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Encyclopedia > Dihydroxyacetone
Fischer projection of dihydroxyacetone
Fischer projection of dihydroxyacetone

Dihydroxyacetone (also know as DHA) is a triose carbohydrate with chemical formula C3H6O3. It is the simplest of all ketoses and, having no chiral centre, is the only one that has no optical activity. Image File history File links Dihydroxyacetone_Fischer_b. ... Fischer projection of D-glucose In chemistry (particularly organic chemistry and biochemistry), a Fischer projection is a two-dimensional representation of a three-dimensional organic molecule by projection. ... A triose is a monosaccharide containing three carbon atoms. ... Carbohydrates (literally hydrates of carbon) are chemical compounds that consist of monosaccharide sugars of varying chain lengths and that have the general chemical formula Cm(H2O)n or are derivatives of such. ... A chemical formula (also called molecular formula) is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Atomic mass 12. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 15. ... A ketose is a sugar containing one ketone group per molecule. ... When polarized light is passed through a substance containing chiral molecules (or nonchiral molecules arranged asymmetrically), the direction of polarization can be changed. ...

It may be prepared, along with glyceraldehyde, by the mild oxidation of glycerol, for example with hydrogen peroxide and a ferrous salt as catalyst. Fischer projection of D-glyceraldehyde Glyceraldehyde is a triose carbohydrate with the chemical formula C3H6O3. ... ... Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a clear liquid, slightly more viscous than water, that has strong oxidizing properties and is therefore a powerful bleaching agent that has found use as a disinfectant, as an oxidizer, and (particularly in high concentrations as high test peroxide (HTP)) as a monopropellant in rockets. ... A catalyst (Greek: καταλύτης, catalytēs) is a substance that accelerates the rate (speed) of a chemical reaction without itself being transformed or consumed by the reaction (see also catalysis). ...

Dihydroxyacetone is used in the cosmetics industry as a tanning substance and also in fungicides.

Its phosphate form, DHAP takes part in glycolysis. DHAP (or Dihydroxyacetonephosphate) is a biochemical compound involved in many reactions, from the Calvin Cycle in plants to the ether-lipid biosynthesis process in Leishmania mexicana. ... Glycolysis is a term referring to a series of biochemical reactions by which a molecule of glucose is oxidized to two molecules of pyruvic acid. ...

Pyruvate, an athletic nutritional supplement combines a stabilized form of pyruvic acid, and Dihydroxyacetone. This is sold as an orally administered fat-burner, which also increases lean muscle mass.

Dihydroxyacetone is a simple non-toxic sugar. It is often derived from plant sources such as sugar beets and sugar cane, by the fermentation of glycerin; it is a white crystalline powder which is water soluble. Glycerin, also known as glycerine and glycerol, and less commonly as 1,2,3-propanetriol, 1,2,3-trihydroxypropane, glyceritol, and glycyl alcohol is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet tasting viscous liquid. ...

DHA was first recognized as a skin coloring agent in the 1920’s, by German scientists. Through its use in the X-ray process, it was noted as causing the skin surface to turn brown when spilled. World War II began, and further research in this area temporarily halted as scientists contributed their resources to the war effort. DHA may refer to: docosahexaenoic acid the United Nations Department of Humanitarian Affairs, now known as the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Defence Housing Authority, a provider of family housing for members of the Australian Defence Force Directory Harvest Attack, a method to learn valid email addresses used... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrinations, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons such as the atom bomb. ...

In the 1950’s Eva Wittgenstein at the University of Cincinnati, furthered researched with Dihydroxyacetone. Her studies involved using DHA as an oral drug for assisting children with glycogen storage disease. The children received large doses of DHA by mouth, and sometimes spit or spilled the substance onto their skin. Healthcare workers noticed that the skin turned brown after a few hours of DHA exposure.

Eva Wittgenstein continued to experiment with this unique substance, painting DHA liquid solutions onto her own skin. She was able to consistently reproduce the pigmentation effect, and noted that DHA did not penetrate beyond the stratum corneum, or dead skin surface layer. In biology, pigment is any material resulting in color in plant or animal cells which is the result of selective absorption. ...

Additional research studied DHA's skin coloring effect in relation to treatment for patients suffering from vitiligo. Young woman with Vitiligo Vitiligo (or leukoderma) is the patchy loss of skin pigmentation due to an auto-immune attack by the bodys own immune system on skin melanocytes. ...

This skin browning effect, called the Maillard reaction, is more commonly seen in the food preparation industry, and was described in 1912 by Louis-Camille Maillard. DHA reacts chemically with the amino acid groups, which are part of the protein containing keratin layer on the skin surface. Various amino acids react differently to DHA, producing different tones of coloration from yellow to brown. The resulting pigments are called melanoidins. These are similar in coloration to melanin, the natural substance in the deeper skin layers which brown or "tan", from exposure to UV rays. The Maillard reaction is a chemical reaction between an amino acid and a reducing sugar, usually requiring the addition of heat. ... In chemistry, an amino acid is any molecule that contains both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups. ... Microscopic view of stained keratin. ... Broadly, melanin is any of the polyacetylene, polyaniline, and polypyrrole blacks or their mixed copolymers. ...

Coppertone introduce the first consumer sunless tanning lotion into the marketplace in the 1960’s. This product was called “Quick Tan” or “QT”. It was sold as an overnight tanning agent, and other companies followed with similar products Consumers soon tired of this product due to unattractive results related to orange palms, streaking and poor coloration. Because of the QT experience, many people today still associate sunless tanning with fake looking orange tans. Sunless tanning (also known as indoor tanning) refers to applying chemicals on the skin to produce an effect similar in appearance to a traditional suntan. ...

In the 1970s the Food and Drug Administration added DHA permantly to their list of approved cosmetic ingredients. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is the government agency responsible for regulating food (human and animal), dietary supplements, drugs (human and animal), cosmetics, medical devices (human and animal), biologics and blood products in the United States. ...

By the 1980’s new sunless tanning formulations appeared on the market and refinements in the DHA manufacturing process creating products that produced a more natural looking color and better fading. Consumer concerns surrounding damage associated with UV tanning options spurred further popularity of sunless tanning products as an alternative to UV tanning. Dozens of brands appeared on drugstore shelves, in numerous formulations.

Today, Dihydroxyacetone is the main active ingrediant in all sunless tanning skincare preperations. It may be used alone or combined with other tanning activities such as erythrulose. DHA is concidered the most effective sun free tanning additive. Fischer projection of D-erythrulose D-Erythrulose (also known as erythrulose) is a tetrose carbohydrate with the chemical formula C4H8O4. ...

Sunless tanning products contain DHA ranges from 1% to 15%. Most drugstore products range from 3% to 5%, with professional products ranging from 5% to 15%. The percentages correspond with the product coloration levels from light to dark. Lighter products are more beginner-friendly but may require multiple coats to produce the desired color depth. Darker products produce a dark tan in one coat, but are also more prone to streaking, unevenness, or off-color tones. The artificial tan takes 2 to 4 hours to begin appearing on the skin surface, and will continue to darken for 24 to 72 hours, depending on formulation type. Sunless tanning (also known as indoor tanning) refers to applying chemicals on the skin to produce an effect similar in appearance to a traditional suntan. ...

Once the darkening effect has occurred, the tan will not sweat off or wash away with soap or water. It will fade gradually over 3 to 10 days, in conjunction with the skins normal exfoliation process. Exfoliation, prolonged water submersion, or heavy sweating can lighten the tan, as these all contribute to rapid dead skin cell exfoliation. (The dead skin cells are the tinted portion of the sunless tan.)

Current sunless tanners are formulated into sprays, lotions, gels, mousses, and cosmetic wipes. Professional applied products include Spray Tanning Booths, Airbrush tan applications, and hand applyed lotions, gels, mousses and wipes. The airbrush is a small, highly precise spray gun for applying paint. ...

DHA does not damage the skin, and is considered a safe skin coloring agent and nutritional supplement. Contact dermatitis is rarely reported. Most cases of sensitivity are due to other ingredients in the skin product preparation, such as preservatives, plant extracts, dyes or fragrances. Dermatitis, also known as eczema, is a skin irritation characterized by red, flaky skin, sometimes with cracks or tiny blisters. ... A preservative is a natural or synthetic chemical that is added to products such as foods, pharmaceuticals, paints, biological samples, etc. ...

DHA has been approved for cosmetic use by the FDA the Canadian Health Ministry and most of the EU member nations. The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ...

DHA based Sunless tanning has been recommended by Skin Cancer Foundation, American Academy of Dermatology Association, Canadian Dermatology Associationand the American Medical Association

  Results from FactBites:
Delivery system for suncare products - Patent 6074630 (7788 words)
Dihydroxyacetone is an acceptable skin tanning agent to be utilized in the invention of Lentini et al.
The color intensity produced by dihydroxyacetone on the skin is dependent on two factors: the amount and/or type of amine reactor sites per unit area available to react with the dihydroxyacetone, and the amount of dihydroxyacetone per unit area applied.
In contrast, by using a cloth or pad matrix the amount of color that develops on the skin is controlled by two factors: the concentration of dihydroxyacetone in the solution, which is typically 15 to 60% w/w in water, and the relative affinity for the dihydroxyacetone solution between the cloth or pad and untreated skin.
Dihydroxyacetone - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1001 words)
Dihydroxyacetone (also known as DHA) is a simple carbohydrate that is primarily used as an ingredient in sunless tanning products.
It is often derived from plant sources such as sugar beets and sugar cane, by the fermentation of glycerin.
DHA may be prepared, along with glyceraldehyde, by the mild oxidation of glycerol, for example with hydrogen peroxide and a ferrous salt as catalyst.
  More results at FactBites »



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