephanephoros, or Hippolytus with a garland Only the latter survives. ...
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Xenocles was an Ancient Greek tragedian. ...
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The Philoctetes is a play by Sophocles written about 410 BC. Its subject is Philoctetes, the friend of Herakles, who was also a participant in the Trojan War. ...
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The Bacchae (also known as The Bacchantes) is a tragedy by the ancient Greek playwright Euripides. ...
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Comedy Centuries: 6th century BCE  5th century BCE  4th century BCE Decades: 530s BCE 520s BCE 510s BCE 500s BCE 490s BCE  480s BCE  470s BCE 460s BCE 450s BCE 420s BCE 430s BCE Years: 491 BCE 490 BCE 489 BCE 488 BCE 487 BCE  486 BCE  485 BCE 484 BCE...
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Pherecrates, Greek poet of the Old Attic Comedy, was a contemporary of Cratinus, Crates and Aristophanes. ...
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Hermippus, the oneeyed, Athenian writer of the Old Comedy, flourished during the Peloponnesian War. ...
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Sketch of Aristophanes Aristophanes (Greek: , ca. ...
Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Acharnians in Greek The Acharnians (Ancient Greek: / AkharneÄ©s) is a comedic play by the ancient Greek satirist Aristophanes. ...
Centuries: 6th century BC  5th century BC  4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC  420s BC  410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 429 BC 428 BC 427 BC 426 BC 425 BC  424 BC  423 BC 422 BC...
Aristophanes play The Knights is an unbridled criticism of Cleon, one of the most powerful men in ancient Athens. ...
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Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Frogs in Greek Frogs (Î’Î¬Ï„ÏÎ±Ï‡Î¿Î¹ (BÃ¡trachoi)) is a comedy written by the Ancient Greek playwright Aristophanes. ...
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Sources  Aristophanes, The Acharnians.
 Simon Goldhill, The Great Dionysia and Civic Ideology, in Nothing to Do with Dionysos? Athenian Drama in Its Social Context, eds. John J. Winkler and Froma I. Zeitlin. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990. ISBN 0691068143
 Susan Guettel Cole, Procession and Celebration at the Dionysia, in Theater and Society in the Classical World, ed. Ruth Scodel. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1993. ISBN 0472102818
 Jeffrey M. Hurwit. The Athenian Acropolis: History, Mythology, and Archaeology From the Neolithic Era to the Present. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. ISBN 0521428343
 Sir Arthur PickardCambridge. The Dramatic Festivals of Athens. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1953 (2nd ed. 1968). ISBN 0198142587
 Robert Parker. Athenian religion: A History. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996. ISBN 0198149794
 Carl A. P. Ruck. IG II 2323: The List of the Victors in Comedies at the Dionysia. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1967.
