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Encyclopedia > Diocletian
Diocletian
Emperor of the Roman Empire
Diocletian
Reign November 20, 2846 (alone);
286May 1, 305 (as Augustus of the East, with Maximian as Augustus of the West)
Full name Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus
Born c. 245
Dioclea, near Salona
Died c. 316
Split
Predecessor Numerian
Successor Constantius Chlorus and Galerius

Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. 236[1]-316[2]), born Diocles (Greek Διοκλής) and known in English as Diocletian,[3] was Roman Emperor from November 20, 284 to May 1, 305. Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (960 × 1,280 pixels, file size: 553 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Istanbul - Museo archeologico - Testa di statua dellimperatore romano Diocleziano (284-305 d. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see number 284. ... This article is about the year 286. ... This article is about the year 286. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 1 - Diocletian and Maximian, emperors of Rome, retire from office. ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic or venerable. The feminine form is Augusta. ... Maximian Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius (c. ... Events Roman emperor Philip the Arabian entrusted future emperor Gaius Messius Quintus Trajanus with an important command on the Danube Trieu Thi Trinh Vietnamese warrior women begins her three year resistance against the invading Chinese. ... Duklja (Doclea or Diocleia) was once a large town in Duklja (present-day Montenegro). ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Events Huns sack Changan, capital of the Chinese Western Jin Dynasty. ... The perystile viewving towards the entrance of Emperors aquarters Diocletians Palace is a building in Split, Croatia that was built by the emperor Diocletian the 3rd century AD. At the time it was built, there was no such city of Split, and the original town was built around... Numerian, on a coin as caesar Marcus Aurelius Numerianus (d. ... On the reverse of this argenteus struck in Antioch under Constantius Chlorus, the tetrarcs are sacrificing to celebrate a victory against the Sarmatians. ... Galerius Maximianus (c. ... Events Pope Fabian succeeds Pope Anterus Births Deaths Pope Anterus Categories: 236 ... Events Huns sack Changan, capital of the Chinese Western Jin Dynasty. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see number 284. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 1 - Diocletian and Maximian, emperors of Rome, retire from office. ...


Diocletian brought an end to the period popularly known to historians as the "Crisis of the Third Century" (235–84). He established an autocratic government and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate" (as opposed to the Principate instituted by Augustus), the "Tetrarchy", or simply the "Later Roman Empire". Diocletian's reforms fundamentally changed the structure of imperial government and helped stabilize the empire economically and militarily, enabling it to remain essentially intact for another hundred years. Emperor Maximinus Thrax, ruled 235-238, was the first of the emperors during the Crisis of the Third Century. ... Autocracy is a form of government where unlimited power is held by a single individual. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The Dominate was the despotic last of the two phases of government in the ancient Roman Empire between its establishment in 27 BC and the formal date of the collapse of the Western Empire in AD 476. ... The Principate is, according to its etymological derivation from the Latin word princeps, meaning chief or first, the political regime dominated by such a political leader, whether or not he is formally head of state and/or head of government. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204, Treasury of St. ...

Contents

Life

Early life and rise to power

Coin depicting Diocletian.
Coin depicting Diocletian.

An Illyrian of low birth (from Dioclea, near Salona), Diocles[4] rose through the ranks of the army. It is known that he was Dux Moesiae, with responsibility for defending the lower Danube. When, in 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed Emperor the Praetorian prefect Carus, Diocles started gaining the new emperor's trust, obtaining the consulship in 283 and the rank of Comes domesticorum, that is commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. Image File history File linksMetadata Dio_coin3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Dio_coin3. ... Location of Illyria Illyria (Albanian Iliria Land of the Free; Ancient Greek ; Latin Illyria [1] (see also Illyricum) was in Classical antiquity a region in the western part of todays Balkan Peninsula, founded by the tribes and clans of Illyrians, an ancient people who spoke the Illyrian languages. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... The Misspeling of Ducks ... Moesia (Greek: , Moisia; Bulgarian: Мизия, Miziya; Serbian: Мезија, Mezija) is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... Events Carus becomes Roman emperor A new city was constructed in Fuzhou slightly south of the original city Ye. ... Praetorian prefect (Latin Praefectus praetorio) was the constant title of a high office in the Roman state that changed fundamentally in nature. ... Marcus Aurelius Carus (c. ... This article is about the Roman rank. ... Events December 17 - Pope Gaius succeeds Pope Eutychian December - Numerian was proclaimed Roman emperor by his soldiers. ... Comes,itis (genitive: comitis) is the Latin word for companion, either individually or as a member of a collective known as comitatus (compare comitatenses), especially the suite of a magnate, in some cases large and/or formal enough to have a specific name, such as a cohors amicorum. ...


The rising star within the Roman Empire was Flavius Aper, the Praetorian prefect and father-in-law of Carus' son, Numerian. In 283, Carus elected his first son Carinus Augustus, left him in charge of the care of the West, and moved with Numerian, Aper and Diocles in the East, against the Sassanid Empire. Carus plundered the Sassanid capital, winning a major victory, but died in July/August, reportedly struck by a lightning bolt, rather than by illness. He left Numerian as the new Augustus, and an army to be brought back within the empire borders. Aper claimed that Numerian was ill too, so the emperor travelled in a closed coach, without any external contact. When the soldiers sensed a bad smell and opened the coach, Numerian was dead. Diocles caught the occasion, accused Aper of having killed Numerian, and killed the praetorian prefect personally in front of the troops, who immediately elected him Emperor, on November 20, 284.[5] Numerian, on a coin as caesar Marcus Aurelius Numerianus (d. ... Events December 17 - Pope Gaius succeeds Pope Eutychian December - Numerian was proclaimed Roman emperor by his soldiers. ... Marcus Aurelius Carinus, Roman emperor, 283 - July, 285, was the elder son of the emperor Carus, on whose accession he was appointed governor of the western portion of the empire. ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic or venerable. The feminine form is Augusta. ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see number 284. ...


However, another lawful emperor was in the West, Carinus the elder son of Carus. Carinus and Diocletian met near Belgrade, and Diocles won the Battle of the Margus River, killing Carinus and becoming the sole ruler of the Roman Empire, with the full name of Diocletianus. The sources disagree on what actually happened at the battle: Aurelius Victor claims (39. 11) that Carinus was winning the battle, when one of his officers, whose wife the young emperor had seduced, backstabbed him; Eutropius holds (9.20.2) that Carinus was deserted by his army. Diocletian, in an unusual act of clemency, did not kill or depose Carinus' Praetorian prefect and consul Aurelius Aristobulus, but confirmed him, and later gave him the proconsulate of Africa and the rank of Urban Praefect — a career that some scholars[attribution needed] see as a reward for the treason of Aristobulus. In December 285 Diocletian proclaimed his officer Maximian as his Caesar. In 286 Maximian was elevated to the position of Augustus.[6] Marcus Aurelius Carinus, Roman emperor, 283 - July, 285, was the elder son of the emperor Carus, on whose accession he was appointed governor of the western portion of the empire. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... The Battle of the Margus was fought in 285 between the armies of Diocletian and Carinus. ... Sextus Aurelius Victor (ca. ... Eutropius was an Ancient Roman Pagan historian who flourished in the latter half of the 4th century. ... Maximian Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius (c. ... Caesar (plural Caesars), Latin: Cæsar (plural Cæsares), is a title of imperial character. ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic, the increaser, or venerable. The feminine form is Augusta. ...


Between 235 and 284, there had been some 20 to 25 successive emperors, an average of a new emperor every two to three years. All but two of these emperors were either murdered or killed in battle. Diocletian seemed at first to be following in the footsteps of his short-lived predecessors in the years between 284 and 298, as he fought a lengthy series of wars from one end of the Empire to the other, maintaining the extended boundaries of the frontiers and stamping out domestic uprisings. By 298, however, he had succeeded in repelling Germanic intrusions from across the Danube and Rhine, had put a halt to Sassanid invasions in Syria and Palestine, and had defeated his political foes. This article is about the Danube River. ... For other uses, see Rhine (disambiguation). ... This article is about the geographical area known as Palestine. ...


Diocletian's reforms

Diocletian.
Diocletian.

His position secure, a remarkable feat after over fifty years of internal instability that nearly saw the collapse of the Roman Empire (what has become known as the Crisis of the Third Century), Diocletian believed that going forward under the current system of Roman Imperial government was unsustainable. He initiated a number of reforms to prevent a return to the disorder of previous generations and maintain the viability of the Empire. These included splitting the Empire into two in order to be more manageable, creating a new system of Imperial succession, ruling as an autocrat and stripping away any remaining façade of republicanism, and economic reforms aimed at the problem of hyperinflation. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Emperor Maximinus Thrax, ruled 235-238, was the first of the emperors during the Crisis of the Third Century. ... An autocrat is generally speaking any ruler with absolute power; the term is now usually used in a negative sense (cf. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the concept in cosmology, see cosmic inflation. ...


The position of emperor had originally been a dictatorial post carefully disguised as a constitutional monarch. While it drew much of its legitimacy from a complex array of republican titles and practices, with the "Emperor" being the Princeps ("First among equals", hence "Principate"), it drew most of its actual power from command over the legions and the Praetorian Guard. This is reflected in the most important of all Imperial titles, imperator (Supreme Commander), from which the word emperor itself is derived. These arrangements, while awkward at times and followed more closely by some emperors than others, worked for the first two centuries of the empire's existence. However, starting with the reign of Septimius Severus, rulers began to strip away or simply ignore many of the republican conventions, and reigned more as dictators than constitutional monarchs. This process undermined the office's foundations and legitimacy. Diocletian recognized that the title had to be based on something more than simply military force, in order to be more recognized and stable. So he sought to build a new basis for imperial legitimacy in the state religion, with himself as semi-divine monarch and high priest. The old republican title of Pontifex Maximus would begin to take on a new importance. Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... The Praetorian Guard of Augustus - 1st century. ... The Latin word imperator was a title originally roughly equivalent to commander during the period of the Roman Republic. ... Lucius Septimius Severus (b. ... Alternate meanings: see Pontifex (disambiguation) In Ancient Rome, the Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the collegium of the Pontifices, the most august position in Roman religion, open only to a patrician, until 254 BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post. ...


Diocletian chose a new title for himself, calling himself Dominus et deus, or "Lord and God" (hence "Dominate").[citation needed] He adopted the title of Jovius while Maximian took that of Herculius, associating them with Jupiter and Hercules respectively.[7] He would actually sit on a throne. He was not to be seen in public, and if an audience was required, he had elaborate ceremonies in which the visitor would be required to lie on the ground prostrate and never to look at the emperor, and would only be allowed, perhaps, to kiss the bottom of his robe. In this way he created a remote, mysterious, theocratic and autocratic office. For the planet see Jupiter. ... For other uses, see Hercules (disambiguation). ...


According to an analysis by Edward Gibbon in The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Diocletian did not require such ritual out of vanity. This type of majesty regarding the emperor had existed since the rule of Augustus. However, whereas Augustus disguised it, Diocletian simply displayed it. Edward Gibbon (1737–1794). ... The History of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, a major literary achievement of Eighteenth Century, was written by the British historian, Edward Gibbon. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ...


Tetrarchy

Diocletian's experiences during his first nine years of running around the empire putting out fires brought him to the conclusion that the empire was simply too big for a single Emperor to rule—that it was not feasible to address barbarian invasions along the Rhine and Egyptian problems at the same time, along with the internal problems the empire was experiencing. His radical solution was to split the Empire in two, drawing a line straight down the middle of the map with the axis just east of Rome into eastern and western halves. While this division did not last in the short term, it set the precedent for the permanent division of the empire after 395. For other uses, see Barbarian (disambiguation). ...


The question of imperial succession had never been solved in the Roman system; there was no clear principle of succession, which often led to civil wars. Earlier Emperors had preferred the system of adoption, under which they would adopt a son and heir. The military did not like the system of adoption and preferred biological succession, with the emperor's son being the rightful heir. The Senate believed they should have the right to elect a new emperor. Thus there were usually at least three, if not many more, rightful heirs of succession. A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ... For other uses, see Adoption (disambiguation). ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ...

Palace of Diocletian in Nicomedia (İzmit)
Palace of Diocletian in Nicomedia (İzmit)

In order to solve the problem of succession, and to answer the question of who would be Emperor of the newly divided East and West, Diocletian created what has become known as the system of "Tetrarchy", or "rule of four", whereby a senior emperor would rule in the East and another senior emperor would rule the West, and each would have a junior emperor. Among the many titles traditionally bestowed on Roman emperors, the most important was that of Augustus and therefore only the two senior emperors took this title, with the junior emperors receiving the lesser title of Caesar. Diocletian intended that when the senior emperor retired or died, the Caesar would take his place and choose a new junior emperor Caesar, thus solving the problem of succession. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Nicomedia (modern İzmit, also known as Iznik) was founded by Nicomedes I of Bithynia at the head of the Gulf of Astacus (which opens on the Propontis) in 264 BC. The city has ever since been one of the chief towns in this part of Asia Minor. ... İzmit (ancient Nicomedia) is a city in [[Turkey], administrative center of Kocaeli Province as well as Kocaeli Metropolitan Municipality . ... The Tetrarchs, a porphyry sculpture sacked from a Byzantine palace in 1204, Treasury of St. ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic or venerable. The feminine form is Augusta. ... Caesar (plural Caesars), Latin: Cæsar (plural Cæsares), is a title of imperial character. ...


By 292, Diocletian had the system in place and chose the Eastern Empire for himself and gave Maximian the Western Empire. The imperial power was now divided between two people. The two men established separate capitals, neither of which was at Rome. The ancient capital was too far removed from the places where the empire's fate was decided by force of arms. While improving the ability of the two emperors to rule the empire, the division of power further marginalized the Senate, which remained in Rome. In 293, Diocletian and Maximian each appointed a Caesar (Galerius and Constantius, respectively), formally adopting them as their heirs. However, these were not merely successors - each was given authority over roughly a quarter of the Empire. [edit] Events [edit] By Place [edit] Roman Empire Constantius Chlorus divorces Helena, mother of Constantine the Great (approximate date). ... Maximian Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius (c. ... Events March 1 - Diocletian and Maximian appoint Constantius Chlorus and Galerius as Caesars. ... Galerius Maximianus (c. ... On the reverse of this argenteus struck in Antioch under Constantius Chlorus, the tetrarcs are sacrificing to celebrate a victory against the Sarmatians. ...


Considering that during the half-century preceding Diocletian's ascension the empire had been in a nearly constant state of civil war, it is remarkable that the Tetrarchy did not immediately fall apart due to the greed of any of the four emperors. However, the opportunistic nature of Roman imperial politics soon brought about the disintegration of the Tetrarchy and the reinstitution of monarchy. In 305, Diocletian retired and Maximian was persuaded to do the same. The two Caesars became the senior emperors as designed, but when it came time to choose new Caesars, the military and Senate intervened and brought forward their own candidates. In 306, Constantine started a civil war in the west, which he won in 312. He took the eastern half from Licinius by 324 and ruled the entire empire until his death in 337. Power was fractured again under Constantine's sons. Though the throne was nominally unified under, among others, Julian, Valentinian I, and Theodosius I, by 395 the division between the eastern and western halves was permanent. Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[2] (27 February c. ... Aureus of Licinius, celebrating his tenth year of reign and the fifth year of his son Licinius (on the obverse). ... Flavius Claudius Iulianus (331–June 26, 363), was a Roman Emperor (361–363) of the Constantinian dynasty. ... Flavius Valentinianus, known in English as Valentinian I, (321 - November 17, 375) was a Roman Emperor (364-375). ... An engraving depicting what Theodosius may have looked like, ca. ...


Roman Empire under Diocletian
Map of the Roman empire, c. 395, showing the dioceses and the praetorian prefectures of Gaul, Italy, Illyricum and Oriens, roughly analogous to the four Tetrarchs' zones of influence after Diocletian's reforms. However, in 395, the western part of the Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum was attached to the Praetorian prefecture of Italy. This map shows only eastern part of Illyricum, though in the time of Tetrachy the Illyricum was not divided.
Map of the Roman empire, c. 395, showing the dioceses and the praetorian prefectures of Gaul, Italy, Illyricum and Oriens, roughly analogous to the four Tetrarchs' zones of influence after Diocletian's reforms. However, in 395, the western part of the Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum was attached to the Praetorian prefecture of Italy. This map shows only eastern part of Illyricum, though in the time of Tetrachy the Illyricum was not divided.
Diocese Territories
EAST
Oriens Libya, Egypt, Palestine, Syria, and Cilicia
Pontus Cappadocia, Armenia Minor, Galatia, Bithynia
Asia (Asiana) Asia, Phrygia, Pisidia, Lycia, Lydia, Caria
Thrace Moesia Inferior, Thrace
Moesia Moesia Superior, Dacia, Epirus, Macedonia, Thessaly,

Achaea, Dardania Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1899x1543, 683 KB) Summary Description  Roman Empire about 395, with labeled provinces Author/Source  William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas (1911) via the Perry-Castañeda Library of the University of Texas Licensing  In the public domain as a work published in... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1899x1543, 683 KB) Summary Description  Roman Empire about 395, with labeled provinces Author/Source  William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas (1911) via the Perry-Castañeda Library of the University of Texas Licensing  In the public domain as a work published in... Traditional rural Pontic house A man in traditional clothes from Trabzon, illustration Pontus is the name which was applied, in ancient times, to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the main), by... Moesia (Greek: , Moisia; Bulgarian: Мизия, Miziya; Serbian: Мезија, Mezija) is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ...

WEST
Africa Africa Proconsularis, Byzacena, Tripolitana, Numidia, part of

Mauretania A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Africa Province, Roman Empire ... At the end of the third century A.D., the Emperor Diocletian divided the great Roman province of Africa Proconsularis into smaller provinces, including Byzacena, corresponding now to the modern Sahel, region of Tunisia. ... Tripolitania or Tripolitana is a historic region of western Libya, centered on the coastal city of Tripoli. ... Numidia was an ancient Berber kingdom in North Africa that later alternated between a Roman province and a Roman client state, and is no longer in existence today. ...

Hispania Mauretania Tingitana, Baetica, Lusitania,

Tarraconensis Motto (Latin) Further Beyond Anthem  1(Spanish) Royal March Spain() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() Capital (and largest city) Madrid Official languages Spanish2 Demonym Spanish, Spaniard Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Head of State King Juan Carlos I  -  President of the Government Formation 15th century   -  Dynastic union 1516   -  Unification... In the first century A.D., the Emperor Claudius divided the Roman province of Mauretania into Mauretania Caesariensis and Mauretania Tingitana. ...

Prov. Viennensis Narbonensis, Aquitania, Viennensis, Alpes

Maritimae

Gallia Lugdunensis, Germania Superior, Germania

Inferior, Belgica This article is about the country. ...

Britannia Britannia, Caesariensis
Italia Venetia et Histria, Aemilia et Liguria, Flaminia et Picenum, Raetia, Alpes Cottiae, Tuscia et Umbria, Valeria, Campania et Samnium, Apulia et Calabria, Sicilia, Sardinia et Corsica
Pannonia Pannonia Inferior, Pannonia Superior, Noricum,

Dalmatia Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ... Position of the Roman province of Pannonia Pannonia is an ancient country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ...

Map of the Roman Empire, with the provinces, after 120. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... The Praetorian Prefecture of Gaul (Latin: Praefectura Praetorio Galliarum) was one of four large Praetorian prefectures into which the Late Roman Empire was divided. ... Capital Augusta Treverorum Historical era Late Antiquity  - Establishment 314  - last Roman territory overrun by Franks 486 The Diocese of Gaul (Latin: Dioecesis Galliarum, diocese of the Gaul [province]s) was a diocese of the later Roman Empire, under the praetorian prefecture of Gaul. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... The Roman Province of Gallia Belgica in 58 BCE The Roman Province of Gallia Belgica around 120 CE Gallia Belgica was a Roman province located in what is now the southern part of the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, northeastern France, and western Germany. ... The Roman Province of Gallia Belgica in 58 BCE The Roman Province of Gallia Belgica around 120 CE Gallia Belgica was a Roman province located in what is now the southern part of the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, northeastern France, and western Germany. ... Categories: Historical stubs | Ancient Roman provinces | German history | Germany | History of the Germanic peoples ... The Roman province of Germania Inferior, 120 AD Germania Inferior was a Roman province located on the left bank of the Rhine, in todays southern and western Netherlands, the whole of Belgium and Luxembourg, parts of north-eastern France, and western Germany. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... A map of Gaul in the 1st century BC, showing the relative position of the Sequani tribe. ... Capital Burdigala Historical era Late Antiquity  - Establishment 314  - Disestablished unknown The Diocese of the Seven Provinces (Latin: Dioecesis Septem Provinciarum), originally called the Diocese of Vienne (Latin: Dioecesis Viennensis) after the city of Vienna (modernVienne), was a diocese of the later Roman Empire, under the praetorian prefecture of Gaul. ... Capital Burdigala Historical era Late Antiquity  - Establishment 314  - Disestablished unknown The Diocese of the Seven Provinces (Latin: Dioecesis Septem Provinciarum), originally called the Diocese of Vienne (Latin: Dioecesis Viennensis) after the city of Vienna (modernVienne), was a diocese of the later Roman Empire, under the praetorian prefecture of Gaul. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... Gallia Aquitania, a province of The Roman Empire Gallia Aquitania, in ancient geography, was a province of the Roman Empire, located in present-day southwest France and bordered by the provinces of Gallia Lugdunensis, Gallia Narbonensis, and Hispania Tarraconensis. ... Gallia Aquitania, a province of The Roman Empire Gallia Aquitania, in ancient geography, was a province of the Roman Empire, located in present-day southwest France and bordered by the provinces of Gallia Lugdunensis, Gallia Narbonensis, and Hispania Tarraconensis. ... Map of the historical and cultural area of Gascony. ... Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis, 120 AD Gallia Narbonensis was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France. ... Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis, 120 AD Gallia Narbonensis was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France. ... Roman province of Hispania Baetica, 120 AD In Hispania, which in Greek is called Iberia, there were three Imperial Roman provinces, Hispania Baetica in the south, Lusitania, corresponding to modern Portugal, in the west, and Hispania Tarraconensis in the north and northeast. ... Capital Palma de Mallorca Official language(s) Spanish and Catalan Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 17th  4,992 km²  1. ... Roman Imperial province of Hispania Tarraconensis, 120 AD Hispania Tarraconensis was a Roman province in what is known today as modern Spain. ... Gallaecia or Callaecia (from Gaulish *gal-laikos smoke?-hero/warrior) was the name of a Roman province that comprised a territory in the north-west of Hispania (approximately the current Galicia of Spain and the north of Portugal). ... In red is the province of Lusitania within the Roman Empire, 120 AD Lusitania was an ancient Roman province approximately including current Portugal, except for the area between the rivers Douro and Minho (part of Hispania Tarraconensis), and part of modern day western Spain, the present autonomous communities of Extremadura... In the first century A.D., the Emperor Claudius divided the Roman province of Mauretania into Mauretania Caesariensis and Mauretania Tingitana. ... Maxima Caesariensis was the name of one of the four provinces of Roman Britain, as named in the Verona List, dated AD 312 - 314. ... Britannia Prima was one of the provinces of Roman Britain created c. ... Britannia Secunda was one of the provinces of Roman Britain created c. ... Flavia Caesariensis was one of the provinces of Roman Britain. ... Valentia was the name of a consular northern province of Roman Britain. ... Capital Ravenna from 476 Historical era Late Antiquity  - Establishment 318  - End of Western Empire 476  - Ostrogothic conquest 493  - Start of Gothic War 535  - Lombard invasion of Italy 568  - Foundation of Exarchate of Ravenna 584 The Praetorian Prefecture of Italy (Latin: Praefectura Praetorio Italiae, in its full form Praefectura Praetorio Italiae... For other uses, see Campania (disambiguation). ... A portion of the Tabula Peutingeriana, a Roman map of the 4th century, depicting the southern part of Italia. ... Samnium (Oscan Safinim) was a region of the southern Apennines in Italy that was home to the Samnites, a group of Sabellic tribes that controlled the area from about 600 BC to about 290 BC. Samnium was delimited by Latium in the north, by Lucania in the south, by Campania... For other uses, see Corsica (disambiguation). ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,700 sq. ... For the place in the United States, see Sardinia, Ohio. ... Liguria is a coastal region of north-western Italy, the third smallest of the Italian regions. ... Emilia is an Italian historical region which approximately corresponds to modern Emilia-Romagna regions western and north-eastern portion. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... The Diocese of Africa (Latin: Dioecesis Africae) was a diocese of the later Roman Empire, incorporating the provinces of North Africa. ... Africa Province, Roman Empire ... At the end of the third century A.D., the Emperor Diocletian divided the great Roman province of Africa Proconsularis into smaller provinces, including Byzacena, corresponding now to the modern Sahel, region of Tunisia. ... In Antiquity, Mauretania was originally an independent Berber kingdom on the Mediterranean coast of north Africa (named after the Maure tribe, after whom the Moors were named), corresponding to western Algeria, and northern Morocco. ... In the first century A.D., the Emperor Claudius divided the Roman province of Mauretania into Mauretania Caesariensis and Mauretania Tingitana. ... Numidia was an ancient Berber kingdom in North Africa that later alternated between a Roman province and a Roman client state, and is no longer in existence today. ... Tripolitania is a historic region of western Libya, centered around the coastal city of Tripoli. ... The Diocese of Pannonia (Latin: Dioecesis Pannoniarum), later known as Diocese of Illyricum, was a diocese of the Late Roman Empire. ... The Diocese of Pannonia (Latin: Dioecesis Pannoniarum), also known as Diocese of Illyricum, was a diocese of the Late Roman Empire. ... Dalmatia province, Roman Empire Roman Dalmatia and surrounding areas Dalmatia was an ancient Roman province. ... The Pannonia Prima was ancient Roman province. ... Pannonia Secunda map The Pannonia Secunda was ancient Roman province. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Pannonia Valeria or simply Valeria was an ancient Roman province. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Byzantine Empire. ... map of the Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum, before 379 AD The Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum (Latin: Praefectura Praetorio per Illyricum, also termed simply the Prefecture of Illyricum) was one of four large Praetorian prefectures into which the Late Roman Empire was divided. ... Emperor Aurelian (270-275), confronted with the secession of Gallia and Hispania from the empire since 260, with the advance of the Sassanids in Asia, and the devastations that the Carpians and the Goths had done into Moesia and Illyria, abandoned the province of Dacia created by Trajan and withdrew... The provinces of the Roman Empire in 120, with Dacia highlighted. ... Moesia (Greek: , Moisia; Bulgarian: Мизия, Miziya; Serbian: Мезија, Mezija) is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... Praevalitana (also Praevaliana or Prevalis) was an ancient Roman province. ... Ancient Dardania Dardania (Albanian: Dardania;) was an ancient country encompassing southern parts of present-day Kosova (including the area of the modern-day province of Kosovo, since 1999 under UN administration), mostly, but not entirely, western parts of the present-day Republic of Macedonia, and parts of present-day north... Dacia ripensis (Greek: Ρειπήσιος, English: from the banks of the Danube[1]) was the name of a Roman province (part of Dacia Aureliana) first established by Aurelian (circa 283 AD when the boundary stones were set by him and one of them was restored by Gaianus[2]) after he withdrew from... The Diocese of Macedonia included the provinces of Macedonia Prima, Macedonia Salutaris, Thessalia, Epirus Vetus, Epirus Nova, Achaea, and Creta. ... Macedonia province within the Roman Empire, c. ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... Epirus vetus was a province in the Roman Empire. ... The name Epirus may refer to: Geographical Epirus (region) - a historical and geographical region of the southwestern Balkans, straddling modern Greece and Albania Northern Epirus - the name given by Greeks to the region that is now southern Albania Political Epirus (periphery) - one of the thirteen peripheries (administrative divisions) of Greece... The Roman Empire in 120, with the province of Achaea highlighted. ... Crete or Candia in 1861 // Little is known about the rise of ancient Cretan society, because very few written records remain, and many of them are written in the undeciphered script known as Linear A. This contrasts with the superb palaces, houses, roads, paintings and sculptures that do remain. ... The Praetorian prefecture of the East or of Oriens (Latin: Praefectura Praetorio Orientis, Greek: ) was one of four large Praetorian prefectures into which the Late Roman Empire was divided. ... The Diocese of Thrace ca. ... Thrace is a historical and geographic area in south-east Europe spread over southern Bulgaria, north-eastern Greece, and European Turkey. ... Moesia (Greek: , Moisia; Bulgarian: Мизия, Miziya; Serbian: Мезија, Mezija) is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... Major ancient towns and colonies in Schythia Minor Scythia Minor (Greek: Μικρά Σκυθία, Mikrá Scythia) was in ancient times the region surrounded by the Danube at the north and west and the Black Sea at the east, corresponding to todays Dobruja (a large part in Romania and a smaller part in... The Diocese of Asia ca. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Pamphylia, in ancient geography, was the region in the south of Asia Minor, between Lycia and Cilicia, extending from the Mediterranean to Mount Taurus. ... Location of Caria Photo of a 15th century map showing Caria. ... Lydia (Greek ) is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of Ä°zmir and Manisa. ... Lycian rock cut tombs of Dalyan Lycian rock cut tombs of Dalyan Lycia (in Lycian, Trm̃misa (see List of Lycian place names); in ancient Greek, Λυκία and in modern Turkish, Likya) is a region in the modern-day provinces of Antalya and MuÄŸla on the southern coast of Turkey. ... In ancient geography, Lycaonia was a large region in the interior of Asia Minor, north of Mount Taurus. ... Pisidia was an inland region in southern Anatolia. ... In antiquity, Phrygia (Greek: ) was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolia. ... Remains of the top floors of an insula near the Capitolium and the Aracoeli in Rome. ... The Diocese of Pontus ca. ... Bithynia was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine (today Black Sea). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Paphlagonia was an ancient area on the Black Sea coast of north central Anatolia, situated between Bithynia and Pontus, and separated from Phrygia (later, Galatia) by a prolongation to the east of the Bithynian Olympus. ... For other uses, see Cappadocia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cappadocia (disambiguation). ... Traditional rural Pontic house A man in traditional clothes from Trabzon, illustration Pontus is the name which was applied, in ancient times, to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the main), by... Map of Armenia under Roman rule, with Greater Armenia in red and Lesser Armenia in blue. ... Map of Armenia under Roman rule, with Greater Armenia in red and Lesser Armenia in blue. ... Roman province of Sophene, 120 CE Armenia Sophene was a short-lived (c. ... Map of Armenia under Roman rule, with Greater Armenia in red and Lesser Armenia in blue. ... Map of Armenia under Roman rule, with Greater Armenia in red and Lesser Armenia in blue. ... The Diocese of the East ca. ... The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375. ... The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375. ... Isauria, in ancient geography, is a rugged isolated district in the interior of South Asia Minor, of very different extent at different periods, but generally covering much of what is now Antalya province of Turkey, or the core of the Taurus Mountains. ... For other uses, see Syria (disambiguation). ... Osroene (also: Osrohene, Osrhoene; Syriac: ܡܠܟܘܬܐ Ü•Ü’ܝܬ Ü¥Ü£ÜªÜ Ü¥ÜÜ¢Ü¶Ü), also known by the name of its capital city, Edessa (modern Sanli Urfa, in Syriac: ܐܘܪܗܝ), was one of several kingdoms arising from the dissolution of the Seleucid Empire. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the geographical area known as Palestine. ... This article is about the geographical area known as Palestine. ... This article is about the geographical area known as Palestine. ... Arabia Petraea Arabia Petraea, also called Provincia Arabia or simply Arabia, was a frontier province of the Roman Empire beginning in the second century; it consisted of the former Nabataean kingdom in modern Jordan, southern modern Syria Sinai, and northwestern Saudi Arabia. ... The Diocese of Egypt ca. ... The Roman Empire 120, with Aegyptus province highlighted See Egypt Province for the province of the Ottoman Empire. ... The Roman Empire 120, with Aegyptus province highlighted See Egypt Province for the province of the Ottoman Empire. ... Augustamnica or Avgoustamnikai was a Roman province of Egypt created during the 5th century and extending over the eastern part of the Nile delta. ... Augustamnica or Avgoustamnikai was a Roman province of Egypt created during the 5th century and extending over the eastern part of the Nile delta. ... Arcadia or Arcadia Ægypti was an ancient region in Roman controlled Egypt. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... The Chersonesus Tauricus of Antiquity, shown on a map printed in London, ca 1770 Taurica (Greek: , Latin: ) also known as Tauris, Taurida, Tauric Chersonese, and Chersonesus Taurica was the name of Crimea in Antiquity. ... Egrisi (or Kolkheti) known to the ancient Greeks and Romans as Lazica and Persians as Lazistan was a kingdom in the western part of Georgia, which flourished between the 6th century BC and the 7th century AD. It covered the territory of the former kingdom Kolkha (Colchis) and the territory... The Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent under Justinian I. Justinians inherited empire in pink with his conquests, including Spania, in orange. ... The division of the Roman Empire into four Praetorian prefectures originated in the age of the Tetrarchy yet outlived that period. ... Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[2] (27 February c. ... The Exarchate of Ravenna was a center of Byzantine power in Italy, from the end of the 6th century to 751 A.D., when the last Exarch was put to death by the Emperors enemies in Italy, the Lombards. ... // Introduction Exarch is from the Latin; Exarchus, Greek; Exarchon; Meaning Leader, from the word exarchein to lead, to begin, to rule. ... The themata circa 950. ... Capital Carthage Historical era Late Antiquity  - conquest of Vandal Kingdom 534  - Moorish revolt defeated 548  - reorganization into Exarchate 584 The Praetorian prefecture of Africa (Latin: Praefectura praetorio Africae) was a major administrative division of the Eastern Roman Empire, established after the reconquest of northwestern Africa from the Vandals in 533...

Economic reforms

When Diocletian ascended to the throne, the Roman economy was on the verge of dissolution. Five decades of civil war, conflict with Sassanid Persia, politically motivated confiscations of property, and looting of the citizenry by the army had caused widespread impoverishment. [8] Most of the existing taxes, which were traditionally low, already went to pay the army, either in the form of regular pay or generous bonuses meant to ensure loyalty. This left little or no fiscal breathing room. Imperial budgets were crude, when they existed at all, and there were few opportunities to cancel other spending in order to meet sudden expenses. The quickest and easiest solution to this problem was to debase the silver coinage, to "print more money," as it were.[9] This resulted in extreme hyperinflation, mass distrust of imperial coinage, and, in some areas, localized regression to a barter economy. Despite these developments, quality of life for many residents of the empire didn't change significantly. Regions that were free from conflict fared better, naturally, than those which frequently saw the armies march through. Farmers and landlords who had direct access to the empire's agricultural base were not seriously affected by the currency fluctuations.[10] The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... Certain figures in this article use scientific notation for readability. ...


In 290, Diocletian began a comprehensive reform of the coinage system. In 294, he introduced the argenteus, the first pure silver coin in decades. The follis, a large bronze coin with added silver to provide intrinsic value, was issued for the first time. A new, heavier aureus and several smaller fractions were also introduced. Further, in 301, Diocletian attempted to curb the rampant inflation with his Edict on Maximum Prices. This edict fixed prices for over a thousand goods, fixed wages, and threatened the death penalty to merchants who overcharged. Instead of curbing inflation, the edict's price controls drove goods onto the black market and created shortages. In some areas, the edict was simply ignored, and it was soon withdrawn in failure. Argenteus struck under Constantius Chlorus, weighting 3. ... A follis of Galerius as caesar The follis (plural folles) was a large bronze coin introduced in about 294 with the coinage reform of Diocletian. ... Aureus minted in 193 by Septimius Severus to celebrate XIIII Gemina Martia Victrix, the legion that proclamed him emperor. ... The Edict on Maximum Prices (also known as the Edict on Prices or the Edict of Diocletian; in Latin Edictum De Pretiis Rerum Venalium) was issued in 301 by Roman Emperor Diocletian. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ...


Diocletian increased tax collection and, correspondingly, the size of the Roman civil services. An extensive new tax system based on "heads" (capita) and land (iugatio) was linked to a regular, five-year census conducted beginning in 287. Skilled laborers, local bureaucrats and tenant farmers (coloni) were made hereditary by law in an effort to stabilize both the tax base and the apparatus for tax collection. The position of decurion, very roughly analogous to a mayor, had been an honor sought by wealthy aristocrats during the Principate. While tax collection had always been part of the job description, under Diocletian, its requirements became much more rigorous. Decurions were responsible for producing the taxes dictated by the census data for their area (and for making up the shortfall when they failed to collect from the populace). Whatever benefits the posting may have afforded in earlier times were quickly outweighed by its financial burdens, and many decurions abandoned their posts and fled. If caught, the penalties for this ranged from forfeiture of property to execution. Nor was flight from taxation restricted to the bureaucracy. Lactantius, a contemporary Christian chronicler who was understandably hostile to Diocletian, wrote that because of the new obligations, "There began to be fewer men who paid taxes than there were who received wages; so that the means of the husbandmen being exhausted by enormous impositions, the farms were abandoned, cultivated grounds became woodland, and universal dismay prevailed."[11] While Lactantius's description undoubtedly contains some exaggeration, it seems equally certain that the Roman populace, long accustomed to irregular and ineffective tax collection, went through an uncomfortable period of adjustment to Diocletian's reforms. Taxes under Diocletian's system remained low by modern standards: usually no more than 10 percent of the agrarian surplus. The ability of the peasant classes to bear this burden is graphically illustrated by the system's longevity; in Anatolia, the tax structure instituted by Diocletian remained largely in place until the end of the Ottoman Empire in the early 20th century.[12] In classical Greece Colonus was a demus about a mile to the northwest of Athens, near Platos Academy. ... A decurion was a member of a city council in the Roman Empire. ... Lucius Caelius (or Caecilius?) Firmianus Lactantius was an early Christian author who wrote in Latin (c. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Ottoman redirects here. ...


Military reforms

Diocletian expanded the army from around 400,000 to over 450,000: about two-thirds of the army's strength was frontier forces (limitanei or ripenses); The remainder were in the mobile units that the Augusti and Caesares kept centrally located in their territories (comitatenses). Since they were closer to the centers of power, and therefore more politically dangerous, the mobile troops were better paid than the frontier forces. This proved a cause for resentment and, later on, trouble. Limitanei were border guards in the armies of the late Roman Empire. ... Comitatenses is the Latin plural of comitatensis, originally the adjective derived from comitatus (company, party, suite; in this military context it came to the novel meaning of the field army), itself rooting in Comes (companion, but hence specific historical meanings, military and civilian). ...


The experience with the vexillatio system led Diocletian to reduce the legions of the field forces to about 1,000 men each, to assure greater strategic and tactical flexibility without the need for detachments. The legions of the frontier were kept at full strength (4,000-6,000 men). Auxiliary units in both mobile and frontier forces were usually 1,000 men each. A Vexillatio was a detachment of a Roman legion usually consisting of about 1000 infantry and/or 500 cavalry. ... The Roman Legion (from Latin , from lego, legere, legi, lectus — to collect) is a term that can apply both as a transliteration of legio (conscription or army) to the entire Roman army and also, more narrowly (and more commonly), to the heavy infantry that was the basic military unit of... A strategy is a long term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal. ... Military tactics (Greek: Taktikē, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ...


Also, under Diocletian the post of Praetorian prefect was greatly reduced in power. Instead, each Augustus and Caesar had two major military commanders, a Magister militum (commander of the infantry) and a Magister Equitum (commander of the cavalry). This not only divided military responsibilities, thus reducing political dangers, but it also acknowledged the increased importance of cavalry in the Roman army. Praetorian prefect (Latin Praefectus praetorio) was the constant title of a high office in the Roman state that changed fundamentally in nature. ... Magister militum (Latin for Master of the Soldiers) was a top-level command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine. ... The Master of the Horse was (and in some cases, is) a historical position of varying importance in several European nations. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... The Roman army was a set of land-based military forces employed by the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and later Roman Empire as part of the Roman military. ...


Many of the military reforms started by Diocletian were continued by his successors and largely completed under Constantine, who abolished the Praetorian Guard, replacing it with a smaller, more controllable personal bodyguard (the Scholae) of about 4,000 men. Scholae was a Latin word used by the Romans to classify their Imperial Guards. ...


Persecution of Christians

In 303, Diocletian ordered a persecution of Christians that was to be the last and greatest in the Roman Empire. The Diocletian Persecution was the last, and most severe, episode of persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire. ... Spanish Leftists during the Red Terror Shoot at a statue of Christ The persecution of Christians is religious persecution that Christians sometimes undergo as a consequence of professing their faith, both historically and in the current era. ...


In the earlier part of Diocletian's reign, according to Christian sources, Galerius had been the main advocate of such persecution. However, Diocletian came to embrace the policy of persecution with unequivocal zeal. In 299–300, the failure of a sacrifice to produce favourable omens was blamed on the presence of Christians, and Diocletian ordered that all Christian civil servants or soldiers were to participate in sacrifices or lose their positions. Some time later, an oracle from Apollo at Didyma was interpreted as calling for the suppression of Christianity.[13] Galerius Maximianus (c. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... Didymaion, Didim Didyma was an ancient Ionian city, the modern Didim, Turkey. ...


On February 24, 303, Diocletian's first "Edict against the Christians" was published.[6] This ordered the destruction of Christian scriptures and places of worship across the Empire, while prohibiting Christians from assembling for worship. After fires in Diocletian's palace at Nicomedia and revolts in Asia Minor, the Emperor took harder measures against Christians, ordering the arrest of all bishops and priests. These were later released if they agreed to sacrifice, which was taken as a sign of apostasy from Christianity. In spring 304, a further edict ordered everyone to sacrifice.[14] This wave of persecution was enforced most strictly in the Empire's eastern provinces, where it lasted in some areas until 313.[15] This year saw the issue of the Edict of Milan by Constantine I and Licinius. is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Diocletian launched the last major persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire; Hierocles was said to have been the instigator of the fierce persecution of the Christians under February 24 - Galerius, Roman Emperor, publishes his edict that begins the persecution of Christians in his portion of the Empire. ... Nicomedia (modern İzmit, also known as Iznik) was founded by Nicomedes I of Bithynia at the head of the Gulf of Astacus (which opens on the Propontis) in 264 BC. The city has ever since been one of the chief towns in this part of Asia Minor. ... Apostasy (from Greek αποστασία, meaning a defection or revolt, from απο, apo, away, apart, στασις, stasis, standing) is a term generally employed to describe the formal renunciation of ones religion, especially if the motive is deemed unworthy. ... February - Wtf is up mah cracka??. Constantine issues the Edict of Milan, ending all persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire. ... The Edict of Milan was a letter that proclaimed religious toleration in the Roman Empire. ... Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[2] (27 February c. ... Aureus of Licinius, celebrating his tenth year of reign and the fifth year of his son Licinius (on the obverse). ...


According to many estimates, a total of 3,000–3,500 Christians were killed in the persecution,[16] while many others suffered torture or imprisonment.[17] The persecution made such an impression on Christians that the Alexandrian church used the start of Diocletian's reign (284) as the epoch for their Era of Martyrs. Among the recorded martyrs, there are Pope Marcellinus, Philomena, Sebastian, Afra, Lucy, Erasmus of Formiae, Florian, George, Vincent of Saragossa, Agnes, Saint Doimus (bishop of Salona), Saint Sarah and others ending with Peter of Alexandria (311). Another effect of the persecution was the escape of one Marinus the Dalmatian to Mount Titano, forming what eventually became the Republic of San Marino. Jesus Christ in a Coptic icon The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Coptic: , literally: the Egyptian Orthodox Church of Alexandria) is the official name for the largest Christian church in Egypt. ... In chronology, an epoch (or epochal date, or epochal event) means an instant in time chosen as the origin of a particular era. ... The anno Diocletiani era or the Diocletian era or the Era of Martyrs is a method of numbering years used by Alexandrian Christians during the fourth and fifth centuries. ... Pope Marcellinus, according to the Liberian Catalogue, became bishop of Rome on June 30, 296; his predecessor was Pope Caius. ... Saint Philomena is a saint and martyr of the Roman Catholic Church, said to have been a young Greek princess martyred in the 4th century. ... Sebastian redirects here. ... Saint Afra (died 304) was a Christian martyr. ... Saint Lucy of Syracuse, also known as Saint Lucia, Santa Lucia, or Saint Lukia, (traditional dates 283-304) was a rich young Christian martyr who is venerated as a Saint by Catholic and Orthodox Christians. ... The martyrdom of St. ... Saint Florian, 1473 painting by Francesco del Cossa. ... Saint-George is a municipality with 695 inhabitants (as of 2003) in the district of Aubonne in the canton of Vaud, Switzerland. ... Scenes from the Passion of Saint Vincent of Saragossa and the History of His Relics, French 13th century vitreau Saint Vincent of Saragossa, (feast day: January 22) was born at Huesca and martyred under Diocletian, in 304, is the patron saint of Lisbon. ... For other uses, see Saint Agnes (disambiguation). ... Solin (It. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Peter of Alexandria was a Patriarch of Alexandria (300 - 311). ... Monte Titano amd three fortresses on top of it can be seen from many kilometers away Monte Titano is the highest peak in San Marino, in the Appenines. ... San Marino, the worlds third-smallest state, also claims to be the worlds oldest republic. ...


Retirement and death

Palace of the Roman Emperor Diocletian, around which the Croatian city of Split emerged
Palace of the Roman Emperor Diocletian, around which the Croatian city of Split emerged

In 305, at the age of 69, after almost dying from a sickness, Diocletian retired to his palace in Dalmatia, near the administrative center of Salona on the Adriatic Sea, becoming the first Roman Emperor to voluntarily remove himself from office; all previous holders of the title either died of natural causes or were removed by force. Diocletian spent his days occupied in his beloved hobby of growing cabbages. In 308, when solicited at a later date to resume the honours which he had voluntarily resigned, his reply was, "If you could show the cabbage that I planted with my own hands to your emperor, he definitely wouldn’t dare suggest that I replace the peace and happiness of this place with the storms of a never-satisfied greed." Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x985, 503 KB) Bird eye of a restitution of Diocletians palace in Split/Spalato by the architect E. Hébrard. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x985, 503 KB) Bird eye of a restitution of Diocletians palace in Split/Spalato by the architect E. Hébrard. ... Events May 1 - Diocletian and Maximian, emperors of Rome, retire from office. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ...


Diocletian's Palace later became the seed of modern Split, Croatia. Diocletian was laid to rest in the octagonal mausoleum in 316. His body was removed from the mausoleum in the 7th century while the building was being converted into a church, and the emperor's remains were replaced with a shrine to St. Duje, a bishop of Salona who was martyred under Diocletian.[citation needed] There is no record of who took Diocletian's body or where his remains are today.[citation needed] Parts of the cathedral and mausoleum are now used as a reliquary for the bones of Christian martyrs who are said to have died during his rule. The cathedral retains some of its original Roman features, and is one of the smallest in the world. The perystile viewving towards the entrance of Emperors aquarters Diocletians Palace is a building in Split, Croatia that was built by the emperor Diocletian the 3rd century AD. At the time it was built, there was no such city of Split, and the original town was built around... For other uses, see Split (disambiguation). ... Saint Duje (also known as Doimus, Domnio, Domnius or Dujam) was a third century bishop of Salona, a Roman city in modern Croatia. ...


Legacy

Diocletian in retirement.
Diocletian in retirement.

Overall Diocletian's reforms — in particular those of the military, civil administration, and Roman bureaucracy — were sound and helped to extend the life of the empire for centuries longer. A.H.M. Jones observes that "It is perhaps Diocletian's greatest achievement that he reigned twenty-one years and then abdicated voluntarily, and spent the remaining years of his life in peaceful retirement".[18] However, his Tetrarchy would prove a formula for civil war, as he witnessed before his death. Once he retired, the Tetrarch system collapsed upon itself, with a new, single strong ruler eventually emerging triumphant. The division of the empire into western and eastern halves, eventually led to a permanent split, with the eastern half becoming what historians would later call "the Byzantine Empire". Although the western empire would last only another couple of centuries, the Byzantine Empire, partly through Diocletian's own reforms, would continue in various forms for over one-thousand years. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Arnold Hugh Martin (A.H.M.) Jones (1904-1970) was a prominent 20th century historian of classical antiquity, particularly of the later Roman Empire. ... Abdication (from the Latin abdicatio disowning, renouncing, from ab, from, and dicare, to declare, to proclaim as not belonging to one), the act whereby a person in office renounces and gives up the same before the expiry of the time for which it is held. ... Retirement is the point where a person stops employment completely. ... Byzantine redirects here. ...


Although his reign and achievements have been largely overshadowed by Constantine's, they mark an important turning point in Roman history. Diocletian remains one of the more enigmatic and contradictory personalities of history: although he stripped away much of what had remained of the Republic, he would end up in later life acting much as Cincinnatus had, in giving up power for a peaceful retirement. With one hand he returns the fasces, symbol of power as appointed dictator of Rome. ...


Diocletian in the arts

  • Aranykoporsó ("Golden casket"), the novel of Ferenc Móra (the Hungarian writer of the early 20th century) is about the last years of Diocletian's reign.
  • Henry Purcell's "The Prophetess, or The History of Dioclesian" (1690), with a libretto by Thomas Betterton after "The Prophetess" of John Fletcher and Philip Massinger, is freely based on the historical Diocletian.

Ferenc Móra (Kiskunfélegyháza, 19 July 1879 – Szeged, 8 February 1934) was a Hungarian (Magyar) novelist, journalist, and museologist. ... Henry Purcell Henry Purcell (IPA: ;[1] September 10 (?),[2], 1659–November 21, 1695), a British Baroque composer. ... Dioclesian (or The Prophetess, or The History of Dioclesian) is a tragicomic semi-opera in five acts by Henry Purcell to a libretto by Thomas Betterton based on the play, The Prophetess, by John Fletcher and Philip Massinger, which in turn was based very loosely on the life of the...

Notes

  1. ^ Roman-Emperors.org- Diocletian. Retrieved on 2007-8-30.
  2. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica: Diocletian. Retrieved on 2007-8-30.
  3. ^ The full name Diocletian (IPA: /ˌdаɪəˈkliːʃən/) is derived from the Greek díos kletos ("sky-called").
  4. ^ He was the first emperor (after Philip the Arab) with a certifiably Greek full name: Dioclês. This is a full name similar in form to Heracles (Hêras kléos, the "fame/glory of Hera"), with the stem for Zeus substituted for the stem for "Hera" (Diós kléos, the "fame/glory of Zeus"). This was Latinized to Diocletianus when Diocles became emperor.
  5. ^ Historia Augusta retells a legend about this killing, allegedly reported by Diocletian to the grand-father of the fictitious author of the book, Flavius Vopiscus: "When Diocletian," he said, "while still serving in a minor post, was stopping at a certain tavern in the land of the Tungri in Gaul, and was making up his daily reckoning with a woman, who was a Druidess, she said to him, 'Diocletian, you are far too greedy and far too stingy,' to which Diocletian replied, it is said, not in earnest, but only in jest, 'I shall be generous enough when I become emperor.' At this the Druidess said, so he related, 'Do not jest, Diocletian, for you will become emperor when you have slain a boar". Diocles would have started hunting dozens of boars, to no effect. When the episode of the discovery of Numerian corpse happened, Diocletian was compelled to kill Aper (according to the often unreliable Historia Augusta) to fulfill the profecy, since in Latin language "aper" stands for "boar". (Carus et Carinus et Numerianus xiv–xv).
  6. ^ a b Bleckmann, Bruno (2002–). "Diocletianus". Brill's New Pauly 4. Ed. Hubert Cancik and Helmut Schneider. Leiden: Brill. 429–38. ISBN 9004122591. 
  7. ^ Liebeschuetz, J. H. W. G. (1979). "The Diocletianic revival", Continuity and Change in Roman Religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 235–52, pp. 240–3. ISBN 0-19-814822-4. 
  8. ^ Lewis, Naphtali; Meyer Reinhold (1990). Roman Civilization: Volume 2, The Roman Empire. Columbia University Press, 428. ISBN 0-231-07133-7. 
  9. ^ Bowman, Alan K.; Peter Garnsey, Averil Cameron (2005). The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume XII: The Crisis of Empire. Cambridge University Press, 59. ISBN 0-521-30199-8. 
  10. ^ Bowman, Alan K.; Peter Garnsey, Averil Cameron (2005). The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume XII: The Crisis of Empire. Cambridge University Press, 63. ISBN 0-521-30199-8. 
  11. ^ Lactantius. Of the Manner in Which the Persecutors Died. Retrieved on 2006-10-21.
  12. ^ Brown, Peter (2003). The Rise of Western Christendom, 2nd, Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 57. ISBN 0-631-22138-7. 
  13. ^ Liebeschuetz, pp. 246–8.
  14. ^ Liebeschuetz, p. 249–50.
  15. ^ Liebeschuetz, p. 250–51.
  16. ^ W. H. C. Frend, as cited by Liebeschuetz, pp. 251–2.
  17. ^ Liebeschuetz, p. 252.
  18. ^ Jones, A.H.M., The Later Roman Empire, 284–602: A Social, Economic and Administrative Survey, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, 1986, p. 40.

Marcus Julius Philippus (c. ... Alcides redirects here. ... For other uses, see Hera (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... The Augustan History (Lat. ... The Augustan History (Lat. ... The Tungri were a tribe of ancient Gaul who occupied the lands of the northern Arduenna Silva (Ardennes), along the lower valley of the Mosa (Meuse). ... For other uses, see Druid (disambiguation). ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Roger Rees, Diocletian and the Tetrarchy, Edinburgh University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-7486-1661-6
  • Pat Southern, The Roman Empire from Severus to Constantine, Routledge, 2001. ISBN 0-415-23944-3
  • Michael Rostovtzeff: The social and economic history of the Roman Empire. Oxford 1966

Mikhail Ivanovich Rostovtzeff, or Rostovtsev (October 29, 1870-October 20, 1952) was one of the 20th centurys foremost authorities on ancient Greek and Roman history. ...

External links

  • Wikimedia Commons logo Media related to Diocletian from the Wikimedia Commons.
  • Diocletian by Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina.
  • Diocletian from the Catholic Encyclopedia.
  • 12 Byzantine Rulers, by Lars Brownworth. 15 minute audio lecture on Diocletian.
  • Diocletian Palace in Split
  • Ruins of the Palace of the Emperor Diocletian at Spalatro in Dalmatia By Robert Adam, 1764. Wonderful plates made available worldwide by the University of Wisconsin Digital Collections Center. (N.B. "Spalatro" was a less used alternative form of "Spalato", the Italian name for Croatian "Split").
Preceded by
Numerian and Carinus
Roman Emperor
284–305
with Maximian (286–305)
Succeeded by
Constantius Chlorus
and Galerius


  Results from FactBites:
 
Diocletian - LoveToKnow 1911 (0 words)
DIOCLETIAN (GAIUS AURELIUS VALERIUS DIOCLETIANUS) (A.D. 245-313), Roman emperor 284-305, is said to have been born at Dioclea, near Salona, in Dalmatia.
At the age of fifty-nine, exhausted with labour, Diocletian abdicated his sovereignty on the 1st of May 305, and retired to Salona, where he died eight years afterwards (others give 316 as the year of his death).
Under Diocletian the senate became a political nonentity, the last traces of republican institutions disappeared, and were replaced by an absolute monarchy approaching to despotism.
Diocletian - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2601 words)
Diocletian brought to an end the period popularly known to historians as the "Crisis of the Third Century" (235–284).
Diocletian seemed at first to be following in the footsteps of his short-lived predecessors in the years between 284 and 298, as he fought a lengthy series of wars from one end of the Empire to the other, maintaining the extended boundaries of the frontiers and stamping out domestic uprisings.
Considering that during the half-century preceding Diocletian's ascension the Empire had been in a constant state of simmering civil war, it is remarkable that the Tetrarchy did not immediately fall apart due to the greed of any one of the four emperors.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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