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Encyclopedia > Digital signal processor

A digital signal processor (DSP) is a specialized microprocessor designed specifically for digital signal processing, generally in real-time. Specialization is an important way to generate propositional knowledge, by applying general knowledge, such as the theory of gravity, to specific instances, such as when I release this apple, it will fall to the floor. Specialization is the opposite of generalization. ... Microprocessors, including an Intel 80486DX2 and an Intel 80386. ... Digital signal processing (DSP) is the study of signals in a digital representation and the processing methods of these signals. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Contents


Characteristics of Digital Signal Processors

  • Separate program and data memories (Harvard architecture).
  • Special Instructions for SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) operations.
  • Only parallel processing, no multitasking.
  • The ability to act as a direct memory access device if in a host environment.
  • Takes digital data from ADC (Analog-Digital Converter) and passes out data which is finally output by converting into analog by DAC (Digital-Analog Converter).
 analog input----->ADC---->DSP---->DAC---> analog output ^^^ processing of digital data 

The term Harvard architecture originally referred to computer architectures that used physically separate storage and signal pathways for their instructions and data (in contrast to the von Neumann architecture). ... -1... Direct memory access (DMA) allows certain hardware subsystems within a computer to access system memory for reading and/or writing independently of the CPU. Many hardware systems use DMA including disk drive controllers, graphics cards, network cards, and sound cards. ... ADC is a three-letter abbreviation with multiple meanings, as described below: Advanced Data Connector - a Microsoft technology and was part of their MDAC stack, was renamed to Remote Data Services (RDS), which in turn was deprecated from the MDAC stack ADC Theatre, the arts venue of the University of... The term DAC or Dac may mean DAC is a three-letter abbreviation with multiple meanings, as described below: DAC (vehicle manufacturer), a Romanian truck manufacturer Democratic Action Congress, a political party in Trinidad and Tobago. ...

Digital signal processing

Digital signal processing can be done on general-purpose microprocessors. Possible optimizations:


Data operators

  • Saturation arithmetic, in which operations that produce overflows will accumulate at the maximum (or minimum) values that the register can hold rather than wrapping around (maximum+1 doesn't equal minimum as in many general-purpose CPUs, instead it stays at maximum). Sometimes various sticky bits operation modes are available.
  • Multiply-accumulate (MAC) operations, which is good for any kind of matrix operation, such as convolution for filtering, Dot product, or even polynomial evaluation (see Horner scheme, also Fused multiply-add). Single cycle MAC is an assumption in many DSPs, thus a lot of the following properties are derived (esp. Harvard architecture and pipelining).
  • Specialized instructions for modulo addressing in ring buffers and bit-reversed addressing mode for FFT cross-referencing.

If the result is too large to be represented, the result is set to the largest representable number. ... The sticky bit is an access right flag that can be assigned to files and directories on Unix systems. ... The multiply-accumulate operation computes a product and adds it to an accumulator. ... In mathematics, a matrix (plural matrices) is a rectangular table of numbers or, more generally, a table consisting of abstract quantities that can be added and multiplied. ... For the computer science usage see convolution (computer science) . In mathematics and in particular, functional analysis, convolution is a mathematical operator which takes two functions f and g and produces a third function that in a sense represents the amount of overlap between f and a reversed and translated version... In mathematics, the dot product, also known as the scalar product, is a binary operation which takes two vectors and returns a scalar quantity. ... In the mathematical subfield of numerical analysis the Horner scheme or Horner algorithm, named after William George Horner, is an algorithm for the efficient evaluation of polynomials in monomial form. ... In computing, a fused multiply-add computes a multiply-accumulate FMA(A, B, C) = AB + C with a single rounding of floating point numbers. ... The term Harvard architecture originally referred to computer architectures that used physically separate storage and signal pathways for their instructions and data (in contrast to the von Neumann architecture). ... Modular arithmetic (sometimes called modulo arithmetic) is a system of arithmetic for integers, where numbers wrap around after they reach a certain value — the modulus. ... A fast Fourier transform (FFT) is an efficient algorithm to compute the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and its inverse. ...

Program flow

  • Deep pipelining. That makes wrongly predicted branches costly, but increases the throughput of the system.
  • Branch prediction. Either with a dynamic table or hard coded as zero-overhead looping. To alleviate the branch impact for execution hi-frequent inner-loops, some processors provide this feature. There are two types of operation: single instruction repeating and multi-instruction loops.

History

In 1978, Intel released the 2920 as an "analog signal processor". It had an on-chip ADC/DAC with an internal signal processor, but it didn't have a hardware multiplier and was not successful in the market. In 1979, AMI released the S2811. It was designed as a microprocessor peripheral, and it had to be initialized by the host. The S2811 was likewise not successful in the market. 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... This page refers to the year 1979. ... The Ami (阿美), or Amis or Pangcah, is one of the indigenous peoples of Taiwan. ...


In 1979, Bell Labs introduced the first single chip DSP, the Mac 4 Microprocessor. Then, in 1980 the first stand-alone, complete DSPs -- the NEC µPD7720 and AT&T DSP1 -- were presented at the IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference '80. Both processors were inspired by the research in PSTN telecommunications. This page refers to the year 1979. ... Bell Laboratories (also known as Bell Labs and formerly known as AT&T Bell Laboratories and Bell Telephone Laboratories) was the main research and development arm of the United States Bell System. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... NEC Corporation is a multi-national information technologies company headquarterd in Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan. ... The NEC µPD7720 is the name of fixed point digital signal processors from NEC (currently NEC Electronics Corporation). ... This article describes the present AT&T Inc. ... Not to be confused with the Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE). ... In physics, the solid state is one of the three phases of matter (solid, liquid, and gas). ... The public switched telephone network (PSTN) is the concentration of the worlds public circuit-switched telephone networks, in much the same way that the Internet is the concentration of the worlds public IP-based packet-switched networks. ... Telecommunication is the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ...


The Altamira DX-1 was another early DSP, utilizing a quad integer pipelines with delayed branches and branch prediction.


The first DSP produced by Texas Instruments (TI), the TMS32010 presented in 1983, proved to be an even bigger success, and TI is now the market leader in general purpose DSPs. Another successful design was the Motorola 56000. Texas Instruments (NYSE: TXN), better known in the electronics industry (and popularly) as TI, is a company based in Dallas, Texas, renowned for developing and commercializing semiconductor and computer technology. ... Texas Instruments TMS320 is a blanket name for a series of digital signal processors from Texas Instruments. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motorola (NYSE: MOT) is an international communications company based in Schaumburg, Illinois, a Chicago suburb. ... The Motorola 56000 (56k) is a family of DSP chips produced by Motorola from the 1980s on, still continuing to be produced in more advanced models in the 2000s. ...


General purpose CPU's have ideas and influences from digital signal processors with Extensions such as the MMX extensions in the Intel IA-32 architecture instruction set (ISA). MMX is a SIMD instruction set designed by Intel, introduced in 1997 in their Pentium MMX microprocessors. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with X86 assembly language. ... An instruction set, or instruction set architecture (ISA), describes the aspects of a computer architecture visible to a programmer, including the native datatypes, instructions, registers, addressing modes, memory architecture, interrupt and exception handling, and external I/O (if any). ...


Most DSPs use fixed-point arithmetic, because in real world signal processing, the additional range provided by floating point is not needed, and there is a large speed benefit; however, floating point DSPs are common for scientific and other applications where additional range or precision may be required. // Introduction In computing, a fixed-point number representation is a real data type for a number that has a fixed number of digits before and after the radix point (e. ... A floating-point number is a digital representation for a number in a certain subset of the rational numbers, and is often used to approximate an arbitrary real number on a computer. ...


See also

Generally, DSPs are dedicated integrated circuits, however DSP functionality can also be realized using Field Programmable Gate Array chips. A field-programmable gate array or FPGA is a gate array that can be reprogrammed after it is manufactured, rather than having its programming fixed during the manufacturing — a programmable logic device. ...


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Digital signal processor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (571 words)
In 1978, Intel released the 2920 as an "analog signal processor".
Both processors were inspired by the research in PSTN telecommunications.
Most DSPs use fixed-point arithmetic, because in real world signal processing, the additional range provided by floating point is not needed, and there is a large speed benefit; however, floating point DSPs are common for scientific and other applications where additional range or precision may be required.
Digital signal processing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1386 words)
Digital signal processing (DSP) is the study of signals in a digital representation and the processing methods of these signals.
Since the goal of DSP is usually to measure or filter continuous real-world analog signals, the first step is usually to convert the signal from an analog to a digital form, by using an analog to digital converter.
Specific examples are speech compression and transmission in digital mobile phones, equalisation of sound in Hifi equipment, weather forecasting, economic forecasting, seismic data processing, analysis and control of industrial processes, computer-generated animations in movies, medical imaging such as CAT scans and MRI, image manipulation, and digital effects for use with electric guitar amplifiers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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