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Encyclopedia > Dinosaur
?Dinosaurs
Fossil range: TriassicCretaceous (except avian)
Replica of Tyrannosaurus rex at the Senckenberg Museum.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Sauropsida
Subclass: Diapsida
Infraclass: Archosauromorpha
(unranked) Archosauria
(unranked) Ornithodira
Superorder: Dinosauria *
Owen, 1842
Orders & Suborders

Dinosaurs were vertebrate animals that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for over 160 million years, first appearing approximately 230 million years ago. At the end of the Cretaceous Period, 65 million years ago, dinosaurs suffered a catastrophic extinction, which ended their dominance on land. Taxonomists consider modern birds to be the direct descendants of theropod dinosaurs. The Triassic is a geologic period that extends from about 245 to 202 Ma (million years ago). ... The Cretaceous period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic period, about 146 million years ago (Ma), to the beginning of the Paleocene epoch of the Tertiary period (65. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Saurier2. ... Binomial name Tyrannosaurus rex Osborn, 1905 Tyrannosaurus rex (ty-RAN-o-sawr-us) meaning king tyrant lizard because of its size and large teeth and claws (Greek tyrannos = tyrant + sauros = lizard; Latin rex = king), also known colloquially as T. rex and The King of the Dinosaurs, was a giant carnivorous... T. Rex The Senckenberg Museum in Frankfurt is the largest museum of natural history in Germany. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms (as opposed to folk taxonomy). ... Phyla Subregnum Parazoa Porifera (sponges) Subregnum Agnotozoa Placozoa (trichoplax) Orthonectida (orthonectids) Rhombozoa (dicyemids) Subregnum Eumetazoa Radiata (unranked) (radial symmetry) Ctenophora (comb jellies) Cnidaria (coral, jellyfish, anemones) Bilateria (unranked) (bilateral symmetry) Acoelomorpha (basal) Myxozoa (slime animals) Superphylum Deuterostomia (blastopore becomes anus) Chordata (vertebrates, etc. ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicatas Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Clades Subclass Anapsida Subclass Diapsida Infraclass Lepidosauromorpha Infraclass Archosauromorpha Sauropsids are a diverse group of mostly egg-laying vertebrate animals. ... Groups See Text Diapsids (two arches) are a group of tetrapod animals that developed two holes (temporal fenestra) in each side of their skulls, about 300 million years ago during the late Carboniferous period. ... Groups Order Rhynchosauria Order Trilophosauria Order Prolacertiformes Plesion     Archosauriformes Division        Archosauria Archosauromorpha (Greek for ruling reptiles form) are a diverse group or Infraclass of diapsid reptiles that first appeared during the late Permian, but only became common during the Triassic. ... Groups Pterosauria Crocodylia (crocodiles) Dinosauria    Aves (birds) Archosaurs (Greek for ruling reptiles) are a group of diapsid reptiles that first appeared during the late Permian (roughly 250 million years ago). ... Superorders Dinosauromorpha    Lagosuchians    Dinosauria Pterosauromorpha    Pterosauria    Scleromochlus    Sharovipteryx Ornithodira is a division of the Archosauromorpha (and perhaps Archosauria) clade. ... In phylogenetics, a grouping of organisms is said to be paraphyletic (Greek para = near and phyle = race) if all the members of the group have a common ancestor, but the group does not include all the descendants of the most recent common ancestor of all group members. ... Sir Richard Owen and Dinornis bird skeleton Sir Richard Owen KCB (July 20, 1804–December 18, 1892) was an English biologist, comparative anatomist and palaeontologist. ... Groups Sauropodomorpha    Saturnalia    Prosauropoda    Sauropoda Theropoda    Eoraptor    Herrerasauridae    Ceratosauria    Tetanurae       Aves(extant) Saurischians (from the Greek Saurischia meaning lizard hip) are one of the two orders/branches of dinosaurs. ... Groups Saturnalia Prosauropoda Sauropoda The Sauropodomorpha were a group of long-necked, herbivorous dinosaurs that eventually dropped down on all fours and became the largest animals that ever the walked the earth. ... Subdivisions ?Eoraptor Herrerasauria Coelophysoidea Ceratosauria Cryolophosaurus Spinosauridae Carnosauria Coelurosauria Theropods (beast foot) are a group of bipedal saurischian dinosaurs. ... Suborders Thyreophora Cerapoda    Ornithopoda    Marginocephalia Ornithischia is an order of beaked, herbivorous dinosaurs. ... Subclades Ankylosauria Stegosauria Scelidosauridae The Thyreophora (Shield Bearers) were the group of armored plant-eating dinosaurs, living from the early Jurassic until the end of the Cretaceous. ... Clades ?Heterodontosauridae Hypsilophodontia Iguanodontia    Hadrosauridae Ornithopods (or-nith-oh-PODS) are a group of ornithischian dinosaurs who started out as small, cursorial grazers, and grew in size and numbers until they became one of the most successful Cretaceous herbivores in the world, and totally dominated the North American landscape. ... Suborders Pachycephalosauria Ceratopia Marginocephalia is a group of ornithischian dinosaurs that includes the thick-skulled pachycephalosaurids, and horned ceratopsians. ... Classes and Clades Vertebrata is a subphylum of chordates, specifically, those with backbones or spinal columns. ... Phyla Subregnum Parazoa Porifera (sponges) Subregnum Agnotozoa Placozoa (trichoplax) Orthonectida (orthonectids) Rhombozoa (dicyemids) Subregnum Eumetazoa Radiata (unranked) (radial symmetry) Ctenophora (comb jellies) Cnidaria (coral, jellyfish, anemones) Bilateria (unranked) (bilateral symmetry) Acoelomorpha (basal) Myxozoa (slime animals) Superphylum Deuterostomia (blastopore becomes anus) Chordata (vertebrates, etc. ... A landform comprises a geomorphological unit. ... In ecology, an ecosystem is a combination of all the living and non-living elements of an area. ... Mega-annum, usually abbreviated as Ma, is a unit of time equal to one million years. ... The Cretaceous period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic period, about 146 million years ago (Ma), to the beginning of the Paleocene epoch of the Tertiary period (65. ... A geologic period is a subdivision of geologic time that divides Eras into smaller timeframes. ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of taxa. ... Taxonomy (from Greek verb tassein = to classify and nomos = law, science, cf economy) may refer to: the science of classifying living things (see alpha taxonomy) a system of classification in some other field Taxonomy was once only the science of classifying living organisms, but later the word was applied in...


Since the first dinosaur was recognized in the 19th century, mounted, fossilized dinosaur skeletons have become major attractions at museums around the world. Dinosaurs have become a part of world culture and remain consistently popular, especially among children. They have been featured in best-selling books and films such as Jurassic Park, and new discoveries are regularly covered by the media. The National Gallery in London, a famous museum. ... Jurassic Park is a novel written by Michael Crichton and published in 1990. ...


The term dinosaur is sometimes used informally to describe other prehistoric reptiles, such as the pelycosaur Dimetrodon, the winged pterosaurs and the aquatic ichthyosaurs, plesiosaurs and mosasaurs, although technically none of these were dinosaurs. The pelycosaurs were smallish to large (upto 3 meters or more) primitive Late Paleozoic synapsid reptiles. ... Dimetrodon () was a predatory synapsid (mammal-like reptile) genus that flourished during the Permian period, living between 280 and 260 million years ago. ... Suborders Rhamphorhynchoidea Pterodactyloidea Pterosaurs (, winged lizards, often referred to as pterodactyls, ) were flying reptiles of the clade Pterosauria. ... Taxonomy See text Ichthyosaurs (Greek for fish lizard - ιχθυς meaning fish and σαυρος meaning lizard) were giant marine reptiles that resembled fish and dolphins. ... Families Plesiosaurs (IPA ) (Greek: plesios, near to + sauros, lizard) were large, carnivorous aquatic reptiles. ... Subfamilies Mosasaurinae Plioplatecarpinae Tylosaurinae Mosasaurs (from Latin Mosa, the Meuse river where the fossils were first discovered + Greek sauros, lizard) were serpentine marine reptiles, more closely related to snakes than to monitor lizards (Lee 1997). ...

Contents


What is a dinosaur?

Definition

The taxon Dinosauria was formally named by the English palaeontologist Richard Owen in 1842 as "a distinct tribe or suborder of Saurian reptiles".[1] The term is derived from the Greek words δεινός (deinos meaning "terrible", "fearsome" or "formidable") and σαύρα (saura meaning "lizard" or "reptile"). Owen chose it to express his awe at the size and majesty of the extinct animals, not out of fear or trepidation at their size and often-formidable arsenal of teeth and claws. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1637x1536, 1811 KB) Triceratops skeleton at the Smithsonian museum of Natural History File links The following pages link to this file: Triceratops ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1637x1536, 1811 KB) Triceratops skeleton at the Smithsonian museum of Natural History File links The following pages link to this file: Triceratops ... Species See text. ... In biology, the skeleton or skeletal system is the biological system providing physical support in living organisms. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... The museum as seen from the National Mall, the Old Post Office Building visible in the distance National Mall museum entrance The National Museum of Natural History is a museum administered by the Smithsonian Institution, located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. The museums collections total over... A taxon (plural taxa), or taxonomic unit, is a grouping of organisms (named or unnamed). ... The English are an ethnic group or nation associated with England and the English language. ... A paleontologist carefully chips rock from a column of dinosaur vertebrae. ... Sir Richard Owen and Dinornis bird skeleton Sir Richard Owen KCB (July 20, 1804–December 18, 1892) was an English biologist, comparative anatomist and palaeontologist. ...


Dinosaurs were an extremely varied group of animals; according to a 2006 study, 527 dinosaur species have been identified so far, and 1,844 species are believed to have existed.[2][3] Some were herbivorous, others carnivorous. Some dinosaurs were bipeds, some were quadrupeds and others, such as Ammosaurus and Iguanodon, could walk just as easily on two or four legs. Regardless of body type, nearly all known dinosaurs were well-adapted for a predominantly terrestrial, rather than aquatic or aerial, habitat. A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage In zoology, an herbivore is an animal that is adapted to eat primarily plant matter (rather than meat). ... The lion is a well-known, truly carnivorous member of the order Carnivora. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Zebra is an example of a quadruped. ... Binomial name Ammosaurus solus Marsh, 1891 Ammosaurus (AM-o-sawr-us) meaning lizard of the sand, because it was found in sandstone (Greek ammos = sand + sauros = lizard) has been identified by four incomplete skeletons found in United States and Canada regions. ... Species (neotype) (holotype) Iguanodon is a genus of ornithopod dinosaurs. ...


Dinosaur synapomorphies Shared characteristics that define a cladistic grouping. ...


All dinosaurs so far discovered share certain modifications to the ancestral archosaurian skeleton. Although some later groups of dinosaurs featured further modified versions of these traits, they are considered typical across Dinosauria; the earliest dinosaurs had them and passed them on to all their descendants. Such common structures across a taxonomic group are called synapomorphies.-1...


Dinosaur synapomorphies include: reduced fourth and fifth digits on the manus (hand), reduced number of digits on the pes (foot) to three main toes, a sacrum (the region of the vertebral column to which the pelvis attaches, composed of three or more fused vertebrae) and an open or perforate acetabulum (hip socket) with a hole its centre. Dinosaurs are unique among all tetrapods in having this perforate acetabulum. Categories: Anatomy stubs | Skeletal system ... Groups See text. ...


Other shared anatomical features


Scientists generally agree that a variety of other anatomical features were shared by most dinosaurs. These include forelimbs shorter and lighter than hind limbs, an unusual secondary palate that permitted dinosaurs to eat and breathe simultaneously, a relatively straight femur with medially-directed femoral head, two pairs of holes in the temporal region of the skull (i.e. a diapsid skull), rearward-pointing elbows in the front limbs and forward-pointing knees in the hind limbs. Groups See Text Diapsids (two arches) are a group of tetrapod animals that developed two holes (temporal fenestra) in each side of their skulls, about 300 million years ago during the late Carboniferous period. ...


The hip joint arrangement described above allowed an erect stance, in which hind limbs were situated directly beneath the body or 'underslung'. This stance is like that of most mammals today but unlike that of other reptiles, which have a less erect posture and limbs splayed out to either side. The vertical action of the limbs in dinosaurs allowed for more efficient and faster locomotion, compared to the clumsier and slower movement of other 'sprawled' reptiles. It also allowed many types of dinosaurs to become bipedal.

Taxonomic definition Image File history File linksMetadata Stegosaurus_Struct. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Stegosaurus_Struct. ... Species (type) Armor included large plates along the back, chainmail-like armor covering the throat, and four to eight spikes on the tail, depending on species. ... The American Museum of Natural History is a landmark of Manhattans Upper West Side in New York, USA, at 79th Street and Central Park West. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Big Apple Location Location in the state of New York Government Counties (Boroughs) Bronx (The Bronx) New York (Manhattan) Queens (Queens) Kings (Brooklyn) Richmond (Staten Island) Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,214. ...


Under phylogenetic taxonomy, dinosaurs are defined as all descendants of the most recent common ancestor of Triceratops and modern birds. They are divided into Ornithischia (bird-hipped) and Saurischia (lizard-hipped), depending upon pelvic structure. Ornithischian dinosaurs had a four-pronged pelvic configuration, incorporating a caudally-directed (rear-pointing) pubis bone with (most commonly) a forward-pointing process. By contrast, the pelvic structure of saurischian dinosaurs was three-pronged, and featured a pubis bone directed cranially, or forwards, only. Ornithischia includes all taxa sharing a more recent common ancestor with Triceratops than with Saurischia, while Saurischia includes those taxa sharing a more recent common ancestor with birds than with Ornithischia. It has also been suggested that Dinosauria be defined as all the descendants of the most recent common ancestor of Megalosaurus and Iguanodon. In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: phylon = tribe, race and genetikos = relative to birth, from genesis = birth) is the study of evolutionary relatedness among various groups of organisms (e. ... Species See text. ... For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... Suborders Thyreophora Cerapoda    Ornithopoda    Marginocephalia Ornithischia is an order of beaked, herbivorous dinosaurs. ... Groups Sauropodomorpha    Saturnalia    Prosauropoda    Sauropoda Theropoda    Eoraptor    Herrerasauridae    Ceratosauria    Tetanurae       Aves(extant) Saurischians (from the Greek Saurischia meaning lizard hip) are one of the two orders/branches of dinosaurs. ... Human male pelvis, viewed from front Human female pelvis, viewed from front The pelvis is the bony structure located at the base of the spine (properly known as the caudal end). ... A man and a woman in the Pioneer plaque. ... A taxon (plural taxa), or taxonomic unit, is a grouping of organisms (named or unnamed). ... Species Mantell, 1827 Waldmann, 1974 Megalosaurus (Great Lizard, from Greek, μεγαλο-/megalo- meaning big, tall or great and σαυρος/sauros meaning lizard) was a genus of large meat-eating therapod dinosaurs of the Jurassic Period of what is now southern England. ... Species (neotype) (holotype) Iguanodon is a genus of ornithopod dinosaurs. ...


There is an almost universal consensus among paleontologists that birds are the descendants of theropod dinosaurs. Using the strict cladistical definition that all descendants of a single common ancestor are related, modern birds are dinosaurs and dinosaurs are, therefore, not extinct. Modern birds are classified by most paleontologists as belonging to the subgroup Maniraptora, which are coelurosaurs, which are theropods, which are saurischians, which are dinosaurs. Orders Many - see section below. ... Subdivisions ?Eoraptor Herrerasauria Coelophysoidea Ceratosauria Cryolophosaurus Spinosauridae Carnosauria Coelurosauria Theropods (beast foot) are a group of bipedal saurischian dinosaurs. ... This cladogram shows the relationship among various insect groups. ... Orders Many - see section below. ... Subgroups Alvarezsauria Aves Deinonychosauria Oviraptorosauria Therizinosauria Maniraptora is a group used in biological classification to cover the birds and the dinosaurs that were related to them. ... Subclades Nqwebasaurus Proceratosaurus Tyrannoraptora ?Coeluridae ?Compsognathidae Tyrannosauroidea Maniraptoriformes [incertae sedis] Alvarezsauridae Maniraptora Ornithomimosauria Coelurosauria is a group of theropod dinosaurs that includes the subgroups Tyrannosauridae, Ornithomimidae, and Maniraptora. ... Subdivisions ?Eoraptor Herrerasauria Coelophysoidea Ceratosauria Cryolophosaurus Spinosauridae Carnosauria Coelurosauria Theropods (beast foot) are a group of bipedal saurischian dinosaurs. ... Groups Sauropodomorpha    Saturnalia    Prosauropoda    Sauropoda Theropoda    Eoraptor    Herrerasauridae    Ceratosauria    Tetanurae       Aves(extant) Saurischians (from the Greek Saurischia meaning lizard hip) are one of the two orders/branches of dinosaurs. ...


However, referring to birds as 'avian dinosaurs' and to all other dinosaurs as 'non-avian dinosaurs' is cumbersome. Birds are still referred to as birds, at least in popular usage and among ornithologists. It is also technically correct to refer to birds as a distinct group under the older Linnaean classification system, which accepts paraphyletic taxa that exclude some descendants of a single common ancestor. Paleontologists mostly use cladistics, which classifies birds as dinosaurs, but some biologists of the older generation do not. Ornithology (from the Greek ornitha = chicken and logos = word/science) is the branch of biology concerned with the scientific study of birds. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... This cladogram shows the relationship among various insect groups. ...


For clarity, this article will use 'dinosaur' as a synonym for 'non-avian dinosaur', and 'bird' as a synonym for 'avian dinosaur' (meaning any animal that evolved from the common ancestor of Archaeopteryx and modern birds). The term 'non-avian dinosaur' will be used for emphasis as needed. It should be noted that this article's definition of 'bird' differs from the definition common in everyday language; to most non-scientists, a 'bird' is simply a two-legged animal with wings and feathers. Binomial name Archaeopteryx lithographica Meyer, 1861 Synonyms see text Archaeopteryx (pronounced )(Greek archaio = ancient + pteryx = wing)), from the Late Jurassic of Germany, is the earliest and most primitive known bird. ...


Size

While the evidence is incomplete, it is clear that, as a group, dinosaurs were large. Even by dinosaur standards, the sauropods were gigantic. For much of the dinosaur era, the smallest sauropods were larger than anything else in their habitat, and the largest were an order of magnitude more massive than anything else that has since walked the Earth. Giant prehistoric mammals such as the Indricotherium and the Columbian mammoth were dwarfed by the giant sauropods, and only a handful of modern aquatic animals approach them in size — most notably the blue whale, which reaches up to 190,000 kg (209 tons) and 33.5 m (110 ft) in length. Families Brachiosauridae Camarasauridae Cetiosauridae Diplodocidae Dicraeosauridae Euhelopodidae Nemegtosauridae Omeisauridae Rebbachisauridae Titanosauridae/Saltosauridae Vulcanodontidae Sauropoda, the sauropods, are a suborder or infraorder of the saurischian (lizard-hipped) dinosaurs. ... An order of magnitude is the class of scale or magnitude of any amount, where each class contains values of a fixed ratio to the class preceding it. ... Orders Subclass Multituberculata (extinct) Plagiaulacida Cimolodonta Subclass Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Subclass Triconodonta (extinct) Subclass Australosphenida Ausktribosphenida Monotremata Subclass Eutheria (excludes extinct ancestors) Afrosoricida Anagaloidea (extinct) Arctostylopida (extinct) Artiodactyla Carnivora Cetacea Chiroptera Cimolesta (extinct) Creodonta (extinct) Condylarthra (extinct) Dermoptera Desmostylia (extinct) Dinocerata (extinct) Embrithopoda (extinct) Hyracoidea Insectivora Lagomorpha Litopterna (extinct) Macroscelidea Mesonychia... Binomial name Baluchitherium grangeri Baluchitherium (also called Indricotherium; full name: Baluchitherium grangeri) was a gigantic hornless rhinoceros. ... Species Mammuthus columbi   Columbian mammoth Mammuthus exilis   Pygmy mammoth Mammuthus jeffersonii   Jeffersonian mammoth Mammuthus trogontheri   Steppe mammoth Mammuthus meridionalis Mammuthus primigenius   Woolly mammoth Mammuthus lamarmorae   Sardinian Dwarf Mammoth A mammoth is any of a number of an extinct genus of elephant, often with long curved tusks and, in northern species... Binomial name Balaenoptera musculus (Linneus, 1758) Blue Whale range The Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus) is a marine mammal belonging to the suborder of baleen whales. ...


Most dinosaurs, however, were much smaller than the giant sauropods. Current evidence suggests that dinosaur average size varied through the Triassic, early Jurassic, late Jurassic and Cretaceous periods.[4] According to paleontologist Bill Erickson, estimates of median dinosaur weight range from 500 kg to 5 tonnes; a recent study of 63 dinosaur genera yielded an average weight in excess of 850 kg — comparable to the weight of a grizzly bear — and a median weight of nearly 2 tons, or about as much as a giraffe. This contrasts sharply with the size of modern mammals; on average, mammals weigh only 863 grams, or about as much as a large rodent. The smallest dinosaur was bigger than two-thirds of all current mammals; the majority of dinosaurs were bigger than all but 2% of living mammals. [5] A tonne (symbol t), sometimes referred to as a metric tonne, is a measurement of weight. ...

Largest and smallest dinosaurs Image File history File links Statue of Diplodocus carnegii by Adam Retchless This statue is in front of the Carnegie Museum of Natural History in Pittsburgh, PA. This photo was taken on 4 May 2004. ... Image File history File links Statue of Diplodocus carnegii by Adam Retchless This statue is in front of the Carnegie Museum of Natural History in Pittsburgh, PA. This photo was taken on 4 May 2004. ... Species (Hatcher, 1901) (Holland, 1924) (Marsh, 1878; holotype) Diplodocus (dih-PLOH-doc-us) meaning double beam in reference to its double-beamed chevron bones (Greek diplos = double + dokos = beam) is a type of dinosaur of subgroup Sauropoda. ... The Carnegie Museums of Pittsburgh are operated by the Carnegie Institute and located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ...


Only a tiny percentage of animals ever fossilize, and most of these remain buried in the earth. Few of the specimens that are recovered are complete skeletons, and impressions of skin and other soft tissues are rare. Rebuilding a complete skeleton by comparing the size and morphology of bones to those of similar, better-known species is an inexact art, and reconstructing the muscles and other organs of the living animal is, at best, a process of educated guesswork. As a result, scientists will probably never be certain of the largest and smallest dinosaurs. The General Sherman tree, a Giant Sequoia, is generally considered to be the largest (by volume of its trunk) tree in the world The largest organism found on Earth can be measured using a variety of different methods. ...

Size of a human compared to a Tyrannosaurus rex.
Size of a human compared to a Tyrannosaurus rex.

The tallest and heaviest dinosaur known from a complete skeleton is the Brachiosaurus specimen that was discovered in Tanzania between 1907–12. It is now mounted and on display at the Humboldt Museum of Berlin and is 12 m (38 ft) tall and probably weighed between 30,000–60,000 kg (33–66 short tons). The longest complete dinosaur is the 27 m (89 ft) long Diplodocus, which was discovered in Wyoming in the United States and displayed in Pittsburgh's Carnegie Natural History Museum in 1907. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Binomial name Tyrannosaurus rex Osborn, 1905 Tyrannosaurus rex (ty-RAN-o-sawr-us) meaning king tyrant lizard because of its size and large teeth and claws (Greek tyrannos = tyrant + sauros = lizard; Latin rex = king), also known colloquially as T. rex and The King of the Dinosaurs, was a giant carnivorous... Species (type) ?B. (Giraffatitan) brancai The Brachiosaurus was a famous dinosaur that lived during the middle to late part of the dinosaurs existence. ... The Museum für Naturkunde (in English, the Museum of Natural History), widely known as the Humboldt Museum of Berlin, is the first national museum in the world, with a massive collection of more than 25 million zoological, paleontological, and minerological specimens, including more than ten thousand type specimens. ... Berlin is the capital city and a state of Germany. ... The short ton is a unit of mass equal to 907. ... Species (Hatcher, 1901) (Holland, 1924) (Marsh, 1878; holotype) Diplodocus (dih-PLOH-doc-us) meaning double beam in reference to its double-beamed chevron bones (Greek diplos = double + dokos = beam) is a type of dinosaur of subgroup Sauropoda. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Nickname: Steel City, Iron City, City of Champions, City of Bridges, City of Colleges Location in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country State County United States Pennsylvania Allegheny County Founded 1758 Mayor Luke Ravenstahl (D) Area    - City 151. ... ...


There were larger dinosaurs, but knowledge of them is based entirely on a small number of incomplete fossil samples. The largest herbivorous specimens on record were all discovered in the 1970s or later, and include the massive Argentinosaurus, which may have weighed 80,000–100,000 kg (88–121 tons); the longest, the 40 m (130 ft) long Supersaurus; and the tallest, the 18 m (60 ft) Sauroposeidon, which could have reached a sixth-floor window. The largest known carnivorous dinosaur was Spinosaurus, reaching a length of 16-18 meters (53-60 ft), and weighing in at 9 tons. Other large meat-eaters included Giganotosaurus, Mapusaurus, Tyrannosaurus rex and Carcharodontosaurus. A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage In zoology, an herbivore is an animal that is adapted to eat primarily plant matter (rather than meat). ... Binomial name Argentinosaurus huinculensis Bonaparte & Coria, 1993 Argentinosaurus (Argentina lizard) was a herbivorous sauropod dinosaur that is quite possibly the largest, heaviest land animal that ever lived. ... Species (Jensen, 1985) Supersaurus was discovered in a Colorado rock formation in 1972, alongside bones of a brachiosaurus. ... Species The tallest dinosaur known, at 60 feet, Sauroposeidon (meaning earthquake lizard-god) is an Early Cretaceous sauropod related to the Brachiosaurus. ... The lion is a well-known, truly carnivorous member of the order Carnivora. ... Species (type)  ? Spinosaurus (meaning spine lizard) was a theropod dinosaur genus that lived in what is now Egypt, from the Albian to early Cenomanian stages of the Cretaceous period, about 95 to 93 million years ago. ... Binomial name Giganotosaurus carolinii Coria & Salgado, 1995 Longer than Tyrannosaurus[1] Paleo Template Project Giganotosaurus (giant southern lizard) was a carcharodontosaurid dinosaur that lived 93 to 89 million years ago during the Turonian stage of the Late Cretaceous period. ... Binomial name Mapusaurus roseae Coria & Currie, 2006 Mapusaurus (earth lizard) was a giant carnosaurian dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of Argentina. ... Binomial name Tyrannosaurus rex Osborn, 1905 Tyrannosaurus rex (ty-RAN-o-sawr-us) meaning king tyrant lizard because of its size and large teeth and claws (Greek tyrannos = tyrant + sauros = lizard; Latin rex = king), also known colloquially as T. rex and The King of the Dinosaurs, was a giant carnivorous... Species C. saharicus Depéret & Savornin, 1927 sp. ...


Not including modern birds like the bee hummingbird, the smallest dinosaurs known were about the size of a crow or a chicken. The Microraptor, Parvicursor, and Saltopus were all under 60 cm (2 ft) in length. Binomial name Mellisuga helenae (Lembeye, 1850) The Bee Hummingbird (Mellisuga helenae) is a hummingbird, and the smallest of all birds (with the male being smaller than the female of the species). ... Species See text. ... Trinomial name Gallus gallus domesticus A chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a type of domesticated bird which is often raised as a type of poultry. ... Microraptor was a small, bird-like dinosaur related to the dromaeosaurs. ... Binomial name Parvicursor remotus Karhu & Rautian, 1996 Parvicursor remotus was a tiny Alvarezsaurian dinosaur, with long slender legs for fast running. ... Binomial name Saltopus elginensis Paleo Template Project Saltopus was a very small bipedal reptile, roughly 23 inches (60 centimeters) long, discovered in Scotland. ...


Behavior

A nesting ground of Maiasaura was discovered in 1978.
A nesting ground of Maiasaura was discovered in 1978.

Interpretations of dinosaur behavior are generally based on the pose of body fossils and their habitat, computer simulations of their biomechanics, and comparisons with modern animals in similar ecological niches. As such, the current understanding of dinosaur behavior relies on speculation, and will likely remain controversial for the foreseeable future. However, there is general agreement that some behaviors which are common in crocodiles and birds, dinosaurs' closest living relatives, were also common among dinosaurs. Image File history File links Mayasaurus. ... Image File history File links Mayasaurus. ... Binomial name Maiasaura peeblesorum Horner & Makela, 1979 Maiasaura peeblesorum (Peebles good mother lizard) is a large duck-billed dinosaur species that lived in Montana in the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian), 74 million years ago. ... Habitat (from the Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species lives and grows. ... A computer simulation or a computer model is a computer program that attempts to simulate an abstract model of a particular system. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In ecology, a niche is a term describing the relational position of a species or population in an ecosystem. ...


The first direct evidence of herding behavior was the 1878 discovery of 31 Iguanodon dinosaurs which perished together in Bernissart, Belgium, after they fell into a deep, flooded ravine and drowned. Similar mass deaths and trackways suggest that herd or pack behavior was common in many dinosaur species. Trackways of hundreds or even thousands of herbivores indicate that duck-bills (hadrosaurids) may have moved in great herds, like the American Bison or the African Springbok. Sauropod tracks document that these animals traveled in groups composed of several different species, at least in Oxford, England,[6] and others kept their young in the middle of the herd for defense according to trackways at Davenport Ranch, Texas. Dinosaurs may have congregated in herds for defense, for migratory purposes, or to provide protection for their young. A herd of Wildebeest A gaggle of Canada geese For other uses, see Herd (disambiguation). ... Species (neotype) (holotype) Iguanodon is a genus of ornithopod dinosaurs. ... Bernissart is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Hainaut. ... A herd of Wildebeest A gaggle of Canada geese For other uses, see Herd (disambiguation). ... Genera Lambeosaurinae    Corythosaurus    Hypacrosaurus    Lambeosaurus    Parasaurolophus Hadrosaurinae    Anasazisaurus    Anatotitan    Edmontosaurus    Hadrosaurus    Maiasaura    Prosaurolophus    Saurolophus    Shantungosaurus Hadrosaurids or duck-billed dinosaurs are members of the family Hadrosauridae, and include ornithopods such as Edmontosaurus and Parasaurolophus. ... Binomial name Bison bison (Linnaeus, 1758) Subspecies B. b. ... Binomial name Antidorcas marsupialis (Zimmermann, 1780) For other meanings of Springbok, see Springbok The Springbok (Afrikaans: spring = jump; bok = antelope, deer, or goat) (Antidorcas marsupialis) is a small brown and white gazelle that stands about 75 cm high. ... Oxford is a city and local government district in Oxfordshire, England, with a population of 134,248 (2001 census). ... This article does not use inline citations to cite its references or sources. ... This article is about non-human migration. ...


Jack Horner's 1978 discovery of a Maiasaura ("good mother dinosaur") nesting ground in Montana demonstrated that parental care continued long after birth among the ornithopods.[7][8] There is also evidence that other Cretaceous-era dinosaurs, like the Patagonian sauropod Saltasaurus (1997 discovery), had similar nesting behaviors, and that the animals congregated in huge nesting colonies like those of penguins. The Mongolian maniraptoran Oviraptor was discovered in a chicken-like brooding position in 1993, which may mean it was covered with an insulating layer of feathers that kept the eggs warm.[9] Trackways have also confirmed parental behavior among sauropods and ornithopods from the Isle of Skye in northwestern Scotland.[10] Nests and eggs have been found for most major groups of dinosaurs, and it appears likely that dinosaurs communicated with their young, in a manner similar to modern birds and crocodiles. Jack Horner - A 1999 picture of the paleontologist John Jack R. Horner (born June 15, 1946) is an American paleontologist who discovered and named the Maiasaura, providing the first clear evidence that dinosaurs cared for their young. ... Binomial name Maiasaura peeblesorum Horner & Makela, 1979 Maiasaura peeblesorum (Peebles good mother lizard) is a large duck-billed dinosaur species that lived in Montana in the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian), 74 million years ago. ... A basket style nest A nest is place of refuge built to hold an animals eggs and/or provide a place to raise their offspring. ... Official language(s) English Capital Helena Largest city Billings Area  Ranked 4th  - Total 147,165 sq mi (381,156 km²)  - Width 255 miles (410 km)  - Length 630 miles (1,015 km)  - % water 1  - Latitude 44°26 N to 49° N  - Longitude 104°2 W to 116°2 W Population  Ranked... Clades ?Heterodontosauridae Hypsilophodontia Iguanodontia    Hadrosauridae Ornithopods (or-nith-oh-PODS) are a group of ornithischian dinosaurs who started out as small, cursorial grazers, and grew in size and numbers until they became one of the most successful Cretaceous herbivores in the world, and totally dominated the North American landscape. ... In orange the area most commonly defined as Patagonia. ... Binomial name Saltasaurus loricatus Bonaparte & Powell, 1980 Saltasaurus was a small sauropod of the late Cretaceous, characterized by a diplodocid-type head (with blunt teeth only in the back of the mouth) and was the first discovered with small bony plates embedded in its skin. ... Modern Genera Aptenodytes Eudyptes Eudyptula Megadyptes Pygoscelis Spheniscus For extinct genera, see Systematics Penguins (order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae) are an order of aquatic, flightless birds living in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Subgroups Alvarezsauria Aves Deinonychosauria Oviraptorosauria Therizinosauria Maniraptora is a group used in biological classification to cover the birds and the dinosaurs that were related to them. ... Binomial name Oviraptor philoceratops Osborn, 1924 Paleo Template Project Oviraptor was a small Mongolian theropod dinosaur, first discovered by legendary paleontologist Roy Chapman Andrews, and first described by Henry Fairfield Osborn in 1924. ... Trinomial name Gallus gallus domesticus A chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a type of domesticated bird which is often raised as a type of poultry. ... Zerg Brood brood comb: the area in a beehive where the queen lays eggs and new bees are raised This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... An average Whooping Crane egg is 102 mm long, and weighs 208 grams In some animals, an egg (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ... Looking towards Quiraing, Skye. ... Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I 843  Area    - Total 78...


The crests and frills of some dinosaurs, like the marginocephalians, theropods and lambeosaurines, may have been too fragile to be used for active defense, so they were likely used for sexual or aggressive displays, though little is known about dinosaur mating and territorialism. The nature of dinosaur communication also remains enigmatic, and is an active area of research. For example, recent evidence suggests that the hollow crests of the lambeosaurines may have functioned as resonance chambers used for a wide range of vocalizations. A Sagittal crest is a ridge of bone running lengthwise along the midline of the top of the skull (at the sagittal suture) of many mammalian and primate skulls, among others. ... Suborders Pachycephalosauria Ceratopia Marginocephalia is a group of ornithischian dinosaurs that includes the thick-skulled pachycephalosaurids, and horned ceratopsians. ... Families See text Theropods (beast foot) are a group of bipedal, primarily carnivorous dinosaurs, belonging to the saurischian (lizard-hip) family. ... Genera Lambeosaurinae    Corythosaurus    Hypacrosaurus    Lambeosaurus    Parasaurolophus Hadrosaurinae    Anasazisaurus    Anatotitan    Edmontosaurus    Hadrosaurus    Maiasaura    Prosaurolophus    Saurolophus    Shantungosaurus Hadrosaurids or duck-billed dinosaurs are members of the family Hadrosauridae, and include ornithopods such as Edmontosaurus and Parasaurolophus. ... In ethology, sociobiology and behavioral ecology, the term territory refers to any geographical area that an animal of a particular species consistently defends against conspecifics (and, occasionally, animals of other species). ... Animal communication is any behaviour on the part of one animal that has an effect on the current or future behaviour of another animal. ... A resonance chamber uses resonance to amplify sound. ... In animals, vocalization is a means of communication generated in many cases by their primitive versions of vocal chords. ...


From a behavioral standpoint, one of the most valuable dinosaur fossils was discovered in the Gobi Desert in 1971. It included a Velociraptor attacking a Protoceratops,[11] proving that dinosaurs did indeed attack and eat each other. While cannibalistic behavior among theropods is no surprise,[12] this too was confirmed by tooth marks from Madagascar in 2003.[13] The Gobi (Mongolian Говь, Chinese 戈壁; pinyin gē bì) is a large desert region in northern China and southern Mongolia. ... Binomial name Velociraptor mongoliensis Osborn, 1924 Synonyms Ovoraptor djadochtari Osborn, 1924 (nomen nudum) Velociraptor is a genus of dromaeosaurid theropod dinosaur that existed approximately 83 to 70 million years ago during the later part of the Cretaceous Period. ... Protoceratops is a sheep-sized, herbivorous ceratopsian dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous of Mongolia. ... Cannibalism is the act or practice of eating members of the same species, e. ... Families See text Theropods (beast foot) are a group of bipedal, primarily carnivorous dinosaurs, belonging to the saurischian (lizard-hip) family. ...


There seem to have been no burrowing species of dinosaur and few climbing species. This is somewhat surprising when compared to the later mammalian radiation in the Cenozoic, which included many species of these types. As to how the animals moved, biomechanics has provided significant insight. For example, studies of the forces exerted by muscles and gravity on dinosaurs' skeletal structure have demonstrated how fast dinosaurs could run,[14][15] whether diplodocids could create sonic booms via whip-like tail snapping,[16] whether giant theropods had to slow down when rushing for food to avoid fatal injuries,[17] and if sauropods could float.[18] The Cenozoic Era (sen-oh-ZOH-ik; sometimes Caenozoic Era in the United Kingdom) meaning new life (Greek kainos = new + zoe = life) is the most recent of the three classic geological eras. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Genera Subfamily Apatosaurinae:    Apatosaurus    Eobrontosaurus Subfamily Diplodocinae:    Barosaurus    Diplodocus    Seismosaurus    Supersaurus Diplodocids, or members of the family Diplodocidae, are sauropod dinosaurs such as the Diplodocus and the Apatosaurus. ... F/A-18C passing the sound barrier. ... For other uses, see Whip (disambiguation). ...


Evolution of dinosaurs

A reconstruction of Eoraptor, an early dinosaur.
A reconstruction of Eoraptor, an early dinosaur.

Dinosaurs diverged from their archosaur ancestors approximately 230 million years ago during the Middle to Late Triassic period, roughly 20 million years after the Permian-Triassic extinction event wiped out an estimated 95% of all life on Earth.[19] [20] Radiometric dating of fossils from the early dinosaur genus Eoraptor establishes its presence in the fossil record at this time. Paleontologists believe Eoraptor resembles the common ancestor of all dinosaurs; [21] if this is true, its traits suggest that the first dinosaurs were small, bipedal predators.[22] Image File history File links Eoraptor. ... Image File history File links Eoraptor. ... Binomial name Eoraptor lunensis Sereno et al, 1993 Eoraptor was one of the worlds earliest dinosaurs. ... -1... The Triassic is a geologic period that extends from about 245 to 202 Ma (million years ago). ... The Permian-Triassic extinction event, labeled End P here, is the most significant extinction event in this plot for marine fossiliferous genera. ... Radiometric dating is a technique used to date materials based on a knowledge of the decay rates of naturally occurring isotopes, and the current abundances. ... In biology, a genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic grouping. ... Binomial name Eoraptor lunensis Sereno et al, 1993 Eoraptor was one of the worlds earliest dinosaurs. ... A group of organisms is said to have common descent if they have a common ancestor. ...


Also among the earliest dinosaurs was the primitive Lagosuchus; Saltopus, which was barely larger than a human hand, appeared slightly later. The first few lines of primitive dinosaurs diversified rapidly through the rest of the Triassic period; dinosaur species quickly evolved the specialized features and range of sizes needed to exploit nearly every terrestrial ecological niche. During the period of dinosaur predominance, which encompassed the ensuing Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, nearly every known land animal larger than 1 meter in length was a dinosaur. Lagosauchus (Rabbit Crocodile) is not a dinosaur, and ,ironically, looks like neither a crocodile, nor a rabbit. ... Binomial name Saltopus elginensis Paleo Template Project Saltopus was a very small bipedal reptile, roughly 23 inches (60 centimeters) long, discovered in Scotland. ... Adaptive radiation describes the rapid speciation of a single or a few species to fill many ecological niches. ... In ecology, a niche is a term describing the relational position of a species or population in an ecosystem. ... The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 200 Ma (million years ago), at the end of the Triassic to 146 Ma, at the beginning of the Cretaceous. ... The Cretaceous period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic period, about 146 million years ago (Ma), to the beginning of the Paleocene epoch of the Tertiary period (65. ...


The Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event, which occurred approximately 65 million years ago at the end of the Cretaceous period, caused the extinction of all dinosaurs except for the line that had already given rise to the first birds. Other diapsid species related to the dinosaurs also survived the event. Badlands near Drumheller, Alberta where erosion has exposed the KT boundary. ... Groups See Text Diapsids (two arches) are a group of tetrapod animals that developed two holes (temporal fenestra) in each side of their skulls, about 300 million years ago during the late Carboniferous period. ...


Study of dinosaurs

Knowledge about dinosaurs is derived from a variety of fossil and non-fossil records, including fossilized bones, feces, trackways, gastroliths, feathers, impressions of skin, internal organs and soft tissues.[23][24] Many fields of study contribute to our understanding of dinosaurs, including physics, chemistry, biology, and the earth sciences (of which paleontology is a sub-discipline). It has been suggested that Fossil record be merged into this article or section. ... Grays illustration of a human femur, a typically recognized bone. ... Feces, faeces, or fæces (see spelling differences) is waste product from an animals digestive tract expelled through the anus (or cloaca) during defecation. ... A trackway is a set of impressions in the soft earth, usually a set of footprints, left by a life-form. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... Two feathers A white feather Feathers are one of the epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds. ... A close-up of human skin. ... In anatomy, a viscus (plural viscera) is an internal organ of an animal, in particular an internal organ of the thorax or abdomen. ... In medicine, the term soft tissue refers to tissues that connect, support, or surround other structures and organs of the body. ... The first few hydrogen atom electron orbitals shown as cross-sections with color-coded probability density. ... Chemistry (from the Greek word χημεία (chemeia) meaning cast together or pour together) is the science of matter at the atomic to molecular scale, dealing primarily with collections of atoms (such as molecules, crystals, and metals). ... Biology (from Greek βίος λόγος, see below) is the branch of science dealing with the study of life. ... Earth science (also known as geoscience or the geosciences), is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. ... A paleontologist carefully chips rock from a column of dinosaur vertebrae. ...


Dinosaur remains have been found on every continent on Earth, including Antarctica. Numerous fossils of the same dinosaur species have been found on completely different continents, corroborating the generally-accepted theory that all land masses were at one time connected in a super-continent called Pangaea. Pangaea began to break apart during the Triassic period roughly 230 million years ago.[25] Map of Pangaea Pangaea separation animation Pangaea or Pangea (derived from Παγγαία, Greek for all earth) is the name given to the supercontinent that existed during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras, before the process of plate tectonics separated each of the component continents into their current configuration. ... The Triassic is a geologic period that extends from about 245 to 202 Ma (million years ago). ...


The current "dinosaur renaissance"

The field of dinosaur research has enjoyed a surge in activity that began in the 1970s and is ongoing. This was triggered, in part, by John Ostrom's discovery of Deinonychus, an active, vicious predator that may have been warm-blooded, in marked contrast to the prevailing image of dinosaurs as sluggish and cold-blooded. Vertebrate paleontology, arguably the primary scientific discipline involved in dinosaur research, has become a global science. Major new dinosaur discoveries have been made by paleontologists working in previously unexploited regions, including India, South America, Madagascar, Antarctica, and most significantly in China (the amazingly well-preserved feathered dinosaurs in China have further solidified the link between dinosaurs and their living descendants, modern birds). The widespread application of cladistics, which rigorously analyzes the relationships between biological organisms, has also proved tremendously useful in classifying dinosaurs. Cladistic analysis, among other modern techniques, helps to compensate for an often incomplete and fragmentary fossil record. John Ostrom John H. Ostrom (February 18, 1928 – July 16, 2005) was an American paleontologist who revolutionized modern understanding of dinosaurs in the 1960s, when he demonstrated that dinosaurs are more like big non-flying birds than they are like lizards (or saurians), an idea first proposed by Thomas Henry... Binomial name Deinonychus antirrhopus Ostrom, 1969 Deinonychus (IPA ) meaning terrible claw (Greek δεινος meaning terrible and ονυξ/ονυχος meaning claw) was a jaguar-sized, carnivorous dromaeosaurid dinosaur species from the Early Cretaceous Period. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ... A warm-blooded (homeothermic) animal is one that can keep its core body temperature at a nearly constant level regardless of the temperature of the surrounding environment (that is, to maintain thermal homeostasis) . This can involve not only the ability to generate heat, but also the ability to cool down... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Vertebrate paleontology seeks to discover the behavior, reproduction and appearance of extinct spined animals, through the study of their fossilized remains. ... Science in the broadest sense refers to any knowledge or system of knowledge, attained by verifiable means. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Sinornithosaurus by Jim Robins Feathered dinosaurs are regarded by many paleontologists as transitional fossils between birds and dinosaurs. ... Orders Many - see section below. ... This cladogram shows the relationship among various insect groups. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms (as opposed to folk taxonomy). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Fossil. ...


Classification

Main article: Dinosaur classification This article contains a list of the classifications of dinosaurs. ...


Dinosaurs (including birds) are archosaurs, like modern crocodilians. Archosaurs' diapsid skulls have two holes located where the jaw muscles attach, called temporal fenestrae. Most reptiles (including birds) are diapsids; mammals, with only one temporal fenestra, are called synapsids; and turtles, with no temporal fenestra, are anapsids. Anatomically, dinosaurs share many other archosaur characteristics, including teeth that grow from sockets rather than as direct extensions of the jawbones. Within the archosaur group, dinosaurs are differentiated most noticeably by their gait. Dinosaur legs extend directly beneath the body, whereas the legs of lizards and crocodylians sprawl out to either side. All dinosaurs were land animals.-1... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Groups See Text Diapsids (two arches) are a group of tetrapod animals that developed two holes (temporal fenestra) in each side of their skulls, about 300 million years ago during the late Carboniferous period. ... Temporal fenestræ refer to cranial holes. ... Orders & Suborders Order Pelycosauria * Suborder Caseasauria Suborder Eupelycosauria * Order Therapsida * Suborder Biarmosuchia Suborder Dinocephalia Suborder Anomodontia Suborder Gorgonopsia Suborder Therocephalia Suborder Cynodontia * For complete phylogeny, see text. ... Suborders Cryptodira Pleurodira See text for families. ... Orders Testudines (Turtles) Millerettid - extinct Nyctiphruret - extinct Pareiasaur - extinct Procolophonoid - extinct The anapsids are a group of amniotes, characterized by skulls without openings near the temples. ...


Many other types of reptiles lived at the same time as the dinosaurs. Some of these are commonly, but incorrectly, thought of as dinosaurs, including plesiosaurs (which are not closely related to the dinosaurs) and pterosaurs, which developed separately from reptilian ancestors in the late Triassic period. Families Plesiosaurs (IPA ) (Greek: plesios, near to + sauros, lizard) were large, carnivorous aquatic reptiles. ... Suborders Rhamphorhynchoidea Pterodactyloidea Pterosaurs (TEH-row-sore, winged lizards) were flying reptiles of the clade Pterosauria. ...


Collectively, dinosaurs are usually regarded as a superorder or an unranked clade. They are divided into two orders, the Saurischia and the Ornithischia, on the basis of their hip structure. Saurischians ('lizard-hipped', from the Greek sauros (σαυρος) meaning 'lizard' and ischion (ισχιον) meaning 'hip joint') are dinosaurs that originally retained the hip structure of their ancestors. They include all the theropods (bipedal carnivores) and sauropods (long-necked herbivores). Ornithischians ('bird-hipped', from the Greek ornitheos (ορνιθειος) meaning 'of a bird' and ischion (ισχιον) meaning 'hip joint') is the other dinosaurian order, most of which were quadrupedal herbivores. (Nota Bene: the terms "lizard hip" and "bird-hip" are misnomers -- birds evolved from dinosaurs with "lizard hips".) Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... A clade is a term belonging to the discipline of cladistics. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Groups Sauropodomorpha    Saturnalia    Prosauropoda    Sauropoda Theropoda    Eoraptor    Herrerasauridae    Ceratosauria    Tetanurae       Aves(extant) Saurischians (from the Greek Saurischia meaning lizard hip) are one of the two orders/branches of dinosaurs. ... Suborders Thyreophora Cerapoda    Ornithopoda    Marginocephalia Ornithischia is an order of beaked, herbivorous dinosaurs. ... Subdivisions ?Eoraptor Herrerasauria Coelophysoidea Ceratosauria Cryolophosaurus Spinosauridae Carnosauria Coelurosauria Theropods (beast foot) are a group of bipedal saurischian dinosaurs. ... The lion is a well-known, truly carnivorous member of the order Carnivora. ... Families Brachiosauridae Camarasauridae Cetiosauridae Diplodocidae Dicraeosauridae Euhelopodidae Nemegtosauridae Omeisauridae Rebbachisauridae Titanosauridae/Saltosauridae Vulcanodontidae Sauropoda, the sauropods, are a suborder or infraorder of the saurischian (lizard-hipped) dinosaurs. ... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage In zoology, an herbivore is an animal that is adapted to eat primarily plant matter (rather than meat). ... The Zebra is an example of a quadruped. ...


The following is a simplified classification of dinosaur families. A more detailed version can be found at List of dinosaur classifications. This article contains a list of the classifications of dinosaurs. ...


The dagger (†) is used to indicate taxa that are extinct. In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ...


Order Saurischia

Groups Sauropodomorpha    Saturnalia    Prosauropoda    Sauropoda Theropoda    Eoraptor    Herrerasauridae    Ceratosauria    Tetanurae       Aves(extant) Saurischians (from the Greek Saurischia meaning lizard hip) are one of the two orders/branches of dinosaurs. ... Genera Staurikosaurus Aliwalia Herrerasaurus Spondylosoma Chindesaurus ? Caseosaurus Herrerasaurs are among the oldest known dinosaurs, appearing in the fossil record about 228 million years ago (mid-Triassic). ... Subdivisions ?Eoraptor Herrerasauria Coelophysoidea Ceratosauria Cryolophosaurus Spinosauridae Carnosauria Coelurosauria Theropods (beast foot) are a group of bipedal saurischian dinosaurs. ... Families Coelophysidae Coelophysoids were common dinosaurs of the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic periods. ... The Ceratosauria are a group of Theropod dinosaurs defined as all theropods sharing a more recent common ancestry with Ceratosaurus than with birds. ... Abelisauridae is a family (or clade) of theropod dinosaurs. ... Groups Cryolophosaurus Spinosauroidea     Megalosauridae     Spinosauridae     Torvosauridae Neotetanurae     Carnosauria     Coelurosauria // Definition Tetanurae, meaning stiff tails, was named by Gauthier (1986) for a large group of theropod dinosaurs. ... Families Spinosauridae Megalosauridae Megalosauroidea was a superfamily of tetanuran theropod dinosaurs that lived from the Middle Jurassic to the Late Cretaceous period. ... Families Allosauridae    Allosaurinae    ?Carcharodontosaurinae Sinraptoridae Carnosauria is a sub-group of Theropoda, a group of predatory dinosaurs. ... Subclades Nqwebasaurus Proceratosaurus Tyrannoraptora ?Coeluridae ?Compsognathidae Tyrannosauroidea Maniraptoriformes [incertae sedis] Alvarezsauridae Maniraptora Ornithomimosauria Coelurosauria is a group of theropod dinosaurs that includes the subgroups Tyrannosauridae, Ornithomimidae, and Maniraptora. ... Subclades Coelurus Tanycolagreus ?Compsognathinae Coeluridae is a family of generally small, carnivorous dinosaurs from the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. ... Genera See text. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Ornithomimosauria. ... Subgroups Alvarezsauria Aves Deinonychosauria Oviraptorosauria Therizinosauria Maniraptora is a group used in biological classification to cover the birds and the dinosaurs that were related to them. ... Genera See text. ... The Oviraptorosauria are a group of beaked, feathered dinosaurs from the Cretaceous of Asia and North America. ... Families Dromaeosauridae Troodontidae The Deinonychosauria were a successful clade of theropods in the Cretaceous period. ... Genera See text. ... Genera Achillobator Adasaurus Atrociraptor Bambiraptor Buitreraptor Dromaeosauroides Dromaeosaurus Deinonychus Neuquenraptor Pyroraptor Saurornitholestes Unenlagia Utahraptor Variraptor Velociraptor Dromaeosaurids, raptors or members of the family Dromaeosauridae (running lizards) are theropod dinosaurs. ... Orders Many - see section below. ... Groups Saturnalia Prosauropoda Sauropoda The Sauropodomorpha were a group of long-necked, herbivorous dinosaurs that eventually dropped down on all fours and became the largest animals that ever the walked the earth. ... Binomial name Thecodontosaurus antiquus Riley & Stuchbury, 1836 Thecodontosaurus antiquus (Ancient Socket Tooth Lizard) was a herbivorous dinosaur which lived during the Late Triassic period (Norian and/or Rhaetian age). ... Families Plateosauridae (paraphyletic) Plesion Riojasaurus Massospondylidae Yunnanosauridae Prosauropoda or prosauropods were a group of early herbivorous dinosaurs that lived during the Late Triassic and early Jurassic periods. ... Families Brachiosauridae Camarasauridae Cetiosauridae Diplodocidae Dicraeosauridae Euhelopodidae Nemegtosauridae Omeisauridae Rebbachisauridae Titanosauridae/Saltosauridae Vulcanodontidae Sauropoda, the sauropods, are a suborder or infraorder of the saurischian (lizard-hipped) dinosaurs. ... Families Amphicoelias Rebbachisauridae Amazonsaurus Suuwassea Diplodocidae Dicraeosauridae Diplodocoidea was a superfamily of sauropod dinosaurs, which included some of the longest animals of all time, including slender giants like Supersaurus, Diplodocus, Apatosaurus, and Amphicoelias. ... Macronaria is a subfamily of Sauropoda from the Late Jurassic to mid Cretaceous in North America and Africa. ... Genera Brachiosaurus Cedarosaurus Giraffatitan Lusotitan Brachiosauridae is a family of dinosaurs, whose members are known as Brachiosaurids. ... Genera and Families Andesaurus Family Titanosauridae Epachthosaurus Argentinosaurus Antarctosaurus Malawisaurus Argyrosaurus Gondwanatitan Aeolosaurus Baurutitan Trigonosaurus Alamosaurus Isisaurus Subfamily Nemegtosaurinae Subfamily Saltasaurinae For the Titanosaurus featured in the Godzilla film series, see Titanosaurus (Godzilla). ...

Order Ornithischia

Suborders Thyreophora Cerapoda    Ornithopoda    Marginocephalia Ornithischia is an order of beaked, herbivorous dinosaurs. ... Subclades Ankylosauria Stegosauria Scelidosauridae The Thyreophora (Shield Bearers) were the group of armored plant-eating dinosaurs, living from the early Jurassic until the end of the Cretaceous. ... Families Huayangosauridae Stegosauridae Stegosauria is a superfamily of Thyreophora. ... Families Nodosauridae Ankylosauridae The Ankylosauria, less formally known as the ankylosaurians, were a group of ornithischian (bird-hipped) dinosaurs that lived in the late Cretaceous period. ... Suborders Ornithopoda Marginocephalia Pachycephalosauria] Ceratopsia Triceratops skeleton at the National Museum of Natural History The Cerapoda are a clade of the order Ornithischia. ... Heterodontosauridae was a family of ornithischian dinosaurs noted for the varying types of teeth they possessed. ... Suborders Pachycephalosauria Ceratopia Marginocephalia is a group of ornithischian dinosaurs that includes the thick-skulled pachycephalosaurids, and horned ceratopsians. ... Groups Goyocephale Micropachycephalosaurus Homalocephaloidea    Homalocephale    Pachycephalosauridae Pachycephalosauria (Greek for thick headed lizards) is a group of ornithischian dinosaurs which evolved during the Cretaceous period in what is now North America and Asia. ... The Ceratopsia are a group of omnivorous and herbivorous, beaked dinosaurs which thrived in North America and Asia during the Cretaceous. ... Species Genus Hongshanosaurus (type) Genus Psittacosaurus (type) Psittacosaurs (parrot lizards) were an early family of Ceratopsian dinosaurs. ... Genera Protoceratops ? Bagaceratops ? Breviceratops Graciliceratops ? Lamaceratops ? Platyceratops Magnirostris A protoceratopsid is a dinosaur of the family Protoceratopsidae. ... Genera Centrosaurinae    Achelousaurus    Centrosaurus    Einiosaurus    Styracosaurus    Pachyrhinosaurus Ceratopsinae    Chasmosaurus    Diceratops    Pentaceratops    Protoceratops    Torosaurus    Triceratops Ceratopsids, or members of the Ceratopsidae (or Ceratopidae), are a diverse group of marginocephalian dinosaurs like Triceratops and Styracosaurus. ... Clades ?Heterodontosauridae Hypsilophodontia Iguanodontia    Hadrosauridae Ornithopods (or-nith-oh-PODS) are a group of ornithischian dinosaurs who started out as small, cursorial grazers, and grew in size and numbers until they became one of the most successful Cretaceous herbivores in the world, and totally dominated the North American landscape. ... Genera See text. ... Iguanodontia is a taxonomical group of dinosaurs which are bipedal, herbivorous, ornithopods and whose most prominent member is Iguanodon of the early Cretaceous period. ... Iguanodonts were herbivorous dinosaurs that lived from the mid-Jurassic to mid-Cretaceous. ... Genera Lambeosaurinae     Corythosaurus    Lambeosaurus    Parasaurolophus Hadrosaurinae    Anasazisaurus     Anatotitan     Edmontosaurus     Hadrosaurus    Maiasaura    Prosaurolophus    Saurolophus    Shantungosaurus Hadrosaurids or duck-billed dinosaurs are members of the family Hadrosauridae, and include ornithopods such as Edmontosaurus and Parasaurolophus. ...

Areas of debate

Warm-bloodedness

Dinosaur models at the Royal Ontario Museum.
Dinosaur models at the Royal Ontario Museum.
Main article: Warm-bloodedness of dinosaurs

A vigorous debate on the subject of temperature regulation in dinosaurs has been ongoing since the 1960s. Originally, scientists broadly disagreed as to whether dinosaurs were capable of regulating their body temperatures at all. More recently, dinosaur endothermy has become the consensus view, and debate has focused on the mechanisms of temperature regulation. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1280 KB) Description: oh wonderful - more dinosaurs File links The following pages link to this file: Dinosaur Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1280 KB) Description: oh wonderful - more dinosaurs File links The following pages link to this file: Dinosaur Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... The mosaic ceiling of the rotunda entrance to the museum. ... A vigorous debate on the subject of temperature regulation in dinosaurs has been ongoing since the 1960s. ... A warm-blooded (homeothermic) animal is one that can keep its core body temperature at a nearly constant level regardless of the temperature of the surrounding environment (that is, to maintain thermal homeostasis) . This can involve not only the ability to generate heat, but also the ability to cool down...


After dinosaurs were discovered, paleontologists first posited that they were ectothermic creatures: "terrible lizards" as their name suggests. This supposed cold-bloodedness implied that dinosaurs were relatively slow, sluggish organisms, comparable to modern reptiles, which need external sources of heat in order to regulate their body temperature. Dinosaur ectothermy remained a prevalent view until Robert T. "Bob" Bakker, an early proponent of dinosaur endothermy, published an influential paper on the topic in 1968. Cold-blooded organisms, more technically known as poikilothermic, are animals that have no internal metabolic mechanism for regulating their body temperatures. ... Families Many, see text. ... Robert T. Bakker Dr. Robert T. Bakker (Bob Bakker), born March 24, 1945, in Bergen County, New Jersey, is an American paleontologist who has helped re-shape modern theories about dinosaurs, particularly by adding support to the theory that some dinosaurs were homeothermic (warm-blooded). ...


Modern evidence indicates that dinosaurs thrived in cooler temperate climates, and that at least some dinosaur species must have regulated their body temperature by internal biological means (perhaps aided by the animals' bulk). Evidence of endothermism in dinosaurs includes the discovery of polar dinosaurs in Australia and Antarctica (where they would have experienced a cold, dark six-month winter), the discovery of dinosaurs whose feathers may have provided regulatory insulation, and analysis of blood-vessel structures that are typical of endotherms within dinosaur bone. Skeletal structures suggest that theropods and other dinosaurs had active lifestyles better suited to an endothermic cardiovascular system, while sauropods exhibit fewer endothermic characteristics. It is certainly possible that some dinosaurs were endothermic while others were not. Scientific debate over the specifics continues.[26] A warm-blooded (homeothermic) animal is one that can keep its core body temperature at a nearly constant level regardless of the temperature of the surrounding environment (that is, to maintain thermal homeostasis) . This can involve not only the ability to generate heat, but also the ability to cool down... During the Early Cretaceous the continent of Australia was still linked to Antarctica as a remnant of Gondwana that had rifted from Africa and drifted southward. ...


Complicating the debate is the fact that warm-bloodedness can emerge based on more than one mechanism. Most discussions of dinosaur endothermy tend to compare them to average birds or mammals, which expend energy to elevate body temperature above that of the environment. Small birds and mammals also possess insulation, such as fat, fur, or feathers, which slows down heat loss. However, large mammals, such as elephants, face a different problem due to their relatively small ratio of surface area to volume (Haldane's principle). This ratio compares the volume of an animal with the area of its skin: as an animal gets bigger, its surface area increases more slowly than its volume. At a certain point, the amount of heat radiated away through the skin drops below the amount of heat produced inside the body, forcing animals to use additional methods to avoid overheating. In the case of elephants, they are hairless, and have large ears which increase their surface area, and have behavioral adaptations as well (such as using the trunk to spray water on themselves and mud wallowing). These behaviors increase cooling through evaporation. Insulation must not be confused with insolation (the latter word has an o where the former has a u). Insulation is any material used to reduce or “slow down” or “resist” the flow of energy. ... For other uses, see Fat (disambiguation). ... A dogs fur usually consists of longer, stiffer, guard hairs—which can be straight, wiry, or wavy, and of various lengths, hiding a soft, short-haired undercoat. ... Two feathers A white feather Feathers are one of the epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds. ... John Burdon Sanderson Haldane (November 5, 1892 – December 1, 1964), who normally used J.B.S. as a first name, was a British geneticist and evolutionary biologist. ...


Large dinosaurs would presumably have had to deal with similar issues; their body size would dictate that they lost heat relatively slowly to the surrounding air, and so could have been what are called inertial homeotherms, animals that are warmer than their environments through sheer size rather than through special adaptations like those of birds or mammals. However, so far this theory fails to account for the vast number of dog- and goat-sized dinosaur species which made up the bulk of the ecosystem during the Mesozoic period. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Feathered dinosaurs and the bird connection

Main article: Feathered dinosaurs
Main article: Dinosaur-bird connection

Birds and non-avian dinosaurs share many features. Birds share over a hundred distinct anatomical features with theropod dinosaurs, which are generally accepted to have been their closest ancient relatives.[27] Sinornithosaurus by Jim Robins Feathered dinosaurs are regarded by many paleontologists as transitional fossils between birds and dinosaurs. ... The current scientific consensus holds that birds evolved from theropod dinosaurs. ... Families See text Theropods (beast foot) are a group of bipedal, primarily carnivorous dinosaurs, belonging to the saurischian (lizard-hip) family. ...


Feathers

Archaeopteryx, the first good example of a "feathered dinosaur", was discovered in 1861. The initial specimen was found in the Solnhofen limestone in southern Germany, which is a lagerstätte, a rare and remarkable geological formation known for its superbly detailed fossils. Archaeopteryx is a transitional fossil, with features clearly intermediate between those of modern reptiles and birds. Brought to light just two years after Darwin's seminal The Origin of Species, its discovery spurred the nascent debate between proponents of evolutionary biology and creationism. This early bird is so dinosaur-like that, without a clear impression of feathers in the surrounding rock, specimens are commonly mistaken for Compsognathus.[citation needed] Download high resolution version (700x636, 54 KB)Model of Archaeopteryx lithographica in the Oxford University Museum of Natural History. ... Download high resolution version (700x636, 54 KB)Model of Archaeopteryx lithographica in the Oxford University Museum of Natural History. ... Binomial name Archaeopteryx lithographica Meyer, 1861 Synonyms see text Archaeopteryx (pronounced )(Greek archaio = ancient + pteryx = wing)), from the Late Jurassic of Germany, is the earliest and most primitive known bird. ... The Oxford University Museum of Natural History, sometimes known simply as the Oxford University Museum, is a museum displaying many of the University of Oxfords natural history specimens. ... Binomial name Archaeopteryx lithographica Meyer, 1861 Synonyms see text Archaeopteryx (pronounced )(Greek archaio = ancient + pteryx = wing)), from the Late Jurassic of Germany, is the earliest and most primitive known bird. ... A brittle star fossil from Solnhofen limestone. ... Lagerstätten (German, singular: Lagerstätte, literally: place(s) of storage or resting place(s)) are sedimentary deposits that exhibit extraordinary fossil richness or completeness. ... A transitional fossil is the fossil remains of a creature that exhibits primitive traits in comparison with the more derived life-forms it is related to. ... The title page of the 1859 edition of On the Origin of Species. ... Evolutionary biology is a subfield of biology concerned with the origin and descent of species, as well as their change, multiplication, and diversity over time. ... The Creation of Light by Gustave Doré. In many religious traditions, creationism is the active acceptance of an origin belief that humanity, life, the Earth, or the universe as a whole was specially created by a supreme being or by supernatural intervention. ... Compsognathus (komp-sog-NAY-thus) lived in Late Jurassic of Germany, France and perhaps Portugal. ...


Since the 1990s, a number of additional feathered dinosaurs have been found, providing even stronger evidence of the close relationship between dinosaurs and modern birds. Most of these specimens were unearthed in the Liaoning province in northeastern China, which was part of an island continent during the Cretaceous period. Though feathers have been found only in the lagerstätte of the Yixian Formation and a few other places, it is possible that non-avian dinosaurs elsewhere in the world were also feathered. The lack of widespread fossil evidence for feathered non-avian dinosaurs may be due to the fact that delicate features like skin and feathers are not often preserved by fossilization and thus are absent from the fossil record. Sinornithosaurus by Jim Robins Feathered dinosaurs are regarded by many paleontologists as transitional fossils between birds and dinosaurs. ... Liaoning (Simplified Chinese: 辽宁; Traditional Chinese: 遼寧; pinyin: ) is a northeastern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Lagerstätten (German, singular: Lagerstätte, literally: place(s) of storage or resting place(s)) are sedimentary deposits that exhibit extraordinary fossil richness or completeness. ... The Yixian Formation is a geological formation in Liaoning, Peoples Republic of China, that stems from the early Cretaceous period. ... It has been suggested that Fossil record be merged into this article or section. ...


The feathered dinosaurs discovered so far include Beipiaosaurus, Caudipteryx, Dilong, Microraptor, Protarchaeopteryx, Shuvuuia, Sinornithosaurus, Sinosauropteryx, and Jinfengopteryx. Dinosaur-like birds like Confuciusornis, which are anatomically closer to modern avians, have also been discovered. All of these specimens come from the same formation in northern China. The dromaeosauridae family in particular seems to have been heavily feathered, and at least one dromaeosaurid, Cryptovolans, may have been capable of flight. Binomial name Beipiaosaurus inexpectus Xu, Tang & Wang, 1999 Beipiaosaurus inexpectus is a therizinosauroid, a member of a bizarre group of theropod dinosaurs. ... Caudipteryx was a genus of small, peacock-sized Early Cretaceous theropods (members of Theropoda, the group of typically carnivorous dinosaurs that lived about 125 million years ago). ... Dilong paradoxus was an ancestor of Tyrannosaurus rex and had a covering of feathers. ... Microraptor was a small, bird-like dinosaur related to the dromaeosaurs. ... Protarchaeopteryx robustus is a turkey-sized feathered dinosaur from China. ... Binomial name Shuvuuia deserti Shuvuuia deserti is a 3-foot carnivorous feathered dinosaur which belongs to the family Alvarezsauridae. ... Binomial name Sinornithosaurus millenii Xu, Wang and Wu, 1999 Sinornithosaurus millenii (Chinese lizard-bird of the new millennium) is a feathered dromaeosaurid dinosaur species from the Lower Cretaceous (Middle Barremian) of the Yixian Formation in China. ... Binomial name Sinosauropteryx prima Ji Q. & Ji S., 1996 Sinosauropteryx prima (first Chinese lizard-feather) was the first non-avian dinosaur found with the fossilized impressions of feathers. ... Binomial name Jinfengopteryx elegans Ji et. ... Confuciusornis is a genus of crow-sized prehistoric bird from the Early Cretaceous of China, approximately 120 million years ago. ... Genera Achillobator Adasaurus Atrociraptor Bambiraptor Buitreraptor Dromaeosauroides Dromaeosaurus Deinonychus Neuquenraptor Pyroraptor Saurornitholestes Unenlagia Utahraptor Variraptor Velociraptor Dromaeosaurids, raptors or members of the family Dromaeosauridae (running lizards) are theropod dinosaurs. ... Cryptovolans pauli is a 90 cm long feathered dromaeosaurid dinosaur recently discovered in the Jiufotang site, China. ...


Skeleton

Because feathers are often associated with birds, feathered dinosaurs are often touted as the missing link between birds and dinosaurs. However, the multiple skeletal features also shared by the two groups represent the more important link for paleontologists. Furthermore, it is increasingly clear that the relationship between birds and dinosaurs, and the evolution of flight, are more complex topics than previously realized. For example, while it was once believed that birds evolved from dinosaurs in one linear progression, some scientists, most notably Gregory S. Paul, conclude that dinosaurs such as the dromaeosaurs may have evolved from birds, losing the power of flight while keeping their feathers in a manner similar to the modern ostrich and other ratites. Download high resolution version (2277x1339, 876 KB)T rex forearms and wishbone File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (2277x1339, 876 KB)T rex forearms and wishbone File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Binomial name Tyrannosaurus rex Osborn, 1905 Tyrannosaurus rex (ty-RAN-o-sawr-us) meaning king tyrant lizard because of its size and large teeth and claws (Greek tyrannos = tyrant + sauros = lizard; Latin rex = king), also known colloquially as T. rex and The King of the Dinosaurs, was a giant carnivorous... Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago The Field Museum of Natural History, in Chicago, Illinois, USA, sits on Lake Shore Drive next to Lake Michigan, part of a scenic complex known as Museum Campus Chicago. ... Title card. ... A paleontologist carefully chips rock from a column of dinosaur vertebrae. ... Gregory S. Paul (born 1954) is a freelance paleontologist, author and illustrator. ... Genera Achillobator Adasaurus Bambiraptor Cryptovolans Dromaeosaurus Deinonychus Gracilraptor Microraptor Pyroraptor Saurornitholestes Sinornithosaurus Utahraptor Variraptor Velociraptor Among the dinosaurs, the Dromaeosaurids or Dromaeosauridae (running lizards) were fast and agile dominant carnivores throughout the Cretaceous period. ... Families Struthionidae Casuariidae Dinornithidae Apterygidae Rheidae A ratite is any of a diverse group of large, flightless birds of Gondwanian origin, most of them now extinct. ...


Comparison of bird and dinosaur skeletons, as well as cladistic analysis, strengthens the case for the link, particularly for a branch of theropods called maniraptors. Skeletal similarities include the neck, pubis, wrist (semi-lunate carpal), arm and pectoral girdle, shoulder blade, clavicle and breast bone. This cladogram shows the relationship among various insect groups. ... Maniraptora is a group used in biological classification to cover the birds and the dinosaurs that were related to them. ... The neck is the part of the body on many limbed vertebrates that distinguishes the head from the torso or trunk. ... A man and a woman in the Pioneer plaque. ... In human anatomy, the wrist is the flexible and narrower connection between the forearm and the hand. ... In human anatomy, the carpal bones are the bones of the human wrist. ... In anatomy, an arm is one of the upper limbs of a two-legged animal. ... The pectoral girdle is a set of bones that support the front legs in vertebrates. ... In anatomy, the scapula, or shoulder blade, is the bone that connects the humerus (arm bone) with the clavicle (collar bone). ... The furcula is a forked bone which is formed by the fusion of the two clavicles in most modern birds and some theropod dinosaur species. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into bird skeleton. ...


Reproductive biology

Tyrannosaurus rex skull and upper vertebral column, Palais de la Découverte, Paris.
Tyrannosaurus rex skull and upper vertebral column, Palais de la Découverte, Paris.
Euoplocephalus was a typical "armored dinosaur" of the Ankylosauria superfamily.
Euoplocephalus was a typical "armored dinosaur" of the Ankylosauria superfamily.

A discovery of features in a Tyrannosaurus rex skeleton recently provided even more evidence that dinosaurs and birds evolved from a common ancestor and, for the first time, allowed paleontologists to establish the sex of a dinosaur. When laying eggs, female birds grow a special type of bone in their limbs. This medullary bone, which is rich in calcium, forms a layer inside the hard outer bone that is used to make eggshells. The presence of endosteally-derived bone tissues lining the interior marrow cavities of portions of the Tyrannosaurus rex specimen's hind limb suggested that T. rex used similar reproductive strategies, and revealed the specimen to be female. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2400x1552, 1409 KB) Tyrannosaurus rex, Palais de la Découverte, Paris Copyright © 2005 David Monniaux File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Dinosaur Tyrannosaurus List of dinosaurs Talk... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2400x1552, 1409 KB) Tyrannosaurus rex, Palais de la Découverte, Paris Copyright © 2005 David Monniaux File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Dinosaur Tyrannosaurus List of dinosaurs Talk... Binomial name Tyrannosaurus rex Osborn, 1905 Tyrannosaurus rex (ty-RAN-o-sawr-us) meaning king tyrant lizard because of its size and large teeth and claws (Greek tyrannos = tyrant + sauros = lizard; Latin rex = king), also known colloquially as T. rex and The King of the Dinosaurs, was a giant carnivorous... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Species E. tutus ?E. acutosquameus Euoplocephalus (yu-op-lo-SEF-ah-lus) meaning well armored head (Greek euoplo = well-armed + kephale = head) was one of the largest of the ankylosaurian dinosaurs at about the size of a small elephant. ... Families Nodosauridae Ankylosauridae The Ankylosauria, less formally known as the ankylosaurians, were a group of ornithischian (bird-hipped) dinosaurs that lived in the late Cretaceous period. ... Binomial name Tyrannosaurus rex Osborn, 1905 Tyrannosaurus rex (ty-RAN-o-sawr-us) meaning king tyrant lizard because of its size and large teeth and claws (Greek tyrannos = tyrant + sauros = lizard; Latin rex = king), also known colloquially as T. rex and The King of the Dinosaurs, was a giant carnivorous... In biology, the skeleton or skeletal system is the biological system providing physical support in living organisms. ... Binomial name Tyrannosaurus rex Osborn, 1905 Tyrannosaurus rex (ty-RAN-o-sawr-us) meaning king tyrant lizard because of its size and large teeth and claws (Greek tyrannos = tyrant + sauros = lizard; Latin rex = king), also known colloquially as T. rex and The King of the Dinosaurs, was a giant carnivorous...


A dinosaur embryo was found without teeth, suggesting that some parental care was required to feed the young dinosaur. It is also possible that the adult dinosaurs regurgitated into a young dinosaur's mouth to provide sustenance, a behavior that is also characteristic of numerous modern bird species.


Lungs


Large meat-eating dinosaurs had a complex system of air sacs similar to those found in modern birds, according to an investigation which was led by Patrick O'Connor of Ohio University. The lungs of theropod dinosaurs (carnivores that walked on two legs and had birdlike feet) likely pumped air into hollow sacs in their skeletons, as is the case in birds. "What was once formally considered unique to birds was present in some form in the ancestors of birds", O'Connor said. The study was funded in part by the National Science Foundation.[28] Patrick OConnor is a long-time serving alderman in Chicagos City Council. ... Ohio University is a public university located in Athens, Ohio that is situated on a 1,800 acre (7. ... In biology, the skeleton or skeletal system is the biological system providing physical support in living organisms. ... The logo of the National Science Foundation The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering. ...


Heart and sleeping posture


Modern computerized tomography (CT) scans of dinosaur chest cavities (conducted in 2000) found the apparent remnants of complex four-chambered hearts, much like those found in today's mammals and birds. A recently discovered troodont fossil demonstrates that the dinosaurs slept like certain modern birds, with their heads tucked under their arms.[29] This behavior, which may have helped to keep the head warm, is also characteristic of modern birds. CAT apparatus in a hospital Computed axial tomography (CAT), computer-assisted tomography, computed tomography, CT, or body section roentgenography is the process of using digital processing to generate a three-dimensional image of the internals of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around... Genera See text. ...


Gizzard


Another piece of evidence that birds and dinosaurs are closely related is the use of gizzard stones. These stones are swallowed by animals to aid digestion and break down food and hard fibres once they enter the stomach. When found in association with fossils, gizzard stones are called gastroliths. Because a particular stone could have been swallowed at one location before being carried to another during migration, paleontologists sometimes use the stones found in dinosaur stomachs to establish possible migration routes. The gizzard is an adapted stomach that is found in birds, earthworms, and other animals. ... It has been suggested that Fossil record be merged into this article or section. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... This article is about non-human migration. ...


Evidence for Cenozoic dinosaurs

In 2002, paleontologists Zielinski and Budahn reported the discovery of a single hadrosaur leg bone fossil in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. The formation in which the bone was discovered has been dated to the early Paleocene epoch approximately 64.5 million years ago. If the bone was not re-deposited into that stratum by weathering action, it would provide evidence that some dinosaur populations may have survived at least a half million years into the Cenozoic Era.[30] Genera Lambeosaurinae     Corythosaurus    Lambeosaurus    Parasaurolophus Hadrosaurinae    Anasazisaurus     Anatotitan     Edmontosaurus     Hadrosaurus    Maiasaura    Prosaurolophus    Saurolophus    Shantungosaurus Hadrosaurids or duck-billed dinosaurs are members of the family Hadrosauridae, and include ornithopods such as Edmontosaurus and Parasaurolophus. ... The Paleocene, early dawn of the recent, is a geologic epoch that lasted from 65 Ma to 56 Ma (million years ago). ... Goldenville Strata exposed at a quarry in Bedford, Canada. ...


Bringing dinosaurs back to life

A worker on scaffolding services the head of a full-size animatronic model of Tyrannosaurus rex.
A worker on scaffolding services the head of a full-size animatronic model of Tyrannosaurus rex.

There has been much speculation about the use of technology to bring dinosaurs back to life. In Michael Crichton's book Jurassic Park (later adapted into a movie), which popularized the idea, scientists use blood from fossilized mosquitos that have been suspended in tree sap since the Mesozoic to reconstruct the DNA of dinosaurs, filling chromosomal gaps with modern frog genes. It is probably impossible to resurrect dinosaurs in this manner. One problem with the amber extraction method is that DNA decays over time by exposure to air, water and radiation, making it unlikely that such an approach would recover any useful DNA (DNA decay can be measured by a racemization test). Tyrannosaurus Rex animatronic model being serviced at Combe Martin Wildlife and Dinosaur Park, North Devon, England. ... Tyrannosaurus Rex animatronic model being serviced at Combe Martin Wildlife and Dinosaur Park, North Devon, England. ... Audio-Animatronics or just animatronics is a form of robotics created by Walt Disney Imagineering for several shows and attractions at Disney theme parks, and subsequently expanded on and used by other companies. ... Binomial name Tyrannosaurus rex Osborn, 1905 Tyrannosaurus rex (ty-RAN-o-sawr-us) meaning king tyrant lizard because of its size and large teeth and claws (Greek tyrannos = tyrant + sauros = lizard; Latin rex = king), also known colloquially as T. rex and The King of the Dinosaurs, was a giant carnivorous... Michael Crichton John Michael Crichton (born October 23, 1942, pronounced // [1]) is an American author, film producer and television producer. ... Jurassic Park is a novel written by Michael Crichton and published in 1990. ... Jurassic Park is a 1993 film adaptation, directed by Steven Spielberg, of the eponymous novel written by Michael Crichton and published in 1990. ... Genera The mosquito is a member of the family Culicidae; these insects have a pair of scaled wings, a pair of halteres, a slender body, and long legs. ... Amber pendants. ... The general structure of a section of DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid — usually in the form of a double helix — that contains the genetic instructions monitoring the biological development of all cellular forms of life, and many viruses. ... Distribution of frogs (in black) Suborders Archaeobatrachia Mesobatrachia Neobatrachia - List of Anuran families The frog is an amphibian in the order Anura (meaning tail-less from Greek an-, without + oura, tail). ... In chemistry racemization refers to partial conversion of one enantiomer into another. ...


The successful extraction of ancient DNA from dinosaur fossils has been reported on two separate occasions, but upon further inspection and peer review, neither of these reports could be confirmed.[31] However, a functional visual peptide of a (theoretical) dinosaur has been inferred using analytical phylogenetic reconstruction methods on gene sequences of still-living related species (reptiles and birds).[32] Peer review (known as refereeing in some academic fields) is a scholarly process used in the publication of manuscripts and in the awarding of funding for research. ... Peptides (from the Greek πεπτος, digestible), are the family of short molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various α-amino acids. ...


Even if dinosaur DNA could be reconstructed, it would be exceedingly difficult to "grow" dinosaurs using current technology since no closely related species exist to provide zygotes or a suitable environment for embryonic development. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Embryogenesis is the process by which the embryo is formed and develops. ...


Soft tissue in dinosaur fossils

One of the best examples of soft tissue impressions in a fossil dinosaur was discovered in Petraroia, Italy. The discovery was reported in 1998, and described the specimen of a small, very young Coelurosaur, Scipionyx samniticus. The fossil includes portions of the intestines, colon, liver, muscles, and windpipe of this immature dinosaur[23]. Coelurosauria is a group of theropod dinosaurs that includes the subgroups Tyrannosauridae, Ornithomimidae, and Maniraptora. ... Binomial name Scipionyx samniticus dal Sasso & Signore, 1998 Scipionyx was a very small theropod dinosaur from Early Cretaceous Italy. ...


In the March 2005 issue of Science, Dr. Mary Higby Schweitzer and her team announced the discovery of flexible material resembling actual soft tissue inside a 68-million-year-old Tyrannosaurus rex leg bone from the Hell Creek Formation in Montana. After recovery, the tissue was rehydrated by the science team. Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ... Binomial name Tyrannosaurus rex Osborn, 1905 Tyrannosaurus rex (ty-RAN-o-sawr-us) meaning king tyrant lizard because of its size and large teeth and claws (Greek tyrannos = tyrant + sauros = lizard; Latin rex = king), also known colloquially as T. rex and The King of the Dinosaurs, was a giant carnivorous... Grays illustration of a human femur, a typically recognized bone. ... The Hell Creek Formation is the division of Upper Cretaceous rocks in North America. ... Official language(s) English Capital Helena Largest city Billings Area  Ranked 4th  - Total 147,165 sq mi (381,156 km²)  - Width 255 miles (410 km)  - Length 630 miles (1,015 km)  - % water 1  - Latitude 44°26 N to 49° N  - Longitude 104°2 W to 116°2 W Population  Ranked...


When the fossilized bone was treated over several weeks to remove mineral content from the fossilized bone marrow cavity (a process called demineralization), Schweitzer found evidence of intact structures such as blood vessels, bone matrix, and connective tissue (bone fibers). Scrutiny under the microscope further revealed that the putative dinosaur soft tissue had retained fine structures (microstructures) even at the cellular level. The exact nature and composition of this material are not yet clear, although many news reports immediately linked it with the movie Jurassic Park. Interpretation of the artifact is ongoing, and the relative importance of Dr. Schweitzer's discovery is not yet clear.[33] The arterial system The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... Jurassic Park is a 1993 film adaptation, directed by Steven Spielberg, of the eponymous novel written by Michael Crichton and published in 1990. ...


Extinction theories

Main article: Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event

The sudden mass extinction of the non-avian dinosaurs, which occurred around 65 million years ago, is one of the most intriguing mysteries in paleontology. Many other groups of animals also became extinct at this time, including ammonites (nautilus-like mollusks), mosasaurs, plesiosaurs, pterosaurs, herbivorous turtles and crocodiles, most birds, and many groups of mammals.[34] The nature of the event that caused this mass extinction has been extensively studied since the 1970s. At present, several related theories are broadly supported by paleontologists. Badlands near Drumheller, Alberta where erosion has exposed the KT boundary. ... An extinction event (also extinction-level event, ELE) is a period in time when a large number of species die out. ... A paleontologist carefully chips rock from a column of dinosaur vertebrae. ... Orders and Suborders Order Ammonitida Ammonitina Acanthoceratina Ancyloceratina Phylloceratina Lytoceratina Order Goniatitida Goniatitina Anarcestina Clymeniina Order Ceratitida Ceratitina Prolecanitina Ammonites are an extinct group of marine animals (subclass Ammonoidea) in the phylum Mollusca and class Cephalopoda. ... Genera and species Genus Allonautilus Allonautilus perforatus Allonautilus scrobiculatus Genus Nautilus Nautilus belauensis †Nautilus clarkanus †Nautilus cookanum Nautilus macromphalus Nautilus pompilius (type) Nautilus pompilius pompilius Nautilus pompilius suluensis †Nautilus praepompilius Nautilus stenomphalus Nautilus (from Greek nautilos, sailor) is the common name of any marine creatures of the cephalopod family Nautilidae... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora Monoplacophora Bivalvia Scaphopoda Gastropoda Cephalopoda † Rostroconchia The mollusks or molluscs are the large and diverse phylum Mollusca, which includes a variety of familiar creatures well-known for their decorative shells or as seafood. ... Subfamilies Mosasaurinae Plioplatecarpinae Tylosaurinae Mosasaurs (from Latin Mosa, the Meuse river where the fossils were first discovered + Greek sauros, lizard) were serpentine marine reptiles, more closely related to snakes than to monitor lizards (Lee 1997). ... Suborders Cryptodira Pleurodira See text for families. ... Genera Mecistops Crocodylus Osteolaemus See full taxonomy. ...


Asteroid collision

The Chicxulub Crater at the tip of the Yucatán Peninsula, the impact of which may have caused the dinosaur extinction.
The Chicxulub Crater at the tip of the Yucatán Peninsula, the impact of which may have caused the dinosaur extinction.

The asteroid collision theory, which was first proposed by Walter Alvarez in the late 1970s, links the extinction event at the end of the Cretaceous period to a bolide impact approximately 65.5 million years ago. Alvarez proposed that a sudden increase in iridium levels, recorded around the world in the period's rock stratum, was direct evidence of the impact. The bulk of the evidence now suggests that a 10 km wide bolide hit in the vicinity of the Yucatán Peninsula, creating the 170 km-wide Chicxulub Crater and triggering the mass extinction. Scientists are not certain whether dinosaurs were thriving or declining before the impact event. Some scientists propose that the meteorite caused a long and unnatural drop in Earth's atmospheric temperature, while others claim that it would have instead created an unusual heat wave. Download high resolution version (715x799, 118 KB)Radar topography (color corresponds to height) of the Yucatán peninsula, revealing the Chicxulub Crater. ... Download high resolution version (715x799, 118 KB)Radar topography (color corresponds to height) of the Yucatán peninsula, revealing the Chicxulub Crater. ... Radar topography reveals the 180 kilometer (112 mile) wide ring of the crater (image courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech) Chicxulub Crater is an ancient impact crater buried underneath the Yucatan peninsula, with its center located approximately underneath the town of Chicxulub, Yucatán, Mexico. ... The Yucatán peninsula as seen from space The Yucatán Peninsula separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico. ... Walter Alvarez (born 1940), son of Nobel Prize winner Luis Alvarez, is a professor in the geology and geophysics department at the University of California, Berkeley. ... An extinction event (also extinction-level event, ELE) occurs when a large number of species die out in a relatively short period of time. ... The term bolide (from the Greek βολις, bolis, missile) can refer to either an extraterrestrial body that collides with the Earth, or to an exceptionally bright, fireball-like meteor regardless of whether it ultimately impacts the surface. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iridium, Ir, 77 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 6, d Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 192. ... The term bolide (from the Greek βολις, bolis, missile) can refer to either an extraterrestrial body that collides with the Earth, or to an exceptionally bright, fireball-like meteor regardless of whether it ultimately impacts the surface. ... The Yucatán peninsula as seen from space The Yucatán Peninsula separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico. ... Radar topography reveals the 180 kilometer (112 mile) wide ring of the crater (image courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech) Chicxulub Crater is an ancient impact crater buried underneath the Yucatan peninsula, with its center located approximately underneath the town of Chicxulub, Yucatán, Mexico. ... An extinction event (also extinction-level event, ELE) is a period in time when a large number of species die out. ...


Although the speed of extinction cannot be deduced from the fossil record alone, various models suggest that the extinction was extremely rapid. The consensus among scientists who support this theory is that the impact caused extinctions both directly (by heat from the meteorite impact) and also indirectly (via a worldwide cooling brought about when matter ejected from the impact crater reflected thermal radiation from the sun). In physics, heat is defined as energy in transit. ...


Multiple collisions—the Oort cloud

While similar to Alvarez's impact theory (which involved a single asteroid or comet), this theory proposes that a stream of comets was dislodged from the Oort cloud due to the gravitational disruption caused by a passing star. One or more of these objects then collided with the Earth at approximately the same time, causing the worldwide extinction. As with the impact of a single asteroid, the end result of this comet bombardment would have been a sudden drop in global temperatures, followed by a protracted cool period.[35] This image is an artists rendering of the Oort cloud and the Kuiper Belt. ...


Environment changes

At the peak of the dinosaur era, there were no polar ice caps, and sea levels are estimated to have been from 100 to 250 metres (330 to 820 feet) higher than they are today. The planet's temperature was also much more uniform, with only 25 degrees Celsius separating average polar temperatures from those at the equator. On average, atmospheric temperatures were also much warmer; the poles, for example, were 50 °C warmer than today. [36][37]


The atmosphere's composition during the dinosaur era was vastly different as well. Carbon dioxide levels were up to 12 times higher than today's levels, and oxygen formed 32 to 35% of the atmosphere, as compared with 21% today. However, by the late Cretaceous, the environment was changing dramatically. Volcanic activity was decreasing, which led to a cooling trend as levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide dropped. Oxygen levels in the atmosphere also started to fluctuate and would ultimately fall considerably. Some scientists hypothesize that climate change, combined with lower oxygen levels, might have led directly to the demise of many species. If the dinosaurs had respiratory systems similar to those commonly found in modern birds, it may have been particularly difficult for them to cope with reduced respiratory efficiency, given the enormous oxygen demands of their very large bodies.[34] The Cretaceous period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic period, about 146 million years ago (Ma), to the beginning of the Paleocene epoch of the Tertiary period (65. ...


History of discovery

Dinosaur fossils have been known for millennia, although their true nature was not recognized. The Chinese, whose own word for dinosaur is konglong (恐龍, or "terrible dragon"), considered them to be dragon bones and documented them as such. For example, Hua Yang Guo Zhi, a book written by Zhang Qu during the Western Jin Dynasty, reported the discovery of dragon bones at Wucheng in Sichuan Province.[38]. In Europe, dinosaur fossils were generally believed to be the remains of giants and other creatures killed by the Great Flood. Chinese dragons The Chinese dragon or Lóng in Mandarin Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 龍; Simplified Chinese: é¾™; pinyin: Lóng; Cantonese Yale: Lùhng; Japanese: ryÅ« or tatsu ç«œ; Korean: ryong 룡; Thai: mungkorn มังกรจีน; Vietnamese: rồng) is a mythical Chinese creature that also appears in other East Asian cultures, and is also sometimes... Grays illustration of a human femur, a typically recognized bone. ... The Jin Dynasty (晉 pinyin jìn, 265-420) followed the Three Kingdoms and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... (Chinese: 四川; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ssu-ch`uan; Postal Pinyin: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ... For other meanings of the word giant, see Giant (disambiguation) Giants are humanoid creatures of prodigious size and strength, a type of legendary monster that appear in the tales of many different races and cultures. ... The Deluge by Gustave Doré. The story of a Great Flood sent by God or the gods to destroy civilization as an act of divine retribution is a widespread theme in myths. ...

Megalosaurus was the first dinosaur to be formally described, in 1677, when part of a bone was recovered from a limestone quarry at Cornwell near Oxford, England. This bone fragment was identified correctly as the lower extremity of the femur of an animal larger than anything living in modern times. The second dinosaur species to be identified, Iguanodon, was discovered in 1822 by the English geologist Gideon Mantell, who recognized similarities between his fossils and the bones of modern iguanas. Two years later, the Rev William Buckland, a professor of geology at Oxford University, unearthed more fossilized bones of Megalosaurus and became the first person to describe dinosaurs in a scientific journal. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1477x1817, 1197 KB) Summary Photographer: User:Ballista Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1477x1817, 1197 KB) Summary Photographer: User:Ballista Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... William Buckland (12 March 1784 - 24 August 1856) was a prominent English geologist and palaeontologist who wrote the first full account of a fossil dinosaur, a proponent of Old Earth creationism and Flood geology who later became convinced by the glaciation theory of Louis Agassiz. ... Species Mantell, 1827 Waldmann, 1974 Megalosaurus (Great Lizard, from Greek, μεγαλο-/megalo- meaning big, tall or great and σαυρος/sauros meaning lizard) was a genus of large meat-eating therapod dinosaurs of the Jurassic Period of what is now southern England. ... Limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... A small cinder quarry A dimension stone quarry A quarry is a type of open-pit mine from which rock or minerals are extracted. ... Cornwell can refer to: People Bernard Cornwell, British historical novellist Hugh Cornwell, English musician and songwriter, lead singer with The Stranglers John Cornwell, English naval hero John Cornwell (writer), English journalist and historian John J. Cornwell, American politician Judy Cornwell, English actress and novellist Patricia Cornwell, American author Places Cornwell... Oxford is a city and local government district in Oxfordshire, England, with a population of 134,248 (2001 census). ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification    - by Athelstan AD927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi   - Water (%) Population... The femur or thigh bone is the longest, most voluminous. ... Species (neotype) (holotype) Iguanodon is a genus of ornithopod dinosaurs. ... Gideon Algernon Mantell (February 3, 1790 – November 10, 1852) was an English obstetrician, geologist, and paleontologist. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... William Buckland (12 March 1784 - 24 August 1856) was a prominent English geologist and palaeontologist who wrote the first full account of a fossil dinosaur, a proponent of Old Earth creationism and Flood geology who later became convinced by the glaciation theory of Louis Agassiz. ... The Blue Marble: The famous photo of the Earth taken en route to the Moon by Apollo 17s Harrison Schmitt on December 7, 1972. ... The University of Oxford (often called Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. ...


The study of these "great fossil lizards" soon became of great interest to European and American scientists, and in 1842 the English paleontologist Richard Owen coined the term "dinosaur". He recognized that the remains that had been found so far, Iguanodon, Megalosaurus and Hylaeosaurus, shared a number of distinctive features, and so decided to present them as a distinct taxonomic group. With the backing of Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, the husband of Queen Victoria, Owen established the Natural History Museum in South Kensington, London, to display the national collection of dinosaur fossils and other biological and geological exhibits. Sir Richard Owen and Dinornis bird skeleton Sir Richard Owen KCB (July 20, 1804–December 18, 1892) was an English biologist, comparative anatomist and palaeontologist. ... Binomial name Hylaeosaurus armatus Mantell, 1833 Hylaeosaurus (hi-LAY-ee-oh-SORE-us) is the most obscure of the three animals used by Sir Richard Owen to first define the new group Dinosauria, in 1842. ... Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (Francis Charles Augustus Albert Emmanuel, of the Saxe-Coburg-Gotha branch of the House of Wettin) (26 August 1819 - 14 December 1861) was the husband and consort of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837, and the first Empress of India from 1 January 1877, until her death in 1901. ... The Natural History Museum from the south east The Natural History Museum, one of three large museums on Exhibition Road, Kensington, London (the others are the Science Museum and the Victoria and Albert Museum), is home to life and earth science collections comprising some 70 million items. ... The junction with Old Brompton Road and Pelham Street, outside South Kensington tube station. ... London (pronounced ) is the capital city of England and of the United Kingdom. ...


In 1858, the first known American dinosaur was discovered, in marl pits in the small town of Haddonfield, New Jersey (although fossils had been found before, their nature had not been correctly discerned). The creature was named Hadrosaurus foulkii, after the town and the discoverer, William Parker Foulke. It was an extremely important find; Hadrosaurus was the first nearly complete dinosaur skeleton found and it was clearly a bipedal creature. This was a revolutionary discovery as, until that point, most scientists had believed dinosaurs walked on four feet, like other lizards. Foulke's discoveries sparked a wave of dinosaur mania in the United States. Marls are calcium carbonate or lime rich muds or mudstones which contain variable amounts of clays and calcite or aragonite. ... Haddonfield is a borough located in Camden County, New Jersey. ... Binomial name Hadrosaurus foulkii Leidy, 1858 Hadrosaurus (Greek:sturdy lizard) is a hadrosaurid dinosaur genus. ... William Parker Foulke, discoverer of the first full dinosaur skeleton in North America (Hadrosaurus foulkii), in Haddonfield, N.J., in 1858. ... A biped is an animal that travels across surfaces supported by two legs. ...

Othniel Charles Marsh, (19th century photograph).
Othniel Charles Marsh, (19th century photograph).
Edward Drinker Cope, (19th century photograph).
Edward Drinker Cope, (19th century photograph).

Dinosaur mania was exemplified by the fierce rivalry between Edward Drinker Cope and Othniel Charles Marsh, both of whom raced to be the first to find new dinosaurs in what came to be known as the Bone Wars. The feud probably originated when Marsh publicly pointed out that Cope's reconstruction of an Elasmosaurus skeleton was flawed; Cope had inadvertently placed the plesiosaur's head at what should have been the animal's tail end. The fight between the two scientists lasted for over 30 years, ending in 1897 when Cope died after spending his entire fortune on the dinosaur hunt. Marsh won the contest primarily because he was better funded through a relationship with the US Geological Survey. Unfortunately, many valuable dinosaur specimens were damaged or destroyed due to the pair's rough methods; for example, their diggers often used dynamite to unearth bones (a method modern paleontologists would find appalling). Despite the pair's unrefined methods, their contributions to paleontology were vast; Marsh unearthed 86 new species of dinosaur and Cope discovered 56, for a total of 142 new species. Cope's collection is now at the American Museum of Natural History in New York, while Marsh's is on display at the Peabody Museum of Natural History at Yale University.[39] Othniel Charles Marsh (19th century photograph) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Othniel Charles Marsh (19th century photograph) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Othniel Charles Marsh (October 29, 1831 - March 18, 1899) was one of the pre-eminent paleontologists of the 19th century, who discovered and named many fossils found in the American West. ... 19th century photograph of Edward Drinker Cope, from [1]. Due to old age: This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... 19th century photograph of Edward Drinker Cope, from [1]. Due to old age: This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Edward Drinker Cope Edward Drinker Cope (July 28, 1840–April 12, 1897) was an American paleontologist and comparative anatomist. ... Edward Drinker Cope Edward Drinker Cope (July 28, 1840–April 12, 1897) was an American paleontologist and comparative anatomist. ... Othniel Charles Marsh (October 29, 1831 - March 18, 1899) was one of the pre-eminent paleontologists of the 19th century, who discovered and named many fossils found in the American West. ... Bone Wars - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... ?Elasmosaurus Conservation status: Fossil Fossil range: Late Cretaceous Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Reptilia Order: Plesiosauria Suborder: Plesiosauroidea Family: Elasmosauridae Genus: Elasmosaurus Cope, 1868 Species E. ischiadicus E. kurskensis E. marshii E. nobilis E. orskensis E. platyurus E. serdobensis E. serpentinus Elasmosaurus Translation: thin-plated lizard Length: 40... Families Plesiosaurs (IPA ) (Greek: plesios, near to + sauros, lizard) were large, carnivorous aquatic reptiles. ... The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is a scientific agency of the United States government. ... Image:Dynamite. ... The American Museum of Natural History is a landmark of Manhattans Upper West Side in New York, USA, at 79th Street and Central Park West. ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  Ranked 27th  - Total 54,520 sq mi (141,205 km²)  - Width 285 miles (455 km)  - Length 330 miles (530 km)  - % water 13. ... The Peabody Museum of Natural History at Yale University was founded by the philanthropist George Peabody in 1866 at the behest of his nephew Othniel Charles Marsh, the early paleontologist. ... Yale redirects here. ...


Since 1897, the search for dinosaur fossils has extended to every continent, including Antarctica. The first Antarctic dinosaur to be discovered, the ankylosaurid Ankylosaurus, was found on Ross Island in 1986, although it was 1994 before an Antarctic species, the Cryolophosaurus ellioti, was formally named and described in a scientific journal. Families Ankylosauridae Nodosauridae The Ankylosauria, less formally known as the ankylosaurians, were a group of ornithischian (bird_hipped) dinosaurs that lived in the late Cretaceous period. ... Species Ankylosaurus (pronounced ) meaning stiffened lizard, because of its hard dermal armor (Greek ankylo = stiffen + sauros = lizard) was the last, largest, and most famous of the armored dinosaurs known as the Ankylosaurians. ... It has been suggested that Castle Rock (Antarctica) be merged into this article or section. ... Binomial name Cryolophosaurus ellioti (Hammer, 1994) Cryolophosaurus ellioti (cry-oh-LOAF-oh-SORE-us, meaning cold crested lizard) is a large bipedal dinosaur with a bizarre crest running across its head that looks like a Spanish comb. ...


Current dinosaur "hot spots" include southern South America (especially Argentina) and China. China in particular has produced many exceptional feathered dinosaur specimens due to the unique geology of its dinosaur beds, as well as an ancient arid climate particularly conducive to fossilization. Sinornithosaurus by Jim Robins Feathered dinosaurs are regarded by many paleontologists as the missing link between birds and dinosaurs. ... It has been suggested that Fossil record be merged into this article or section. ...


In popular culture

Pink dinosaur model at Vernal, Utah.
Pink dinosaur model at Vernal, Utah.

By human standards, dinosaurs were creatures of fantastic appearance and often enormous size. As such, they have captured people's imagination and become an enduring part of human popular culture. Dinosaur exhibitions, parks and museum exhibits around the world both cater to and reinforce the public's interest. The popular preoccupation with dinosaurs is also reflected in a broad array of fictional and non-fictional works. Pink dinosaur at Vernal, Utah (With thanks to Kitty Holmes) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Pink dinosaur at Vernal, Utah (With thanks to Kitty Holmes) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... A large, pink dinosaur greets visitors at the east end of Vernal. ... Pink dinosaur model at Vernal, Utah. ... The Three Graces, here in a painting by Sandro Botticelli, were the goddesses of charm, beauty, nature, human creativity and fertility in Greek mythology. ... Non-fiction is an account or representation of a subject which is presented as fact. ...


Notable examples of older fictional works featuring dinosaurs include Arthur Conan Doyle's book The Lost World; the 1933 film King Kong; and Godzilla. Image:Sir Conan doyle. ... For the 1990 Michael Crichton novel, see The Lost World (Michael Crichton). ... This is about the original movie and novel. ... now. ...


Religious views

Various religious groups have views about dinosaurs that differ from those held by scientists. While many mainstream scientists respect these views as faith positions, they argue that religiously-inspired interpretations of dinosaurs do not withstand serious scientific scrutiny. See the referenced article for specific examples and further context. The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Faith is commonly known as a belief, trust or confidence often based on a transpersonal relationship with God, a higher power, elements of nature and/or a perception of the human race as a whole. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena and acquiring new knowledge, as well as for correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ...


See also

Dinosaur classification began in 1842 when Sir Richard Owen placed Iguanodon, Megalosaurus, and Hylaeosaurus in a distinct tribe or suborder of Saurian Reptiles, for which I would propose the name of Dinosauria. ... It has been suggested that Fossil record be merged into this article or section. ... This list of dinosaurs is a comprehensive listing of all genera that have ever been included in the superorder Dinosauria, excluding birds (Class Aves - see Fossil Birds) and purely vernacular terms. ... Prehistoric life is a term used to refer to diverse organisms that inhabited Earth from the origin of life about 3. ... The term Prehistoric reptile covers a broad category that is intended to help distinguish them from the dinosaurs, which were also considered reptiles, but because of their large and successful reign for many millions of years, are almost exclusively dealt with in their own category of prehistoric life. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ * Owen, Richard. 1842. "Report on British Fossil Reptiles." Part II. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, Plymouth, England.
  2. ^ Fountain, Henry. "Many more dinosaurs still to be found." New York Times: 12 Sept. 2006. [1]
  3. ^ Wang, S.C., and Dobson, P. (2006). Estimating the Diversity of Dinosaurs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 103:37, pp. 13601-13605. [2][3]
  4. ^ Dinosaur size varied in different periods Working hypothesis for body size.
  5. ^ Origin of Dinosaurs and Mammals - Erickson Soruce of Erickson quote.
  6. ^ Day, J.J. and Upchurch, P. (2002). Sauropod Trackways, Evolution, and Behavior. Science 296:1659. See commentary on the article
  7. ^ Lessem, D. and Glut, D.F. (1993). The Dinosaur Society's Dinosaur Encyclopedia. Random House Inc. ISBN 0-679-41770-2. See commentary on the article
  8. ^ Juvenile Tyrannosaur A juvenile Tyrannosaur skeleton was found.
  9. ^ Oviraptor nesting Oviraptor nests or Protoceratops?
  10. ^ Dinosaur family tracks Footprints show maternal instinct after leaving the nest.
  11. ^ Joined forever in death The discovery of two fossil dinosaurs entangled together proved many theories.
  12. ^ Cannibalistic Dinosaur The mystery of a dinosaur cannibal.
  13. ^ Rogers, R.R., Krause, D.W. and Rogers, K.C. (2003). Cannibalism in the Madagascan dinosaur Majungatholus atopus. Nature 422:515-518.See commentary on the article.
  14. ^ Gait and Dinosaur speed Gait and his formula on estimating a dinosaur's speed.
  15. ^ Calculate your own Dinosaur speed More on Gait and his speed calculations.
  16. ^ Douglas, K. and Young, S. (1998). The dinosaur detectives. New Scientist 2130:24. See commentary on the article.
  17. ^ Hecht, J. (1998). The deadly dinos that took a dive. New Scientist 2130. See commentary on the article.
  18. ^ Henderson, D.M. (2003). Effects of stomach stones on the buoyancy and equilibrium of a floating crocodilian: A computational analysis. Canadian Journal of Zoology 81:1346-1357. See commentary on the article.
  19. ^ Citation for Permian/Triassic extinction event, percentage of animal species that went extinct. See commentary
  20. ^ Another citation for P/T event data. See commentary
  21. ^ Hayward, T. (1997). The First Dinosaurs. Dinosaur Cards. Orbis Publishing Ltd. D36040612.
  22. ^ Sereno, P.C., C.A. Forster, R.R. Rogers, and A.M. Monetta. 1993. Primitive dinosaur skeleton from Argentina and the early evolution of Dinosauria. Nature 361:64-66.
  23. ^ a b Dal Sasso, C. and Signore, M. (1998). Exceptional soft-tissue preservation in a theropod dinosaur from Italy. Nature 292:383-387. See commentary on the article
  24. ^ Schweitzer, M.H., Wittmeyer, J.L. and Horner, J.R. (2005). Soft-Tissue Vessels and Cellular Preservation in Tyrannosaurus rex. Science 307:1952 - 1955. See commentary on the article
  25. ^ Evans, J. (1998). Ultimate Visual Dictionary - 1998 Edition. Dorling Kindersley Books. 66-69. ISBN 1-871854-00-8.
  26. ^ Parsons, K.M. (2001). Drawing Out Leviathan. Indiana University Press. 22-48. ISBN 0-253-33937-5.
  27. ^ Mayr, G., Pohl, B. and Peters, D.S. (2005). A Well-Preserved Archaeopteryx Specimen with Theropod Features. Science 310:1483-1486.See commentary on the article.
  28. ^ O'Connor, P.M. and Claessens, L.P.A.M. (2005). Basic avian pulmonary design and flow-through ventilation in non-avian theropod dinosaurs. Nature 436:253.
  29. ^ Xu, X. and Norell, M.A. (2004). A new troodontid dinosaur from China with avian-like sleeping posture. Nature 431:838-841.See commentary on the article.
  30. ^ Fassett, J, R.A. Zielinski, & J.R. Budahn. (2002). Dinosaurs that did not die; evidence for Paleocene dinosaurs in the Ojo Alamo Sandstone, San Juan Basin, New Mexico. In: Catastrophic events and mass extinctions; impacts and beyond. (Eds. Koeberl, C. & K. MacLeod): Special Paper - Geological Society of America 356: 307-336.
  31. ^ Wang, H., Yan, Z. and Jin, D. (1997). Reanalysis of published DNA sequence amplified from Cretaceous dinosaur egg fossil. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 14:589-591. See commentary on the article.
  32. ^ Chang, B.S.W., Jönsson, K., Kazmi, M.A., Donoghue, M.J. and Sakmar, T.P. (2002). Recreating a Functional Ancestral Archosaur Visual Pigment. Molecular Biology and Evolution 19:1483-1489. See commentary on the article.
  33. ^ Schweitzer, M.H., Wittmeyer, J.L. and Horner, J.R. (2005). Soft-Tissue Vessels and Cellular Preservation in Tyrannosaurus rex. Science 307:1952-1955. Also covers the Reproduction Biology paragraph in the Feathered dinosaurs and the bird connection section. See commentary on the article
  34. ^ a b (Nov 2000). Earthwatch :6-13.
  35. ^ Koeberl, C. and MacLeod, K.G. (2002). Catastrophic Events and Mass Extinctions. Geological Society of America. ISBN 0-8137-2356-6.
  36. ^ The Campanian diversity explosion The effect climate change may have had on the extinction of the Dinosaurs
  37. ^ Dino-Era Earth Had Polar Ice, Low Sea Level, Study Says Sea levels during the dinosaur era; National Geographic; November 29, 2005
  38. ^ Dong Zhiming (1992). Dinosaurian Faunas of China. China Ocean Press, Beijing. ISBN 3-540-52084-8.
  39. ^ Williams, P. (1997). The Battle of the Bones. Dinosaur Cards. Orbis Publishing Ltd. D36040607.

Genera Dilong Eotyrannus Alectrosaurus Albertosaurus Daspletosaurus Gorgosaurus Tarbosaurus Tyrannosaurus The tyrannosaurids were a family of dinosaurs whose name is derived from the Greek words trannos, meaning tyrant; and sauros, meaning lizard. ... Binomial name Oviraptor philoceratops Osborn, 1924 Paleo Template Project Oviraptor was a small Mongolian theropod dinosaur, first discovered by legendary paleontologist Roy Chapman Andrews, and first described by Henry Fairfield Osborn in 1924. ... Protoceratops is a sheep-sized, herbivorous ceratopsian dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous of Mongolia. ... It has been suggested that Fossil record be merged into this article or section. ... Cannibalism is the act or practice of eating members of the same species, e. ... Orders & Suborders Saurischia Sauropodomorpha Theropoda Ornithischia Thyreophora Ornithopoda Marginocephalia Dinosaurs were vertebrate animals that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for over 160 million years, first appearing approximately 230 million years ago. ... The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ... Dong Zhiming (1937-), from the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology (IVPP) in Beijing, is one of Chinas leading paleontologists. ...

General references

  • Kevin Padian, and Philip J. Currie. (1997). Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs. Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-226810-5. (Articles are written by experts in the field).
  • Paul, Gregory S. (2000). The Scientific American Book of Dinosaurs. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-26226-4.
  • Paul, Gregory S. (2002). Dinosaurs of the Air: The Evolution and Loss of flight in Dinosaurs and Birds. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-6763-0.
  • Weishampel, David B. (2004). The Dinosauria. University of California Press; 2nd edition. ISBN 0-520-24209-2.

Gregory S. Paul (born 1954) is a freelance paleontologist, author and illustrator. ... Professor David B. Weishampel (born November 16, 1952) is a American palaeontologist in the Department of cell biology and anatomy at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. ...

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  • Dinosauromorpha Cladogram From Palaeos. A detailed and wonderful amateur site about all things paleo.
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Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Image File history File links Dinosaur. ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 30 is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 1 day remaining. ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... The Natural History Museum from the south east The Natural History Museum, one of three large museums on Exhibition Road, Kensington, London (the others are the Science Museum and the Victoria and Albert Museum), is home to life and earth science collections comprising some 70 million items. ... The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is a scientific agency of the United States government. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, invariably known as the BBC (and also informally known as the Beeb or Auntie) is the largest public broadcasting corporation in the world. ... Wired is a full-color monthly magazine and on-line periodical published in San Francisco, California since March 1993. ... New Scientist cover - 18 December 2004 New Scientist is a weekly international science magazine covering recent developments in science and technology for a general English-speaking audience. ... Image File history File links LinkFA-star. ...


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