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Encyclopedia > Dimension stone
Marble on a house

Dimension stone is natural stone or rock that has been selected and fabricated (i.e., trimmed, cut, drilled, ground, or other) to specific sizes or shapes. Color, texture and pattern, and surface finish of the stone are also normal requirements. Another important selection criteria is durability, the time measure of the ability of dimension stone to endure and to maintain its essential and distinctive characteristics of strength, resistance to decay, and appearance. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixels, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixels, file size: 2. ... “Rock” redirects here. ... Texture in geology refers to the physical appearance or character of a rock, such as grain size, shape, and arrangement, at both the megascopic or microscopic surface feature level. ...


Quarries that produce dimension stone or crushed stone (used as construction aggregate) are interconvertible. Since most quarries can produce either one, a crushed stone quarry can be converted to dimension stone production. However, first the stone shattered by heavy and indiscriminate blasting must be removed. Dimension stone is separated by more precise and delicate techniques, such as diamond wire saws, diamond belt saws, burners (jet-piercers), or light and selective blasting with Primacord, a weak explosive. Limestone Quarry Construction aggregate, or simply, aggregate, is a broad category of coarse particulate material used in construction, including sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag, and recycled concrete. ...


Although a variety of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks are used as dimension stone, the principal rock types are granite, limestone, marble, travertine, quartz-based stone (sandstone, quartzite) and slate. Other varieties of dimension stone that are normally considered to be special minor types include alabaster (massive gypsum), soapstone (massive talc), serpentine and various products fashioned from natural stone. Igneous rocks are formed when molten rock (magma) cools and solidifies, with or without crystallization, either below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks. ... Quartzite, a form of metamorphic rock, from the Museum of Geology at University of Tartu collection. ... Two types of sedimentary rock: limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Marble (disambiguation). ... Travertine Travertine terraces at Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park A carving in travertine Travertine is a sedimentary rock. ... Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon, Arizona, worn smooth due to erosion by flash flooding over millions of years Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. ... Quartzite Quartzite (from German Quarzit[1]) is a hard, metamorphic rock which was originally sandstone. ... For other uses, see Slate (disambiguation). ... A modern uplighter lamp made completely from Italian alabaster (white and brown types). ... It has been suggested that Selenite be merged into this article or section. ... The lid of a pyrophyllite box. ... Talc (derived from the Persian via Arabic talq) is a mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4 or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2. ... For other uses, see Serpentine (disambiguation). ...


The commonest finish mentioned below is polished. A polished finish is one having a surface with high luster and strong reflection of incident light (almost mirror-like). The rougher finishes are bush-hammered, honed, sandblasted, and thermal. A bush-hammered finish is one with a rough uniformly patterned surface produced by an impact tool. A honed finish is one with a superfine, smooth, satinlike, nonreflective surface. A sandblasted surface is one with an irregular pitted surface produced by impacting sand particles at high velocity against a stone surface. A thermal (or flamed) finish is one with a rough nonreflective surface with only a few reflections from cleavage faces, produced by applying a high-temperature flame. This finish may change the natural color of the stone.

Contents

Major applications

Countertops and bathroom vanities both involve a finished slab of stone, usually polished but sometimes with another finish (i.e. honed, sandblasted), usually 3/4 inches (2 cm) or more thick, cut to fit the top of the kitchen or bathroom cabinet. Countertop slabs are commonly sawn from rough blocks of stone by reciprocating gangsaws using steel shot as abrasive. The slabs are finished (i.e., polished, honed), then sealed with resin to fill natural imperfections such pits or cracks. The fabricators shop cuts these slabs down to final size and finishes the edges with equipment such as hand-held routers, grinders, CNC equipment, or polishers. The stone for countertops or vanities is usually granite, but often is marble (especially for vanity tops), and sometimes limestone or slate. The great majority of the stone for this application is imported, mostly from Brazil, Italy, and China. A stainless steel countertop Countertop (also counter top, countertopping, or (British English) worktop) usually refers to a horizontal worksurface in kitchens, other food preparation areas, and workrooms in general. ...


Tile is a thin modular stone unit, commonly 12 in. square (30.5 cm) and 5/8 in. (1 cm.) thick. Other popular sizes are 15 in. square (38 cm), 18 in. square (46 cm), and 24 in. square (61 cm); these will usually be thicker than the 12 in. square. The great majority of tile has a polished finish, but other finishes such as honed are becoming more common. Almost all stone tile is mass-produced by automated tile lines to identical size, finish, and close tolerances. Exceptions would include slate flooring tile and special orders: tile with odd sizes or shapes, unusual finishes, or inlay work. In summary, the automated tile line is a complicated complex of cutting and calibrating machines, honing-polishing machines, edging machines that put on flat or rounded edges, and interconnecting conveyors to move the stone from the slab input to the final tile product. The stone for tiles is most commonly marble, but often is granite, and sometimes limestone, slate, or quartz-based stone. Almost all of the stone for this application is imported, from countries such as Italy and China. Mission, or barrel, roof tiles A tile is a manufactured piece of hard-wearing material such as ceramic, stone, porcelain, metal or even glass. ...


Monuments include stone used as tombstones, grave markers or as mausoleums. After being gangsawed into big thick (up to 10 ft. long and over 6 in. thick) slabs, smaller saws or guillotines (they break the granite and make the rough edges commonly seen on monuments) shape the monuments. The fronts and backs are very commonly polished. The individual monuments are then carved, shaped, and further defined by hand tools and sandblasting equipment. The stone for monuments is most commonly granite, sometimes marble (i.e. in military cemeteries), and rarely others. The commoner monument colors for granite are gray, then black, then mahoghany; for marble it is white. A fairly small portion of the stone used in this application is imported; sources are such countries as Canada, India, and China. For other uses, see Monument (disambiguation). ... Tombstone most commonly means a headstone marking the grave of a deceased person. ... St. ...


Building components include stone used as veneer (exterior), ashlar, or other shapes. Veneer is a nonload-bearing facing of stone attached to a backing, of an ornamental nature though it protects and insulates. Ashlar is a square block of stone, often brick-sized, for facing of walls (primarily exterior). The other shapes are rectangular blocks used for stair treads, sills, and coping (coping is sometimes nonrectangular). The shapes subject to foot traffic will usually have an abrasive finish such as honed or sandblasted. The stone is mostly limestone, but often is quartz-based stone (sandstone), or even marble or granite. Ashlar is dressed stone work of any type of stone. ... Coping (from cope, Latin capa), consists of the capping or covering of a wall. ...


Traffic-related stone is that used for curbing (vehicular) and flagstone (pedestrian). Curbing is thin stone slabs used along streets or highways to maintain the integrity of sidewalks and borders. Flagstone is a thin naturally irregular-edged slab of stone, sometimes sawed into a rectangular shape, used as paving (almost always pedestrian). For curbing, the stone is almost always granite, and for flagstone the stone is almost always quartz-based stone (sandstone or quartzite). Flagstone is a type of flat stone, usually used for paving slabs, but also for making fences or roofing. ...


There are several other applications resembling flagstone in using rough dimension (or crushed) stone, usually as quarried, sometimes made smaller (i.e. by a jackha


Production

The majors producers of dimension stone include Brazil, China, India, Italy, and Spain, and each have annual production levels of nine to over twenty-two million tons. Portugal produces 3 million tons dimension stone each year.


According to the USGS, 2005 U.S. dimension stone production was 1.5 million tons valued at $269 million, of which granite was 416,000 tons valued at $106 million and limestone was 581,000 tons valued at $95.7 million. The United States is at best a mid-level dimension stone producer on the world scene. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is a scientific agency of the United States government. ...


World comparison for dimension stone demand: The DSAN World Demand for (finished) Granite Index shows a growth of 14% annually for the 2000-2005 period. The DSAN World Demand for (finished) Marble Index shows a growth of 10.5% annually for the 2000-2005 period.


The DSAN U.S. Ceramic Tile Demand Index shows a growth of 5.5% annually for the 2000-2005 period. The "traditional" major ceramic tile suppliers, Italy and Spain, have been losing markets to new entrants Brazil and China. The same thing has been happening with dimension stone with increasing supplies from Brazil, China and India.


The Chinese Government has made a policy shift of long-term worldwide significance for dimension stone production and demand by eliminating the 15% export tax rebate on all dimension stones. It is replacing it with a 10% to 15% export tariff on minerals and stones. In addition, the Chinese Government sometimes strongly discourages its domestic firms from buying rough dimension stone overseas.


Stone recycling and reuse

Recycling dimension stone can occur when structures are demolished, along with recycling timber and recycling construction aggregate in the form of concrete. The material most likely to be recycled is concrete, and this represents the largest volume of recycled construction material. Not too many structures incorporate dimension stone, and even less of them have dimension stone worth saving. Stone recycling is usually done by specialists that monitor local demolition activity, looking for stone-containing houses, buildings, bridge abutments, and other dimension stone structures scheduled for demolition. Particularly treasured are old hand-carved stone pieces with the chisel marks still on them, local stones no longer quarried or that are quarried in a different shade of color or appearance. There is no national or regional trade in reclaimed stone, so a large storage yard is required, since the recovered stone may not be quickly sold and reused. The recycled dimension stone is used in old stone buildings being renovated (to replace deteriorated stone pieces), in fireplace mantels, benches, veneer, or for landscaping (like for retaining walls). Demolishers pulling timber from an old wool store in Sydney, Australia, which will later be re-used for timber flooring. ... Limestone Quarry Construction aggregate, or simply, aggregate, is a broad category of coarse particulate material used in construction, including sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag, and recycled concrete. ... This article is about the construction material. ...


Dimension stone is also reused. Buildings immediately spring to mind, but such things as the ornate stone walls, arches, stairways and balustrades alongside a boulevard can also be renovated and reused. Sometimes the old interior of the building is kept as is, after repair. Sometimes the old building is gutted, leaving only a shell or facade and the space inside reconfigured and modernized. The stone work will usually need attention too.


The old stone work may only need cleaning or sandblasting, but it may need more. The most likely needs are mortar restoration (repointing) or replacing pieces of stone that are deteriorated (damaged) beyond the point of any repair. The repointing is the removal of existing damaged mortar from the outer portion of the joint between stone units and its replacement by new mortar matching the appearance of the old. Deteriorated pieces of stone work are replaced with pieces of stone that match the original as much as possible. Exterior dimension stone will often change color after exposure to weather over time. For example, Indiana Limestone will weather from a tan to an attractive light yellow. Interior dimension stone can sometimes change its shade a little over time too. For both, it may not be possible to find an exact match, even from the original quarry. Stone will often change its appearance from location to location in the same quarry. If the dimension stone renovationist is truly fortunate, the original builder put aside some spare pieces of the stone for future need.


Stone selection and cleaning

The selector of dimension stone begins by considering stone color and appearance, and how the stone will match its surroundings. The selector has literally literally thousands of options to choose from, and should examine many options. In addition to many hundreds of different stones with different colors and patterns, each stone can change radically in color and appearance when a different finish is put on it. A polished finish accentuates the color and makes any pattern more vivid, and the rougher finishes (i.e. honed, thermal) lighten the color and make the patterns more subdued. With thousands of possibilities, the selector must start by looking at many stones in many different finishes, or photos of them. Such photos can be found on some dimension stone websites, and on DSAN's Architects Stone Selection Helper.


In addition to selecting a stone color and pattern, the suitability of its properties for the intended use must be considered. Stone being chosen for countertops or vanities should be nonabsorptive, resist stains, and be heat and impact resistant. Stone being used in tiles should be sealed in order to resist staining by spilled liquids. Stone being used for flooring, paving, or surfaces subject to foot or vehicular traffic ought to have a semiabrasive finish for slip resistance, such as bush-hammered or thermal. A glossy polished finish will be slick. Most flagstone surfaces are rough enough to be naturally slip-resistant. The ASTM document C1528 Standard Guide for Stone Selection is very helpful, and covers topics not mentioned here.


Dimension stone requires some specialized methods for cleaning and maintenance. Abrasive cleaners should not be used on a polished stone finish because it will wear the polish off. Acidic cleaners can not be used on marble or limestone because it will remove (i.e. dissolve) the finish. Textured finishes (thermal, bush-hammered) can be treated with some mildly abrasive cleaners but not bleach or an acidic cleaner (if marble or limestone). Stains are another consideration; stains can be organic (food, grease, or oil) or metallic (iron, copper). Stains require some special removal techniques, such as the poultice method. The ASTM document C1515 Standard Guide for Cleaning of Exterior Dimension Stone is also very helpful, and covers problems and remedies not mentioned here; for additional immediate help see the link below on cleaning marble.


External links and references


  Results from FactBites:
 
Dimension stone - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (163 words)
Dimension stone is natural rock material quarried for the purpose of obtaining blocks or slabs that meet specifications as to size (width, length, and thickness) and shape.
Although a variety of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks are used as dimension stone, the principal rock types are granite, limestone, marble, sandstone, and slate.
Other varieties of dimension stone that are normally considered to be special minor types include alabaster (massive gypsum), soapstone (massive talc), and various products fashioned from natural stone.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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