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Encyclopedia > Dihydrohydroxycodeinone
Oxycodone chemical structure
Oxycodone
Systematic (IUPAC) name
4, 5-epoxy-14-hydroxy-3- methoxy-17-methylmorphinan-6-one
Identifiers
CAS number 76-42-6
ATC code N02AA05
PubChem 5284603
DrugBank APRD00387
Chemical data
Formula C18H21NO4 
Mol. weight 315.364 g/mol
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability Up to 87%
Protein binding 45%
Metabolism Hepatic
Half life 3 - 4.5 hours
Excretion Urine
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

B/D(prolonged use or in high doses at term) Image is drawn in bkchem and GIMP. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a systematic way of naming organic chemical compounds. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences and alloys. ... The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules . ... DrugBank is a database available at the University of Alberta that provides information about thousands of products. ... A chemical formula (also called molecular formula) is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Atomic mass 12. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 14. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Atomic mass 15. ... The molecular mass of a substance (less accurately called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW) is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of medication that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. ... Many drugs are bound to Blood plasma proteins. ... Overview of the citric acid cycle The citric acid cycle, one of the central metabolic pathways in aerobic organisms. ... The elimination half-life of a drug (or any xenobiotic agent) refers to the timecourse necessary for the quantity of the xenobiotic agent in the body (or plasma concentration) to be reduced to half of its original level through various elimination processes. ... Excretion is the process of eliminating waste products of metabolism and other materials that are of no use. ... The pregnancy category of a pharmaceutical agent is an assessment of the risk of fetal injury due to the pharmaceutical, if it is used as directed by the mother during pregnancy. ...

Legal status

Schedule I(CA) Class A(UK) Schedule II(US) The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction. ... The Controlled Drugs and Substances Act is Canadas federal drug control statute. ... Motto: (Latin for From Sea to Sea) Anthem: O Canada Royal anthem: God Save the Queen Capital Ottawa Largest city Toronto Official languages English, French Government Parliamentary democracy and federal constitutional monarchy  - Monarch Queen Elizabeth II  - Governor General Michaëlle Jean  - Prime Minister Stephen Harper Establishment    - British North America Act... The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 is an Act of Parliament, by which the United Kingdom aims to control the possession and supply of numerous drugs and drug-like substances, as listed under the Act, and to enable international co-operation against illegal drug trafficking. ... The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 (21 USC 801 et sequitur). ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from...

Dependence Liability Moderate - High
Routes Oral, intramuscular, intravenous, intranasally, subcutaneous, transdermal, rectal

Oxycodone is a potent and potentially addictive opioid analgesic medication synthesized from thebaine. Its name is derived from codeine - the chemical structures are very similar, differing only in that the hydrogen on the codeine is oxidised to a hydroxyl group, hence 'oxy' and the hydroxyl group from the codeine becomes a ketone group, hence 'oxycodone.' In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body 1. ... Oxytocin should not be confused with oxycodone hydrochloride whose trade name is OxyContin. ... An opioid is a chemical substance that has a morphine-like action in the body. ... An analgesic (colloquially known as a painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain (achieve analgesia). ... Oral medication A medication is a licenced drug taken to cure or reduce symptoms of an illness or medical condition. ... A minor constituent of opium, thebaine or paramorphine (C19H21NO3) is chemically similar to both morphine and codeine, but produces stimulatory rather than depressant effects. ... Codeine (INN) or methylmorphine is an opiate used for its analgesic, antitussive and antidiarrheal properties. ...


It is effective orally and is marketed in combination with aspirin (Percodan, Endodan, Roxiprin) or paracetamol/acetaminophen (Percocet, Endocet, Roxicet, Tylox) for the relief of pain. More recently, ibuprofen has been added to oxycodone (Combunox). It is also sold in a sustained-release form by Purdue Pharma under the trade name OxyContin as well as generic equivalents, and instant-release forms Endone, OxyIR, OxyNorm, Percolone, OxyFAST, and Roxicodone. Roxicodone is available in 5, 15, and 30 mg tablets. OxyContin is available in 10, 20, 40, 80, and formerly 160 mg tablets, and, due to its sustained-release mechanism, is effective for eight to twelve hours. Outside the U.S. OxyContin is also available in a 5 mg tablet. OxyNorm is available in 5, 10, and 20 mg capsules and tablets; also as a 1 mg/1 ml liquid in 250 ml bottles and as a 10 mg/1 ml concentrated liquid in 100 ml bottles. Aspirin or acetylsalicylic acid (acetosal) is a drug in the family of salicylates, often used as an analgesic (against minor pains and aches), antipyretic (against fever), and anti-inflammatory. ... Paracetamol (INN) (IPA: ) or acetaminophen (USAN), is a common analgesic and antipyretic drug that is used for the relief of fever, headaches, and other minor aches and pains. ... Acetaminophen (USAN) or paracetamol (INN), is a popular analgesic and antipyretic drug that is used for the relief of fever, headaches, and other minor aches and pains. ... Look up Pain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ibuprofen (INN) (IPA: ) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) widely marketed under various trademarks including Herron Blue, Act-3, Advil, Brufen, Motrin, Nuprin, Dorival and Nurofen. ... Purdue Pharma L.P., is privately-held pharmaceutical company founded by physicians. ... The milligram (symbol mg) is an SI unit of mass. ... The milligram (symbol mg) is an SI unit of mass. ... The milligram (symbol mg) is an SI unit of mass. ...


In the United States, oxycodone is a Schedule II controlled substance both as a single agent and in combination products containing acetaminophen, ibuprofen or aspirin. The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 (21 USC 801 et sequitur). ...

Contents

Chemical structure

The chemical structure of oxycodone is the methylether of oxymorphone: 3-methyl-oxymorphone. It could also be described as 14-hydroxy-codeinone. It is principally supplied as its hydrochloride salt: oxycodone hydrochloride. Oxymorphone (Numorphan) is a powerful semi-synthetic narcotic analgesic that is derived from morphine, and is approximately 6-8 times more potent. ... Codeinone is a strong Opiod. ...


Bioavailability

Oxycodone can be administered orally, intranasally, via intravenous/intramuscular/subcutaneous injection, or rectally. The bioavailability of intranasal administration averages between 46-47%, but can be as much as 75%. Oral oxycodone is the most efficient means of administration, having an absorption of 60-87%. Rectal administration yields the same results. Injecting oxycodone will result in a stronger effect and quicker onset. [1] An intravenous drip in a hospital Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... Intramuscular injection is an injection of a substance directly into a muscle. ... The subcutis is the layer of tissue directly underlying the cutis. ... In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of medication that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. ...


Medical use

Two oxycodone/APAP tablets
Two oxycodone/APAP tablets

Oxycodone is a strong opioid similar in strength to morphine. Percocet tablets (Oxycodone with acetaminophen) are routinely prescribed for post-operative pain control. Oxycodone is also used in treatment of moderate to severe chronic pain. When used at recommended doses for relatively short periods (several weeks), it provides effective pain control with manageable side effects. Both immediate release oxycodone and sustained-release OxyContin are prescribed for pain due to cancer more than for any other condition. Due to an increase in cranial pressure, though clinically negligible, oxycodone is rarely recommended as a first-line treatment for medical issues of the head, including accidents involving brain trauma or spinal meningitis infections. Image File history File links Oxy512. ... Image File history File links Oxy512. ... Paracetamol (INN) (IPA: ) or acetaminophen (USAN), is a common analgesic and antipyretic drug that is used for the relief of fever, headaches, and other minor aches and pains. ... Acetaminophen (USAN) or paracetamol (INN), is a popular analgesic and antipyretic drug that is used for the relief of fever, headaches, and other minor aches and pains. ... An adverse drug reaction (abbreviated ADR) is a term to describe the unwanted, negative consequences sometimes associated with the use of medications. ...


Nausea, constipation, lightheadedness, rash or itchiness, dizziness, and emotional mood disorders are the most frequently reported side effects. Other side-effects can also include cotton-chops and slightly decreased testosterone levels in men. Misuse or long-term medical use of the drug can cause temporary impotence as well as a significant prostate enlargement in men. For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Constipation or irregularity, is a condition of the digestive system where a person (or animal) experiences hard feces that are difficult to eliminate; it may be extremely painful, and in severe cases (fecal impaction) lead to symptoms of bowel obstruction. ... Light-headedness is a common and often unpleasant sensation of dizziness and/or feeling that one may be about to faint, which may be transient, recurrent, or occasionally chronic. ... A typical rash A rash is a change in the skin which affects its appearance or texture. ... An itch (Latin: pruritus) is a sensation felt on an area of skin that makes a person or animal want to scratch it. ... Dizziness is a common and inclusive term for several specific symptoms which include pre-syncope, disequilibrium and vertigo. ... A persons emotional mood is a measurable affective state, which can consist of a combination of emotions. ...


As with all other Opioids tolerance and dependence are rarely problems when these drugs are taken by patients in pain and given with the support of specialist in pain or palliative care. An opioid is any agent that binds to opioid receptors found principally in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. ... It has been suggested that Childrens hospice be merged into this article or section. ...


History

Oxycodone is an opioid agonist, and as such is a variation on an ancient theme beginning with the simple consumption or smoking of the alkaloid-bearing parts of Papaver somniferum, the opium poppy, first cultivated circa 3400 BC in lower Mesopotamia. Ancient Sumerians, Assyrians, Babylonians, and Egyptians found that smoking the extract derived from the seedpods yielded a pleasurable, peaceful feeling throughout the body. The Sumerians called the poppy plant "Hul Gil" or "joy plant". Cultivation and use spread quickly to the rest of the Levant and the Arabian Peninsula, eventually reaching India and China. Agonists An agonist is a substance that binds to a receptor and triggers a response in the cell. ... Binomial name Papaver somniferum L. The opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, is the type of poppy from which opium and all refined opiates such as morphine (up to 20%), thebaine (5%), codeine (1%), papaverine (1%), and narcotine (5-8%) are naturally present and extracted from the poppy. ... The Levant The Levant is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ...


Oxycodone is a semi-synthetic opioid derived from the alkaloid thebaine, unlike most early opium-derived drugs which instead used the morphine or codeine alkaloids also found in the plant. Oxycodone was first synthesized in a German laboratory in 1916, a few years after the German pharmaceutical company Bayer had stopped the mass production of heroin due to addiction and abuse by both patients and physicians. It was hoped that a thebaine-derived drug would retain the analgesic effects of morphine and heroin with less of the euphoric effect which led to addiction and over-use. To some extent this was achieved, as oxycodone does not "hit" the central nervous system with the same immediate punch as heroin or morphine do and it does not last as long. The subjective experience of a "high" was still reported for oxycodone, however, and it made its way into medical usage in small increments in most Western countries until the introduction of the OxyContin preparation radically boosted oxycodone use. A minor constituent of opium, thebaine or paramorphine (C19H21NO3) is chemically similar to both morphine and codeine, but produces stimulatory rather than depressant effects. ... Morphine (INN) (IPA: ) is a potent opiate analgesic drug and is the principal active agent in opium. ... Codeine (INN) or methylmorphine is an opiate used for its analgesic, antitussive and antidiarrheal properties. ... Bayer AG (German pronunciation BYE-er, in US usually pronounced BAY-er) (NYSE: BAY, TYO: 4863 ) is a German chemical and pharmaceutical company founded in 1863. ... Heroin, also known as diamorphine (BAN) or diacetylmorphine (INN), is a semi-synthetic opioid. ...


Recreational use

Oxycontin tablets of varying dose
Oxycontin tablets of varying dose

The introduction of OxyContin in 1995 resulted in increasing patterns of abuse. Unlike Percocet, whose potential for abuse is limited by the presence of paracetamol, OxyContin contains only oxycodone and inert filler. Abusers simply crush the tablets, then either ingest the resulting powder orally, intranasally, via intravenous/intramuscular/subcutaneous injection (by dissolving the powder), or rectally to achieve rapid absorption into the bloodstream. Injection of OxyContin is particularly dangerous since it contains binders which enable the time release of the drug. Often mistaken as the time release, the outside coating of the pill is merely used as a color code for different dosage amounts. The vast majority of OxyContin-related deaths are attributed to ingesting substantial quantities of oxycodone in combination with another depressant of the central nervous system such as alcohol or benzodiazepines. While high doses of oxycodone can be fatal to an opiate-naïve individual in and of itself, lethal overdoses of only oxycodone rarely occur. It was once thought that opioids would be less subject to recreational (ab)use when one or more additional analgesics are added, since, for example, the amount of paracetamol present in higher doses of Percocet causes stomach upset and liver damage. However, it has been demonstrated that abusers seeking the euphoric "high" are not deterred by these potential side effects or toxicities. Abusers soon discovered that extremely simple methods to separate the ingredients exist, particularly due to the widely disparate solubility of the alkaloids and analgesics in water ("cold water extraction"). Image File history File links Oxycont. ... Image File history File links Oxycont. ... Paracetamol (INN) (IPA: ) or acetaminophen (USAN), is a common analgesic and antipyretic drug that is used for the relief of fever, headaches, and other minor aches and pains. ... An intravenous drip in a hospital Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... Intramuscular injection is an injection of a substance directly into a muscle. ... The subcutis is the layer of tissue directly underlying the cutis. ... Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless, slightly toxic chemical compound with a distinctive perfume-like odor, and is the alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. ... Benzodiazepine tablets The benzodiazepines are a class of drugs with hypnotic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, amnestic and muscle relaxant properties. ... In anatomy, the stomach (in ancient Greek στόμαχος) is an organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... The liver is an organ in some animals, including mammals (and therefore humans), birds, and reptiles. ... Cold water extraction is the process whereby a substance is extracted from a mixture via cold water. ...


Oxycodone has similar effects to morphine and heroin, and appeals to the same abuse community. Armed robberies of pharmacies where the robber demanded only OxyContin, not cash, have occurred. In some areas, particularly the eastern U.S., OxyContin has been the drug of greatest concern to enforcement authorities, although trustworthy data on the actual incidence of "Oxy abuse" have been difficult to establish. Morphine (INN) (IPA: ) is a potent opiate analgesic drug and is the principal active agent in opium. ... Heroin, also known as diamorphine (BAN) or diacetylmorphine (INN), is a semi-synthetic opioid. ...


Because oxycodone is highly regulated, when acquired illegally it is quite expensive. Black market prices in Washington, DC, and Portland, Maine, for example, have been reported to reach upwards of one dollar per milligram, though it is more typical to pay $50 for an 80-milligram tablet on the streets of Washington. In parts of Kentucky, particularly in Appalachia, nearly $1.25/mg. Legally acquired OxyContin is however rather expensive, costing as much as 400 US dollars for a normal month supply. Again, in mid-2006, brand-name or similar-quality generic (e.g., Watson, Purdue) eighty-milligram tablets sold for approximately nine dollars apiece whereas low-end generics (e.g., Teva, referred to in slang as "footballs" after their shape) scarcely pushed five dollars. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... Nickname: The Forest City Country United States State Maine County Cumberland Settled 1632 Incorporated 1786 Mayor Nicholas Mavodones, Jr Area    - City 136. ...


In Australia OxyContin is covered by the PBS, and a patient can potentially get up to sixty tablets for as little as $4.90AUD in total. This has led to Federal tightening of restrictions from May 2006 (see Regulation below). The 20mg tablet can fetch $30AUD-$50AUD on the Gold Coast black market. As such there are professional "Doctor shoppers" making a tidy profit each week from OxyContin. The Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme or PBS is a programme of the Australian Government that provides heavily subsidised prescription drugs to residents of Australia. ...


Like other opioids, oxycodone can be fatal at high doses or when combined with depressants such as alcohol. Several documented fatalities from OxyContin abuse have been made public; however, these have done little to deter the combined use of the drug with other CNS depressants. An opioid is a chemical substance that has a morphine-like action in the body. ... Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless, slightly toxic chemical compound with a distinctive perfume-like odor, and is the alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. ...


In early 2006 on the U.S. East Coast there were multiple anecdotal reports of "fake" OxyContin 80mg tablets, especially in Philadelphia and New York City. These fake OxyContin consisted mainly of sugar and were of poor quality, noting the distinct green color which differs from commercially made tablets.[citation needed] There have also been multiple reports of fake OxyContin 80mg tablets that contained Fentanyl.[2] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Illegal distribution of OxyContin occurs through pharmacy diversion, physicians, "doctor shopping," faked prescriptions, and robbery--all of which divert the pharmaceutical onto the illicit market. The increase of this situation coincides with the increase in the illegal use of this drug. The oxycodone contained in OxyContin produces typical opioid effects, and is considered a "reasonable substitute" for heroin, so much so that OxyContin is often referred to as "hillbilly heroin".[3]. The most commonly diverted dosages are the 40mg and 80mg strengths[3]. The concept of doctor shopping relates to a patients addiction or reliance on a certain prescription drug or other medical treatment. ...


Manufacturer and patents

OxyContin was first introduced onto the market by Purdue Pharma L.P. in 1995. This pharmaceutical company was founded in 1892 in New York City, and is currently a privately owned company that operates solely within the United States. The different branches within this company include, Purdue Pharma L.P., The Purdue Frederick Company, Purdue Pharmaceutical Products L.P., and Purdue Products L.P. (www.pharma.com). It has multiple patents for their drug OxyContin, but has recently been involved in a series of on going legal battles deciding on whether or not these patents are valid. On June 7th, 2005, the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit upheld a decision from the previous year that some of Purdue’s patents for OxyContin could not be enforced. This decision allowed and led to the immediate announcement from Endo Pharmaceutical Holdings, Inc. that they would begin launching a generic version of all four strengths of OxyContin[4]. Purdue, however, had already made negotiations with another pharmaceutical company (IVAX Pharmaceuticals) to distribute their brand OxyContin in a generic form. This contract was severed, and currently Watson Pharmaceuticals is the exclusive U.S. distributor of the generic versions of OxyContin Tablets. The agreement stipulates that "Purdue will manufacture and supply oxycodone HCI controlled-release tablets to Watson, which will market, sell, and distribute the authorized generic product in 10, 20, 40, and 80 milligram dosages in the United States"[5]. The United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, or simply the Federal Circuit, was founded in 1982 to combine similar federal cases to a specialized appellate court. ...


Purdue Pharma L.P. is based out of Stamford, Connecticut, and is the site of the company’s headquarters. Manufacturing takes place at three different sites, which include: Purdue Pharmaceuticals L.P., a plant located in Wilson, North Carolina, The P.F. Laboratories Inc. in Totowa, New Jersey, and Rhodes Technologies L.P. located in Coventry, Rhode Island. Purdue Pharma L.P. also has research labs located in Cranbury, New Jersey. OxyContin is currently legally and illegally distributed throughout the U.S., Canada, and Mexico. Legal distribution takes place from the P.F. Laboratories Inc. in Totowa, New Jersey. Since the drug is a controlled substance, a prescription is required to obtain it, and is shown to be most frequently prescribed in the eastern U.S.[3]. Purdue also exports OxyContin to wholesale distributors in Mexico and Canada. However, they have experienced increasing levels of illicit drug trafficking with the distribution outside of the U.S. that has led to certain responsive actions. The pill exported to Mexico is stamped with the letters "EX" instead of the customary "OC," and similarly the pills to Canada read "CDN." Purdue stopped exporting to Canada in 2001, and instead Canada imports the drug from a manufacturer in England. Despite these problems, OxyContin is one of the leading opioid painkillers on the market. In 2001, OxyContin was the highest sold drug of its kind, and in 2000, over 6.5 million prescriptions were written[6]. Map of Totowa in Passaic County Totowa is a borough located in Passaic County, New Jersey. ...


Chemistry

Oxycodone is made, commercially, from thebaine, an opiate alkaloid and minor component of opium. Uniquely, it has stimulating properties, as compared to other opiates, which is responsible for the subjective speedy quality of oyxycodone some users report. The 14 hydroxy group increases potency by about 50% over hydrocodone. The 14 cinnamyl ester is 114x morphine in potency. A minor constituent of opium, thebaine or paramorphine (C19H21NO3) is chemically similar to both morphine and codeine, but produces stimulatory rather than depressant effects. ... The term opiate refers to the alkaloids found in opium, an extract from the seed pods of the opium poppy (). It has also traditionally referred to natural and semi-synthetic derivatives of morphine. ... Opium, or opïum is a narcotic analgesic drug which is obtained from the unripe seed pods of the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L. or the synonym paeoniflorum). ... An opioid is any agent that binds to opioid receptors found principally in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. ... It has been suggested that Vicodin be merged into this article or section. ... General formula of a carboxylate ester. ... Morphine (INN) (IPA: ) is a potent opiate analgesic drug and is the principal active agent in opium. ...


Regulation

Regulation of oxycodone (and opioids in general) differs according to country, with different places focusing on different parts of the "supply chain".


Regulation in Australia

In contrast, in Australia a General Practitioner can prescribe for short term treatment without consulting another practitioner or government body. Ongoing treatment requires approval from their state Health Department.


Only twenty tablets are normally available per prescription on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme, Australia's government-funded pharmaceutical insurance system. Prescriptions for larger quantities require prior approval from Medicare Australia. These prescriptions (i.e. for chronic pain or cancer patients) require the prescriber to have referred the patient to another medical practitioner to confirm the need for ongoing treatment with narcotic analgesics. The Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme or PBS is a programme of the Australian Government that provides heavily subsidised prescription drugs to residents of Australia. ... Medicare Australia is an agency of the Australian Government that administers health-related programs including Medicare, the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS), and others. ...


Pharmacists must record all incoming purchases of oxycodone products, and maintain a register of all prescription sales for inspection by their state Health Department on request. In addition details of all Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme prescriptions for oxycodone are sent to Medicare Australia. This data allows Medicare Australia to assist prescribers to identify doctor-shoppers via a telephone hotline.


Regulation in Canada

In Canada, Oxycodone is a controlled substance under Schedule I of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (CDSA). Every person who seeks or obtain the substance without disclosing authorization to obtain such substances 30 days prior to obtaining another prescription from a practitioner is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding seven years. Possession for purpose of trafficking is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for life. The Controlled Drugs and Substances Act is Canadas federal drug control statute. ...


Regulation in Hong Kong

In Hong Kong, oxycodone is regulated under Schedule 1 of Hong Kong's Chapter 134 Dangerous Drugs Ordinance. It can only be used legally by health professionals and for university research purporses. The substance can be be given by pharmacists under a prescription. Anyone who supply the substance without presciption can be fined $10000(HKD). The penalty for trafficking or manufacturing the substance is a $5,000,000 (HKD) fine and life imprisonment. Possession of the substance for consumption without license from the Department of Health is illegal with a $1,000,000 (HKD) fine and/or 7 years of jail time. The Hong Kong dollar (currency code HKD) is the currency of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of China, and has been the currency of Hong Kong since 1937. ...


Regulation in the USA

Regulation of prescription drugs comes from many different areas. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approves drugs for medical use, as well as sets regulations for the marketing of drugs, including controlled substances. The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) on the other hand, receives its regulatory authority from the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) [21 U.S.C. §§ 801-971], which "mandates that DEA prevent, detect and investigate the diversion of legally manufactured controlled substances while, at the same time, ensuring that there are adequate supplies to meet the legitimate medical needs in the United States"[7].


Part of the regulation of prescription drugs is connected to their marketing and advertising. The FDA has authority over this sector under the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic (FD&C) Act and its implementing regulations. The Division of Drug Marketing, Advertising, and Communications (DDMAC) is "responsible for regulating prescription drug advertising and promotion," and has a "mission is to protect the public health by ensuring that prescription drug information is truthful, balanced, and accurately communicated"[8].


Illicit Use

OxyContin is becoming an increasingly more publicized and known drug to the general public. The discovery of its recreational benefits has led to an illicit underground market. Due to acts such as pharmacy diversion and "doctor shopping" the drug is widely available to those without a prescription. The increased misuse of the drug has led to a higher number of emergency department mentions and deaths associated with oxycodone[3]. Despite the increased efforts by the FDA, DEA, and state/local authorities, along with this negative publicity of the drug is not stopping its illicit use, but instead seems to be fueling the underground market.

See also

Drug addiction, or dependency is the compulsive use of drugs, to the point where the user has no effective choice but to continue use. ...

References

  1. ^ That's Poppycock! - Oxycodone: Pharmacology and Pharmacokinetics
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ a b c d http://police.byu.edu/community%20education/drugalert/oxycontinfacts.htm
  4. ^ http://www.pharma.com/pressroom/news/20050608.htm
  5. ^ http://www.pharma.com/pressroom/news/20051028.htm
  6. ^ http://www.drugpolicy.org/drugbydrug/oxycontin/
  7. ^ http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/drugs concern/oxycodone/oxycontin faq.htm
  8. ^ http://www.fda.gov/ola/2002/oxycontin0212.html

External links

  • Oxycodone: Pharmacological profile and clinical data in chronic pain management minervamedica.it. Minerva Anestesiologica, 2005;71:451-60. [pdf file]
  • Percocet Drug Information from Thomson Healthcare database
  • Links to external chemical sources

  Results from FactBites:
 
oxycodone withdrawal without prescription! oxycodone withdrawal no descriptions needed. oxycodone withdrawal - 10mg ... (751 words)
Oxycodone is most commonly given as a liquid or tablet form, which is taken orally.
Oxycodone, [4,5-epoxy-14-hydroxy-3-methoxy-17-methyl-morphinan-6-one, dihydrohydroxycodeinone] is a semi-synthetic opioid agonist derived from thebaine, a constituent of opium.
oxycodone withdrawal, [4,5-epoxy-14-hydroxy-3-methoxy-17-methyl-morphinan-6-one, dihydrohydroxycodeinone] is a semi-synthetic opioid agonist derived from thebaine, a constituent of opium.
Erowid.org: Erowid Reference 1920 : Blockade of LSD-25 pyrexia by morphine : Dhawan BN (160 words)
The pyrexia produced in rabbits by typhus-paratyphus vaccine or dinitrophenol was less inhibited by morphine than LSD pyrexia.
Dihydromorphinan (1 mg/kg i.m.) and dihydrohydroxycodeinone (5.0 mg/kg i.m.) also inhibit LSD pyrexia to a greater extent than the vaccineor dinitrophenol pyrexia.
According to these experiments the inhibitioin of LSD pyrexia does not depend only on its hypothermic effect but to some extent also on a specific antagonism.
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