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Encyclopedia > Digital rights management

Digital rights management (DRM) is an umbrella term that refers to access control technologies used by publishers and copyright holders to limit usage of digital media or devices. It may also refer to restrictions associated with specific instances of digital works or devices. DRM overlaps with software copy protection to some extent, however the term "DRM" is usually applied to creative media (music, films, etc.) whereas the term "copy protection" tends to refer to copy protection mechanisms in computer software. An umbrella term is a word that provides a superset or grouping of related concepts, also called a hypernym. ... Access control is the ability to permit or deny the use of something by someone. ... Not to be confused with copywriting. ... Copy prevention, also known as copy protection, is any technical measure designed to prevent duplication of information. ...


Digital rights management has and is being used by content provider companies such as Sony, Apple Inc., Microsoft and the BBC. Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... Apple Inc. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...


The use of digital rights management has been controversial. Advocates argue it is necessary for copyright holders to prevent unauthorized duplication of their work to ensure continued revenue streams.[1] Opponents, such as the Free Software Foundation, maintain that the use of the word "rights" is misleading and suggest that people instead use the term digital restrictions management. Their position is essentially that copyright holders are attempting to restrict use of copyrighted material in ways not covered by existing laws.[2] The Electronic Frontier Foundation, and other opponents, also consider DRM systems to be anti-competitive practices.[3] The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a non-profit corporation founded in October 1985 by Richard Stallman to support the free software movement (free as in freedom), and in particular the GNU project. ... In mathematics, a function is a relation, such that each element of a set (the domain) is associated with a unique element of another (possibly the same) set (the codomain, not to be confused with the range). ... EFF Logo The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is an international non-profit advocacy and legal organization based in the United States with the stated purpose of being dedicated to preserving free speech rights such as those protected by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution in the context of... Anti-competitive practices are business or government practices that prevent and/or reduce competition in a market. ...


In practice, all widely-used DRM systems have been defeated or circumvented when deployed to enough customers.[4] Protection of audio and visual material is especially difficult due to the existence of the analog hole, and there are even suggestions that effective DRM is logically impossible for this reason. The analog hole is a fundamental and inevitable vulnerability in copy prevention schemes for noninteractive works in digital formats which can be exploited by large-scale copyright infringers to duplicate copy-protected works that are ultimately reproduced using analog means. ...

Contents

Introduction

Digital rights management technologies attempt to control use of digital media by preventing access, copying or conversion by end users to other formats. Long before the arrival of digital or even electronic media, copyright holders, content producers, or other financially or artistically interested parties had business and legal objections to copying technologies. Examples include: player piano rolls early in the 20th century, audio tape recording, and video tape recording (e.g. the "Betamax case" in the U.S.). Copying technology thus exemplifies a disruptive technology. Economics and commerce define an end-user as the person who uses a product. ... The player piano is a type of piano that plays music without the need for a human pianist to depress the normal keys or pedals. ... Compact audio cassette Magnetic tape is a non-volatile storage medium consisting of a magnetic coating on a thin plastic strip. ... A video tape recorder (VTR), is a tape recorder that can record video material. ... Holding Manufacturers of home video recording machines could not be liable for contributory copyright infringement for the potential uses by its purchasers, because the devices were sold for legitimate purposes and had substantial non-infringing uses. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... A disruptive technology or disruptive innovation is a technological innovation, product, or service that eventually overturns the existing dominant technology or product in the market. ...


The advent of digital media and analog/digital conversion technologies, especially those that are usable on mass-market general-purpose personal computers, have vastly increased the concerns of copyright-dependent organizations, especially within the music and movie industries. While analog media inevitably loses quality with each copy generation, and in some cases even during normal use, digital media files may be duplicated an unlimited number of times with no degradation in the quality of subsequent copies. The advent of personal computers as household appliances has made it convenient for consumers to convert media (which may or may not be copyrighted) originally in a physical/analog form or a broadcast form into a universal, digital form (this process is called ripping) for location and/or time shifting purposes, combined with the Internet and popular file sharing tools, has made unauthorized distribution of copies of copyrighted digital media (so-called digital piracy) much easier. In effect, copyright-dependent organizations regard every consumer with an Internet connection as potential nodes in a distribution network that could be used to distribute unauthorized copies of copyrighted works. An analog or analogue signal is any time continuous signal where some time varying feature of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity. ... Generation loss refers to the loss of quality between subsequent copies of data. ... For the process of sawing wood along the grain, see Rip saw. ... File sharing is the activity of making files available to other users for download over the Internet, but also over smaller networks. ... The term digital piracy is used to define the un-auhtorised duplication or misuse of content (i. ...


Although technical controls on the reproduction and use of software have been intermittently used since the 1970s, the term 'DRM' has come to primarily mean the use of these measures to control artistic or literary content.[citation needed] DRM technologies have enabled publishers to enforce access policies that not only disallow copyright infringements, but also prevent lawful fair use of copyrighted works, or even implement use constraints on non-copyrighted works that they distribute; examples include the placement of DRM on certain public-domain or open-licensed e-books, or DRM included in consumer electronic devices that time-shift (and apply DRM to) both copyrighted and non-copyrighted works. Copyright infringement is the unauthorized use of copyrighted material in a manner that violates one of the copyright owners exclusive rights, such as the right to reproduce or perform the copyrighted work, or to make derivative works that build upon it. ... For fair use in trademark law, see Fair use (US trademark law). ... This article is about public ownership of creative works. ...


While DRM is most commonly used by the entertainment industry (e.g. film and recording), it has found use in other situations as well. Many online music stores, such as Apple's iTunes Store, as well as certain e-book publishers, have imposed DRM on their customers. In recent years, a number of television producers have imposed DRM mandates on consumer electronic devices, to control access to the freely-broadcast content of their shows, in connection with the popularity of time-shifting digital video recorder systems such as TiVo.[5] The entertainment industry consists of a large number of sub-industries devoted to entertainment. ... Cinema admissions in 1995 The film industry consists of the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking: i. ... The record industry (or recording industry) is the industry that manufactures and distributes mechanical recordings of music. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Apple Inc. ... The iTunes Store is an online business run by Apple Inc. ... A user viewing an electronic page on an eBook reading device An e-book (for electronic book: also eBook, ecoBook) is the digital media equivalent of a conventional printed book. ... The primary role of a television producer is to coordinate and control all aspects of production, ranging from show idea development and cast hiring to shoot supervision and fact-checking. ... Foxtel IQ, a digital video recorder and a satellite cable set-top box. ... TiVo (pronounced tee-voh, IPA: ) is a popular brand of digital video recorder (DVR) in the United States (and coming to Canada in December 7, 2007) and is a consumer video device which allows users to capture television programming to internal hard disk storage for later viewing (time shifting), provides...


Technologies

DRM and film

An early example of a DRM system was the Content Scrambling System (CSS) employed by the DVD Forum on film DVDs since circa 1996. CSS used a simple encryption algorithm, and required device manufacturers to sign license agreements that restricted the inclusion of features, such as digital outputs that could be used to extract high-quality digital copies of the film, in their players. Thus, the only consumer hardware capable of decoding DVD films was controlled, albeit indirectly, by the DVD Forum, restricting the use of DVD media on other systems until the release of DeCSS by Jon Lech Johansen in 1999, which allowed a CSS-encrypted DVD to play properly on a computer using Linux, for which the Alliance had not arranged a licensed version of the CSS playing software. Content-Scrambling System (CSS) is an encryption system used on some DVDs. ... The DVD Forum is an international organization composed primarily of hardware and software companies that use and develop the DVD format. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc - see Etymology) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... This article is about algorithms for encryption and decryption. ... It has been suggested that Licensing (strategic alliance) be merged into this article or section. ... DeCSS is a computer program capable of decrypting content on a DVD video disc encrypted using the Content-Scrambling System (CSS). ... Jon Johansen (DVD Jon) Jon Lech Johansen (born November 18, 1983 in Harstad, Norway), also known as DVD Jon, is a Norwegian (his father is Norwegian and mother is Polish) who is famous for his work on reverse engineering data formats. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ...


Microsoft's Windows Vista contains a DRM system called the Protected Media Path, which contains the Protected Video Path (PVP). PVP tries to stop DRM-restricted content from playing while unsigned software is running in order to prevent the unsigned software from accessing the content. Additionally, PVP can encrypt information during transmission to the monitor or the graphics card, which makes it more difficult to make unauthorized recordings. Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Windows Vista is a line of graphical operating systems used on personal computers, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, Tablet PCs, and media centers. ... The Protected Media Path is a set of technologies creating a Protected Environment, first included in Microsofts Windows Vista operating system, that are used to enforce digital rights management (or DRM) protections on content. ...


Advanced Access Content System (AACS) is a DRM system for HD DVD and Blu-Ray Discs developed by the AACS Licensing Administrator, LLC (AACS LA), a consortium that includes Disney, Intel, Microsoft, Matsushita (Panasonic), Warner Brothers, IBM, Toshiba and Sony. In December 2006 a process key was published on the internet by crackers, enabling unrestricted access to AACS-restricted HD DVD content.[6] After the cracked keys were revoked, further cracked keys were released.[7] The Advanced Access Content System (AACS) is a standard for content distribution and digital rights management, intended to restrict access to and copying of the next generation of optical discs and DVDs. ... HD-DVD disc HD DVD (for High Density Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital optical media format which is being developed as one standard for high-definition DVD. HD DVD is similar to the competing Blu-ray Disc, which also uses the same CD sized (120 mm diameter) optical data... Blu-ray Disc (also known as Blu-ray or BD) is an optical disc storage media format. ... A consortium is an association of two or more individuals, companies, organisations or governments (or any combination of these entities) with the objective of participating in a common activity or pooling their resources for achieving a common goal. ... Disney may refer to: The Walt Disney Company and its divisions, including Walt Disney Pictures. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Logo for the Panasonic brand Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. ... Warner Bros. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... Toshiba Corporations headquarters (Center) in Hamamatsucho, Tokyo Toshiba Corporation sales by division for year ending March 31, 2005 Toshiba Corporation ) (TYO: 6502 ) is a Japanese multinational conglomerate manufacturing company, headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... Cracker could refer to: Cracker, a type of biscuit Christmas cracker Computer cracker, sometimes incorrectly called a hacker Cracker, a British television series Cracker an American television series also known as Fitz. ...


The broadcast flag concept was developed by Fox Broadcasting in 2001 and was supported by the MPAA and the FCC. A ruling in May 2005 by a US Court of Appeals held that the FCC lacked authority to impose it on the TV industry in the US. It required that all HDTVs obey a stream specification determining whether or not a the stream can be recorded. This could block instances of fair use, such as time-shifting.[citation needed] It achieved more success elsewhere when it was adopted by the Digital Video Broadcasting Project (DVB), a consortium of about 250 broadcasters, manufactures, network operators, software developers, and regulatory bodies from about 35 countries involved in attempting to develop new digital TV standards. A broadcast flag is a set of status bits (or flags) sent in the data stream of a digital television program that indicates whether or not it can be recorded, or if there are any restrictions on recorded content. ... The Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) is a non-profit trade association formed to advance the interests of movie studios. ... The abbreviation FCC can refer to: Face-centered cubic (usually fcc), a crystallographic structure Federal Communications Commission, a US government organization Farm Credit Corporation/Farm Credit Canada, a Canadian government organization Families with Children from China, an adoption support organization Florida Christian College, a college in central Florida Fresno City... Time shifting is the recording of programming to a storage medium to be viewed or listened to at a time more convenient to the consumer. ...


An updated variant of the broadcast flag has been developed in the Content Protection and Copy Management (DVB-CPCM). It was developed in private, and the technical specification was submitted to European in March 2007. As with much DRM, the CPCM system is intended to control use of copyrighted material by the end-user, at the direction of the copyright holder. According to Ren Bucholz of the EFF, which paid to be a member of the consortium, "You won't even know ahead of time whether and how you will be able to record and make use of particular programs or devices".[8] The DVB supports the system as it will harmonize copyright holders control across different technologies and so make things easier for end users. The CPCM system is expected to be submitted to the European Telecommunications Standards Institute in 2008. This is the Content Protection and Copy Management standard being developed by the DVB Project (http://www. ... The term EFF may refer to: The Election Fighting Fund, a fund which the NUWSS set up to raise money for the early Labour Party during the early 1910s. ...


In March 2008, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation has announced that it would release a DRM-free version of one of its television programs called Canada's Next Great Prime Minister through BitTorrent[9]. Radio-Canada redirects here. ... This article is about the protocol. ...


DRM and music

Audio CDs

It should be noted that discs with DRM installed are not legitimately standards-compliant Compact Discs (CDs) but rather CD-ROM media, therefore they all lack the CD logotype found on discs which follow the standard (known as Red Book). Therefore these CDs could not be played on all CD players. Many consumers could also no longer play purchased CDs on their computers. PCs running Microsoft Windows would sometimes even crash when attempting to play the CDs.[citation needed] CD redirects here. ... Red Book is the standard for audio CDs (Compact Disc Digital Audio system, or CDDA). ... A compact disc player or CD player is an electronic device to play audio from compact discs. ... A stylised illustration of a personal computer A personal computer (PC) is a computer whose original sales price, size, and capabilities make it useful for individuals, intended to be operated directly by an end user, with no intervening computer operator. ... Windows redirects here. ...


In 2002, Bertelsmann (comprising BMG, Arista, and RCA) was the first corporation to use DRM on audio CDs.[citation needed] In 2005, Sony BMG introduced new DRM technology which installed DRM software on user's computers, without clearly notifying the user or requiring their confirmation. Among other things, the installed software included a rootkit, which created a severe security vulnerability others could exploit. When the nature of the DRM involved was made public much later, Sony initially minimized the significance of the vulnerabilities its software had created, but was eventually compelled to recall millions of CDs, and released several attempts to patch the surreptitiously included software to at least remove the rootkit. Several class action lawsuits were filed, which were ultimately settled by agreements to provide affected consumers with a cash payout or album downloads free of DRM.[10] Bertelsmann AG is a transnational media corporation founded in 1835, based in Gütersloh, Germany. ... BMG (Bertelsmann Music Group) is one of the six divisions of Bertelsmann. ... Arista Records was founded in 1975 by Clive Davis, and named after his secondary school honor society. ... This article is about the former RCA Corporation. ... The 2005 Sony BMG CD copy protection scandal was a public scandal dealing with Sony BMG Music Entertainments surreptitious distribution of rootkit software on audio compact discs. ... A rootkit is a general description of a set of programs which work to subvert control of an operating system from its legitimate operators. ... In law, a class action is an equitable procedural device used in litigation for determining the rights of and remedies, if any, for large numbers of people whose cases involve common questions of law and fact. ...


Sony's DRM software actually had only a limited ability to prevent copying, as it affected only playback on Windows computers, not on other equipment. Even on the Windows platform, users regularly bypassed the restrictions. And, while the Sony DRM technology created fundamental vulnerabilities in customers' computers, parts of it could be trivially bypassed by holding down the "shift" key while inserting the CD, or by disabling the autorun feature. In addition, audio tracks could simply be played and re-recorded, thus completely bypassing all of the DRM (this is known as the analog hole). Sony's first two attempts at releasing a patch which would remove the DRM software from users' computers failed. Autorun or autoplay (sometimes spelled in CamelCase as AutoRun or AutoPlay) is the ability of many modern computer operating systems to automatically take some action upon the inserting of removable media such as a CD-ROM, DVD-ROM, or flash media. ... Digital rights management (DRM) is an umbrella term that refers to access control technologies used by publishers and copyright holders to limit usage of digital media or devices. ... A Patch can refer to several different things: A piece of fabric. ...


In January 2007, EMI stopped publishing audio CDs with DRM, stating that "the costs of DRM do not measure up to the results." EMI was the last publisher to do so, and audio CDs containing DRM are no longer released by any major publishers.[11] For other uses, see EMI (disambiguation). ...


Internet music

Many online music stores employ DRM to restrict usage of music purchased and downloaded online. There are many options for consumers buying digital music over the internet, in terms of both stores and purchase options.

  • The iTunes Store, run by Apple Inc., allows users to purchase a track online for $.99 US. The tracks purchased use Apple's FairPlay DRM system. Starting on October 17, 2007, users can download DRM-free music for the same price as a file with DRM.[12]
  • Napster music store, which offers a subscription-based approach to DRM alongside permanent purchases. Users of the subscription service can download and stream an unlimited amount of music encoded to Windows Media Audio (WMA) while subscribed to the service. But as soon as the user misses a payment, the service renders all of the downloaded music unusable. Napster also charges users who wish to use the music on their portable device an additional $5 per month. Furthermore, Napster requires users to pay an additional $0.99 per track to burn it to CD or listen to it after the subscription expires. Songs bought through Napster can be played on players carrying the Microsoft PlaysForSure logo (which, notably, do not include iPods or even Microsoft's own Zune).
  • Wal-Mart Music Downloads, another online music download store, also uses DRM. It charges $0.88 per track for all non-sale downloads. All Wal-Mart Music Downloads are able to be played on any Windows PlaysForSure marked product. The music does play on the SanDisk's Sansa mp3 player, for example, but must be copied to the player's internal memory. It can not be played through the player's microSD card slot, which is a problem that many users of the mp3 player experience.
  • Sony operated an online music download service called "Connect" which used Sony's proprietary OpenMG DRM technology. Music downloaded from this store (usually via Sony's SonicStage software) was only playable on computers running Windows and Sony hardware (including the PSP).

The various services are currently not interoperable, though those that use the same DRM system (for instance the several Windows Media DRM format stores, including Napster) all provide songs that can be played side-by-side through the same player program. Almost all stores require client software of some sort to be downloaded, and some also need plug-ins. Several colleges and universities, such as Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, have made arrangements with assorted Internet music suppliers to provide access (typically DRM-restricted) to music files for their students, to less than universal popularity, sometimes making payments from student activity fee funds.[13] One of the problems is that the music becomes unplayable after leaving school unless the student continues to pay individually. Another is that few of these vendors are compatible with the most common portable music player, the Apple iPod. The Gowers Review of Intellectual Property (to HMG in the UK; 141 pages, 40+ specific recommendations) has taken note of the incompatibilities, and suggests (Recommendations 8 -- 12) that there be explicit fair dealing exceptions to copyright allowing libraries to copy and format-shift between DRM schemes, and further allowing end users to do the same privately. If adopted, some of the acrimony may decrease. The iTunes Store is an online business run by Apple Inc. ... FairPlay is a digital rights management (DRM) technology created by Apple Inc. ... Napster, LLC (NASDAQ: NAPS, formerly Roxio, Inc. ... Windows Media Audio (WMA) is an audio data compression technology developed by Microsoft. ... Microsoft PlaysForSure is a certification given by Microsoft to portable devices (portable media players, phones, etc. ... iPod is a brand of portable media players designed and marketed by Apple Inc. ... This article is about the digital media brand. ... SanDisk Corporation (NASDAQ: SNDK), formerly SunDisk, is an American multinational corporation which designs and markets flash memory card products. ... Sansa can refer to one of the following: Sansa Airlines, a Costa Rica-based airline. ... A digital audio player (DAP) is a device that stores, organizes and plays digital music files. ... Internal memory: In a computer, all of the storage spaces that are accessible by a processor without the use of the computer input-output channels. ... A microSD card (right) next to its SD adapter (left) Dissected 64 MB microSD Card, showing cross section through memory chips and printed circuit board microSD is a format for removable flash memory cards. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... Sony Connect The Connect Music Store is Sonys music store built within the SonicStage music management application for Microsoft Windows-based personal computers. ... OpenMG is a SDMI-compliant digital rights management scheme by Sony. ... SonicStage is the name for Sony software that is used for managing portable devices when they are plugged into a computer running Windows. ... 1. ... PSP most often refers to: PlayStation Portable, a handheld game console produced by Sony Computer Entertainment PlayStation Portable Slim & Lite, a new model of the original PlayStation Portable console Corel Paint Shop Pro, a graphics editor distributed by Corel Corporation, formerly a product of Jasc Software PSP may also refer... A plugin (or plug-in) is a computer program that can, or must, interact with another program to provide a certain, usually very specific, function. ... A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ... Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, or RPI, is a nonsectarian, coeducational private research university in Troy, New York, a city lying just outside the state capital of Albany. ... The Gowers Review of Intellectual Property is an independent review of intellectual property rights in the United Kingdom conducted from December 2005 to December 2006. ...


Although DRM is prevalent for Internet music, some Online music stores such as eMusic, Audio Lunchbox, Dogmazic, Amazon and Anthology recordings do not use DRM. Major labels have begun releasing more online music without DRM. Eric Bangeman suggests in Ars Technica that this is because the record labels are "slowly beginning to realize that they can't have DRMed music and complete control over the online music market at the same time... One way to break the cycle is to sell music that is playable on any digital audio player. eMusic does exactly that, and their surprisingly extensive catalog of non-DRMed music has vaulted it into the number two online music store position behind the iTunes Store."[14] Apple's Steve Jobs has called on the music industry to eliminate DRM in an open letter titled Thoughts on Music[15]. Apple's iTunes store will start to sell DRM-free 256 kbit/s (up from 128 kbit/s) music from EMI for a premium price (this has since reverted to the standard price). In March of 2007, Musicload.de, one of Europe's largest online music retailers, announced their position strongly against DRM. In an open letter, Musicload stated that three out of every four calls to their customer support phone service are as a result of consumer frustration with DRM.[16] Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... EMusic is an online music store that operates by subscription. ... Amazon. ... Steve Jobs (born Steven Paul Jobs February 24, 1955) is the CEO, chairman and co-founder of Apple Inc. ... Thoughts on Music is an open letter written by Steve Jobs, CEO of Apple Inc. ...


E-books

Electronic books on the PC typically use DRM restrictions, but some systems, such as eReader (formerly Palm Digital Media) instead write the purchaser’s credit card info into the title.[1] A user viewing an electronic page on an eBook reading device An e-book (for electronic book: also eBook, ecoBook) is the digital media equivalent of a conventional printed book. ...


DRM and documents

Enterprise digital rights management (E-DRM or ERM) is the application of DRM technology to the control of access to corporate documents such as Microsoft Word, PDF, and AutoCAD files, emails, and intranet web pages rather than to the control of consumer media [17]. E-DRM, now more commonly referenced as IRM (Information Rights Management), is generally intended to prevent the unauthorized use (such as industrial or corporate espionage or inadvertent release) of proprietary documents. IRM typically integrates with content management system software. An example of an IRM system is Microsoft's Rights Management Services. Additional E-DRM vendors include Adobe Systems, EMC Corporation, GigaTrust, and Oracle. Microsoft Word is Microsofts flagship word processing software. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... AutoCAD is a CAD software application for 2D and 3D design and drafting, developed and sold by Autodesk, Inc. ... An intranet is a private computer network that uses Internet protocols, network connectivity to securely share part of an organizations information or operations with its employees. ... Information Rights Management (IRM) is a DRM system available to users of Microsoft Office (versions 2003 and above). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Competitive Intelligence. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Windows Rights Management Services (also called Rights Management Services or RMS) is a Microsoft Windows technology that is a form of digital rights management used for protecting documents such as corporate e-mail, Word documents, and web pages. ... Adobe Systems (pronounced a-DOE-bee IPA: ) (NASDAQ: ADBE) (LSE: ABS) is an American computer software company headquartered in San Jose, California, USA. Adobe was founded in December 1982[1] by John Warnock and Charles Geschke, who established the company after leaving Xerox PARC in order to develop and sell... EMC Corporation (NYSE: EMC) is an American manufacturer of software and systems for information management and storage. ...


DRM has been used by organizations such as the British Library in its secure electronic delivery service to permit worldwide access to substantial numbers of rare (and in many cases unique) documents which, for legal reasons, were previously only available to authorized individuals actually visiting the Library's document centre at Boston Spa in England.[citation needed] British Library main building, London The British Library (BL) is the national library of the United Kingdom. ... An alternative to localized repositories of physically secured documents Secure electronic delivery services such as that opened in 2003 by The British Library Document Supply Centre at Boston Spa, allow extended access to copyright material for which access rights have not been granted for open access over the Internet...


Watermarks

Digital watermarks are unobtrusive features of media that are added during production or distribution. Digital watermarks involve data steganographically embedded within the audio or video data. An image with visible digital watermarking. ... This article is about hidden messages. ...


Watermarks can be used for different purposes that may include:

  • for recording the copyright owner
  • for recording the distributor
  • for recording the distribution chain
  • for identifying the purchaser of the music

Watermarks are not complete DRM mechanisms in their own right, but are used as part of a system for Digital Rights Management, such as helping provide prosecution evidence for purely legal avenues of rights management, rather than direct technological restriction.


Metadata

Sometimes, metadata is included in purchased music which records information such as the purchaser's name, account information, or email address. This information is not embedded in the played audio or video data, like a watermark, but is kept separate, but within the file or stream. Metadata is data about data. ...


As an example, metadata is used in media purchased from Apple's iTunes Store for DRM-free as well as DRM-restricted versions of their music or videos. This information is included as MPEG standard metadata. [18][19]


Laws regarding DRM

Digital rights management systems have received some international legal backing by implementation of the 1996 WIPO Copyright Treaty (WCT). Article 11 of the Treaty requires nations party to the treaties to enact laws against DRM circumvention. The WIPO Copyright Treaty, adopted by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) in 1996, provides additional protections for copyright deemed necessary in the modern information era. ...


The WCT has been implemented in most member states of the World Intellectual Property Organization. The American implementation is the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), while in Europe the treaty has been implemented by the 2001 European directive on copyright, which requires member states of the European Union to implement legal protections for technological prevention measures. In 2006, the lower house of the French parliament adopted such legislation as part of the controversial DADVSI law, but added that protected DRM techniques should be made interoperable, a move which caused widespread controversy in the United States. The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) (French: Organisation mondiale de la propriété intellectuelle or OMPI) is one of the specialized agencies of the United Nations. ... The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) is a United States copyright law which implements two 1996 WIPO treaties. ... The European Union (EU) directive 2001/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 May 2001 on the harmonisation of certain aspects of copyright and related rights in the information society, commonly known as the EU Copyright Directive or short EUCD, is the EUs implementation... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Coat of Arms of the French Republic DADVSI is the abbreviation of the French language Loi sur le droit dauteur et les droits voisins dans la société de linformation (in English: law on authors rights and related rights in the information society). It is a bill...


Digital Millennium Copyright Act

The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) is an extension to United States copyright law passed unanimously on May 14, 1998, which criminalizes the production and dissemination of technology that allows users to circumvent technical copy-restriction methods. Under the Act, circumvention of a technological measure that effectively controls access to a work is illegal if done with the primary intent of violating the rights of copyright holders. (For a more detailed analysis of the statute, see WIPO Copyright and Performances and Phonograms Treaties Implementation Act.) The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) is a United States copyright law which implements two 1996 WIPO treaties. ... The copyright symbol is used to give notice that a work is covered by copyright. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... The WIPO Copyright and Performances and Phonograms Treaties Implementation Act, is a part of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), a 1998 U.S. law. ...


Reverse engineering of existing systems is expressly permitted under the Act under specific conditions. Under the reverse engineering safe harbor, circumvention necessary to achieve interoperability with other software is specifically authorized. See 17 U.S.C. Sec. 1201(f). Open-source software to decrypt content scrambled with the Content Scrambling System and other encryption techniques presents an intractable problem with the application of the Act. Much depends on the intent of the actor. If the decryption is done for the purpose of achieving interoperability of open source operating systems with proprietary operating systems, the circumvention would be protected by Section 1201(f) the Act. Cf., Universal City Studios, Inc. v. Corley, 273 F.3d 429 (2d Cir. 2001) at notes 5 and 16. However, dissemination of such software for the purpose of violating or encouraging others to violate copyrights has been held illegal. See Universal City Studios, Inc. v. Reimerdes, 111 F. Supp. 2d 346 (S.D.N.Y. 2000).


On 22 May 2001, the European Union passed the EU Copyright Directive, an implementation of the 1996 WIPO Copyright Treaty that addressed many of the same issues as the DMCA. is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The European Union (EU) directive 2001/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 May 2001 on the harmonisation of certain aspects of copyright and related rights in the information society, commonly known as the EU Copyright Directive or short EUCD, is the EUs implementation...


The DMCA has been largely ineffective in protecting DRM systems,[citation needed] as software allowing users to circumvent DRM remains widely available, as for instance over the Internet. However, those with an interest in preserving the DRM systems have attempted to use the Act to restrict the distribution and development of such software, as in the case of DeCSS.


Although the Act contains an exception for research, the exception is subject to vague qualifiers that do little to reassure the research community. Cf., 17 U.S.C. Sec. 1201(g). The DMCA has had an impact on the worldwide cryptography research community, because many fear that their cryptanalytic research violates, or might be construed to violate, the DMCA. The arrest of Russian programmer Dmitry Sklyarov in 2001, for alleged infringement of the DMCA, was a highly publicized example of the law's use to prevent or penalize development of anti-DRM measures. Sklyarov was arrested in the United States after a presentation at DEF CON, and subsequently spent several months in jail. The DMCA has also been cited as chilling to non-criminal inclined users, such as students of cryptanalysis (including, in a well-known instance, Professor Felten and students at Princeton[20]), and security consultants such as the Netherlands based Niels Ferguson, who has declined to publish information about vulnerabilities he discovered in an Intel secure-computing scheme because of his concern about being arrested under the DMCA when he travels to the US. The German Lorenz cipher machine, used in World War II for encryption of very high-level general staff messages Cryptography (or cryptology; derived from Greek κρυπτός kryptós hidden, and the verb γράφω gráfo write or λεγειν legein to speak) is the study of message secrecy. ... Dmitry Sklyarov (Дмитрий Скляров) (born December 18, 1974) is a Russian computer programmer best known for his 2001 run-in with American law enforcement over software copyright restrictions. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Close-up of the rotors in a Fialka cipher machine Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, hidden, and analýein, to loosen or to untie) is the study of methods for obtaining the meaning of encrypted information, without access to the secret information which is normally required to do so. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ... Niels Ferguson is a Dutch cryptographic engineer and consultant. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ...


On 25 April 2007 the European Parliament supported the first directive of EU, which aims to harmonize criminal law in the member states. It adopted a first reading report on harmonizing the national measures for fighting copyright abuse. If the European Parliament and the Council approve the legislation, the submitted directive will oblige the member states to consider a crime a violation of international copyright committed with commercial purposes. The text suggests numerous measures: from fines to imprisonment, depending on the gravity of the offense. is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


The EP members supported the Commission motion, changing some of the texts. They excluded patent rights from the range of the directive and decided that the sanctions should apply only to offenses with commercial purposes. Copying for personal, non-commercial purposes was also excluded from the range of the directive.


International issues

In Europe, there are several dialog activities that are uncharacterized by its consensus-building intention:

  • Workshop on Digital Rights Management of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), January 2001. [2]
  • Participative preparation of the European Committee for Standardization/Information Society Standardisation System (CEN/ISSS) DRM Report, 2003 (finished). [3]
  • DRM Workshops of DG Information Society, European Commission (finished), and the work of the DRM working groups (finished), as well as the work of the High Level Group on DRM (ongoing). [4]
  • Consultation process of the European Commission, DG Internal Market, on the Communication COM(2004)261 by the European Commission on "Management of Copyright and Related Rights" (closed). [5]
  • The INDICARE project is an ongoing dialogue on consumer acceptability of DRM solutions in Europe. It is an open and neutral platform for exchange of facts and opinions, mainly based on articles by authors from science and practice.
  • The AXMEDIS project is a European Commission Integrated Project of the FP6. The main goal of AXMEDIS is automating the content production, copy-prevention and distribution, reducing the related costs and supporting DRM at both B2B and B2C areas harmonising them.
  • The Gowers Review of Intellectual Property is the result of a commission by the British Government from Andrew Gowers, undertaken in December 2005 and published in 2006, with recommendations regarding copyright term, exceptions, orphaned works, and copyright enforcement.

The European Community was expected to produce a recommendation on DRM in 2006, phasing out the use of levies (compensation to rights holders charged on media sales for lost revenue due to unauthorized copying) given the advances in DRM/TPM technology. However, opposition from the member states, particularly France, have now made it unlikely that the recommendation will be adopted.[citation needed] WWWC redirects here. ... CEN, the European Committee for Standardization, was founded in 1961 by the national standard bodies in the European Economic Community and EFTA countries. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... // Goal The overall goal of INDICARE (The INformed DIalogue about Consumer Acceptability of DRM Solutions in Europe) is to raise awareness, help to reconcile heterogeneous interests of multiple players, and to support the emergence of a common European position with regard to consumer and user issues of Digital Rights Management... Andrew Gowers was appointed editor of the Financial Times in October 2001. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... Look up Levy on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Levy may refer to: forced labor; see conscription or national service a form of tax A misspelling of Levi A misspelling of levee See List of people by name: Lev for people named Levy. ...


Controversy

The intent of DRM is to provide technical means to assure that the copyright holders (originally artists, but commonly assigned to publishers, software developers, etc.) can maintain control of their content by restricting use of digital copies. This becomes controversial because DRM imposed limitations on the use of legitimately acquired digital media do not necessarily match the fair use (fair dealing in some places) rights granted by law to owners of copies. This gives rise to concerns that DRM schemes enormously complicate, and may prevent, effective archive management and historical research as well. Others argue that DRM is ineffective at preventing illegal copies because no DRM technology is (or could possibly be) fool proof. Once one version is compromised (or simply copied from a medium without DRM) it will become widely available, e.g. on the Internet or via large-scale commercial piracy. Thus all DRM to date is claimed to be fundamentally technically flawed as a method of protecting legal copyright control. If so, its effect is essentially to ensure vendor lock-in and, likely, anti-competitive practices afterward. DRM opponents usually base their opposition on one or more of these concerns.


Additional arguments against DRM are based on the fact that Copyright Laws limit the duration of copyrights, requiring that the DRM-restricted material be placed into the public domain at the end of the granted copyright period. DRM systems violate this requirement of copyright law inasmuch as DRM systems are not programmed to terminate at the end of the copyright period, effectively extending the "copyright" beyond what is allowable by law. As such, this use of DRM is arguably itself a violation of the same copyright law that the proponents of DRM claim the system enforces.


A discussion on the music industry losing business to file-sharing and copying can be found in the article on File Sharing. File sharing is the activity of making files available to other users for download over the Internet, but also over smaller networks. ...


DRM opponents

A parody on the Home Taping Is Killing Music logo.
A parody on the Home Taping Is Killing Music logo.

Many organizations, prominent individuals, and computer scientists are opposed to DRM. Two notable DRM critics are John Walker, as expressed for instance, in his article The Digital Imprimatur: How big brother and big media can put the Internet genie back in the bottle[21], and Richard Stallman in his article The Right to Read[22] and in other public statements "DRM is an example of a malicious feature - a feature designed to hurt the user of the software, and therefore, it's something for which there can never be toleration".[23] Professor Ross Anderson of Cambridge University heads a British organization which opposes DRM and similar efforts in the UK and elsewhere. Cory Doctorow, a prominent writer and technology blogger, spoke on the Microsoft campus criticizing the technology, the morality, and the marketing of DRM.[24] Image File history File links DRM_is_killing_music. ... Image File history File links DRM_is_killing_music. ... The original logo. ... John Walker is a computer programmer and the founder of the CAD software company Autodesk, and co-author of AutoCAD. Before Autodesk, John founded a hardware integration manufacturing company called Marinchip. ... The Digital Imprimatur is a term widely associated with John Walker, due to his article of the same name. ... Richard Matthew Stallman (born March 16, 1953), often abbreviated rms,[1] is an American software freedom activist, hacker,[2] and software developer. ... Ross J. Anderson is a researcher, writer, and industry consultant in security engineering. ... Cory Doctorow (born July 17, 1971) is a blogger, journalist and science fiction author who serves as co-editor of the blog Boing Boing. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ...


There have been numerous others who see DRM at a more fundamental level. TechMediums.comargues that DRM-free music allows for viral marketing, arguing that independent artists benefit from "free marketing" and can then focus on revenues from higher margin products like merchandise and concert ticket sales.


The Electronic Frontier Foundation and similar organizations such as FreeCulture.org also hold positions which are characterized as opposed to DRM. FreeCulture. ...


The Foundation for a Free Information Infrastructure has criticized DRM's impact as a trade barrier from a free market perspective. The Foundation for a Free Information Infrastructure or FFII is a lobbying association based in Munich, Germany. ... A trade barrier is general term that describes any government policy or regulation that restricts international trade, the barriers can take many forms, including: Import duties Import licenses Export licenses Quotas Tariffs Subsidies Non-tariff barriers to trade Most trade barriers work on the same principle: the imposition of some... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy...


The final version of the GNU General Public License version 3, as released by the Free Software Foundation, prohibits using DRM to restrict free redistribution and modification of works covered by the license, and includes a clause stating that the license's provisions shall be interpreted as disfavoring use of DRM. Also, in May 2006, the FSF launched a "Defective by Design" campaign against DRM. GPL redirects here. ... The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a non-profit corporation founded in October 1985 by Richard Stallman to support the free software movement (free as in freedom), and in particular the GNU project. ... Logo of Defective by Design Advocacy poster Defective by Design is an anti-digital restrictions management (DRM) initiative by the Free Software Foundation. ...


Creative Commons provides licensing options encouraging the expansion of and building upon creative work without the use of DRM.[25] In addition, the use of a Creative Commons-licensed work on a device which incorporates DRM is a breach of the Baseline Rights asserted by each license.[26] The Creative Commons (CC) is a non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative work available for others legally to build upon and share. ...


Bill Gates spoke about DRM at CES in 2006. According to him, DRM is not where it should be, and causes problems for legitimate consumers while trying to distinguish between legitimate and illegitimate users.[27]


According to Steve Jobs, Apple opposes DRM music after a public letter calling its music labels to stop requiring DRM on its iTunes Store. To date, EMI has complied[28]. Apple considers DRM on video content as a separate issue. Steve Jobs (born Steven Paul Jobs February 24, 1955) is the CEO, chairman and co-founder of Apple Inc. ... Apple Inc. ... The iTunes Store is an online business run by Apple Inc. ... For other uses, see EMI (disambiguation). ...

Defective by Design member protesting DRM on May 25, 2007.
Defective by Design member protesting DRM on May 25, 2007.

As already noted, many DRM opponents consider "digital rights management" to be a misnomer. They argue that DRM manages rights (or access) the same way prison manages freedom and often refer to it as "digital restrictions management". Alternatively, ZDNet Executive Editor David Berlind suggests the term "Content Restriction, Annulment and Protection" or "CRAP" for short.[29] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 1. ... Logo of Defective by Design Advocacy poster Defective by Design is an anti-digital restrictions management (DRM) initiative by the Free Software Foundation. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


The Norwegian Consumer rights organization "Forbrukerrådet" complained to Apple Inc. in 2007 about the company's use of DRM in, and in conjunction with, its iPod and iTunes products. Apple was accused of restricting users' access to their music and videos in an unlawful way, and to use EULAs conflicting with Norwegian consumer legislation. The complaint was supported by consumers' ombudsmen in Sweden and Denmark, and is currently being reviewed in the EU. A software license is a type of proprietary or gratiuitious license as well as a memorandum of contract between a producer and a user of computer software — sometimes called an End User License Agreement (EULA) — that specifies the perimeters of the permission granted by the owner to the user. ... Look up Ombudsman in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The use of DRM may also be a barrier to future historians, since technologies designed to permit data to be read only on particular machines, or with particular keys, or for certain periods, may well make future data recovery impossible — see Digital Revolution. This argument connects the issue of DRM with that of asset management and archive technology.[citation needed] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


DRM opponents argue that the presence of DRM violates existing private property rights and restricts a range of heretofore normal and legal user activities. A DRM component would control a device a user owns (such as a Digital audio player) by restricting how it may act with regards to certain content, overriding some of the user's wishes (for example, preventing the user from burning a copyrighted song to CD as part of a compilation or a review). An example of this effect may be seen in Microsoft's Windows Vista operating system in which content is disabled or degraded depending on the DRM scheme's evaluation of whether the hardware and its use are 'secure'. All forms of DRM depend on the DRM enabled device (e.g., computer, DVD player, TV) imposing restrictions that (at least by intent) cannot be disabled or modified by the user.[citation needed] This page deals with property as ownership rights. ... Apple iPod nano (third-generation), a best-selling flash-based player An embedded hard drive-based player (Creative ZEN Vision:M) An MP3 CD player (Philips Expanium) More commonly referred to as an MP3 player, a digital audio player (DAP) is a portable consumer electronics device that stores, organizes and... CD redirects here. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Windows Vista is a line of graphical operating systems used on personal computers, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, Tablet PCs, and media centers. ...


Tools like FairUse4WM have been created to strip Windows Media of DRM restrictions.[30] Windows Media DRM is a digital rights management service for the Windows Media platform. ...


Asus will release a soundcard which features a function called Analog Loopback Transformation to bypass the digital restrictions of DRM. This feature allows the user to record DRM-restricted audio via the soundcard's built-in analog I/O connection.[31] For other uses, see ASUS (disambiguation). ...


Shortcomings of DRM

Methods to bypass DRM

There are many methods to bypass DRM control on audio and video content.


One simple method to bypass DRM on audio files is to burn the content to an audio CD and then rip it into DRM-free files. This is only possible when the software that plays these DRM-restricted audio files allows CD-burning. Some software products simplify and automate this burn-rip process by allowing the user to burn music to a CD-RW disc or to a Virtual CD-R drive, then automatically ripping and encoding the music, and automatically repeating this process until all selected music has been converted, rather than forcing the user to do this one CD (72-80 minutes' worth of music) at a time. For the process of sawing wood along the grain, see Rip saw. ...


Many software programs have been developed that intercept the data stream as it is decrypted out of the DRM-restricted file, and then use this data to construct a DRM-free file. These programs require a decryption key. Programs that do this for DVDs, HD DVDs, and Blu-ray Discs include universal decryption keys in the software itself. Programs that do this for TiVo ToGo recordings, iTunes audio, and PlaysForSure songs, however, rely on the user's own key — that is, they can only process content that the user has legally acquired under his or her own account.


Another method is to use software to record the signals being sent through the audio or video cards, or to plug analog recording devices into the analog outputs of the media player. These techniques utilize the so-called "analog hole" (see below). The analog hole is a fundamental and inevitable vulnerability in copy prevention schemes for noninteractive works in digital formats which can be exploited by large-scale copyright infringers to duplicate copy-protected works that are ultimately reproduced using analog means. ...


Analog hole

Main article: Analog hole

All forms of DRM for audio and visual material are subject to the analog hole, namely that in order for a viewer to play the material, the digital signal must be turned into an analog signal containing light and/or sound for the viewer, and so available to be copied as no DRM is capable of controlling content in this form. In other words, a user could playback a purchased audio file while using a separate program to record the sound back into the computer into a non-DRM protected file format. The analog hole is a fundamental and inevitable vulnerability in copy prevention schemes for noninteractive works in digital formats which can be exploited by large-scale copyright infringers to duplicate copy-protected works that are ultimately reproduced using analog means. ...


All DRM to date, and probably all future ones can therefore be bypassed by recording this signal and digitally storing and distributing it in a non DRM limited form. However the conversion from digital to analog and back is likely to force a loss of quality, particularly when using lossy digital formats. HDCP is an attempt to restrict the analog hole. A lossy data compression method is one where compressing a file and then decompressing it retrieves a file that may well be different to the original, but is close enough to be useful in some way. ... HDCP (High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection) is a specification developed by Intel Corporation to protect digital audio and video content as it travels across Digital Visual Interface (DVI) or High Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) connections. ...


DRM on general computing platforms

Many of the DRM systems in use are designed to work on general purpose computing hardware, such as desktop PCs apparently because this equipment is felt to be a major contributor to revenue loss from disallowed copying. Large commercial pirates avoid consumer equipment, so losses from such infringers will not be covered by such provisions.


Some [4] have suggested that any such scheme can never be secure since the software must include all the information, such as decryption keys, necessary to decrypt the content. It is suggested that one can always extract this information and decrypt and copy the content, bypassing the restrictions imposed by a DRM system. A key is a piece of information that controls the operation of a cryptography algorithm. ...


DRM on distributed purpose built hardware

Many DRM schemes use encrypted media which requires purpose built hardware to hear or see the content. This appears to ensure that only licensed users (those with the hardware) can access the content. It additionally tries to protect a secret decryption key from the users of the system.


While this in principle can work, it is extremely difficult to build the hardware to protect the secret key against a sufficiently determined adversary. Many such systems have failed in the field, and in fact, it is thought that none have yet survived several years of deployment. Once the secret key is known, building a version of the hardware that performs no checks is often relatively straightforward.


In addition user verification provisions are frequently subject to attack.


Watermarks

Watermarks are usually easily removed, although some degradation of video or audio can occur.


In particular, most compression is intended to only retain perceptible features of an image, and hence if the watermarks are invisible, then they are very typically removed by compression systems as a side-effect.


Obsolescence

When standards and formats change, it may be difficult to transfer DRM-restricted content to new media. Additionally, any system that requires contact with an authentication server is vulnerable to that server becoming unavailable, as happened[32] in 2007 when videos purchased from MLB.com prior to 2006 became unplayable due to a change to the servers that validate the licences. Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Historical note

A very early — possibly the earliest — implementation of DRM was the Software Service System (SSS) devised by the Japanese engineer Ryoichi Mori in 1983 [33] and subsequently refined under the name superdistribution. The SSS was based on encryption, with specialized hardware that controlled decryption and also enabled payments to be sent to the copyright holder. The underlying principle of the SSS and subsequently of superdistribution was that the distribution of encrypted digital products should be completely unrestricted and that users of those products would not just be permitted to redistribute them but would actually be encouraged to do so. Superdistribution is an approach to distributing digital products such as software, videos, and recorded music in which the products are entirely free of copy protection and are made publicly available and distributed in encrypted form instead of being sold in retail outlets or online shops. ...


See also

Related concepts

Sometimes abbreviated as C&R, this term refers to the legal structure or regime underlying a Digital Rights Management (DRM) system. ... The reversed c in a full circle is the copyleft symbol. ... Not to be confused with copywriting. ... Copy prevention, also known as copy protection, is any technical measure designed to prevent duplication of information. ... The German Lorenz cipher machine, used in World War II for encryption of very high-level general staff messages Cryptography (or cryptology; derived from Greek κρυπτός kryptós hidden, and the verb γράφω gráfo write or λεγειν legein to speak) is the study of message secrecy. ... Data rooms are used in many different types of transaction where the vendor (in the case of a property, M&A or share sale) or the authority (in the case of a PFI/PPP project) wishes to disclose a large amount of confidential data to proposed bidders typically during the... The legal aspects of technology involve many different terms. ... ODRL (Open Digital Rights Language) is an XML-based standard Rights Expression Language (REL) used in Digital Rights Management systems and open content management systems. ... Smart contracts are protocols, usually associated with user interfaces, that embed or emulate contractual clauses or logic for the purpose of facilitating, verifying, or enforcing the performance of a contract. ... The Smart Cow Problem describes how, when a group of individuals is faced with a technically difficult task, the method for surmounting this task only needs to be discovered once. ... The Street Performer Protocol (SPP) is a way of encouraging the creation of creative works in the public domain, described by the cryptographers John Kelsey and Bruce Schneier[1] of Counterpane Systems (although the underlying idea is much older). ... Superdistribution is an approach to distributing digital products such as software, videos, and recorded music in which the products are entirely free of copy protection and are made publicly available and distributed in encrypted form instead of being sold in retail outlets or online shops. ... Tivoization is the creation of a system that incorporates software under the terms of a copyleft software license, but uses hardware to prevent users from running modified versions of the software on that hardware. ... Logo of Trusted Computing Group, an initiative to implement Trusted Computing Trusted Computing (commonly abbreviated TC) is a technology developed and promoted by the Trusted Computing Group (TCG). ... VCL (Voluntary Collective Licensing) is also a theoretical solution for the problem of piracy which would harness the power of P2P technologies. ... XrML is the eXtensible Rights Markup Language which has also been standardized as the Rights Expression Language (REL) for MPEG-21. ...

Lobbying organizations

The European Information, Communications and Consumer Electronics Technology Industry Associations (commonly known by its abbreviation, EICTA) is a Brussels-based European trade association of electronics and telecommunications companies. ... TCG logo The Trusted Computing Group (TCG), successor to the Trusted Computing Platform Alliance (TCPA), is an initiative led by AMD, Hewlett-Packard, IBM, Infineon, Intel, Lenovo, Microsoft, and Sun Microsystems to implement trusted computing. ... MPAA redirects here. ... RIAA redirects here. ... EFF Logo The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is an international non-profit advocacy and legal organization based in the United States with the stated purpose of being dedicated to preserving free speech rights such as those protected by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution in the context of... The Open Rights Group (ORG) is a UK-based organisation that hopes to preserve digital rights and freedoms by serving as a hub for other cyber-rights groups campaigning on similar digital rights issues. ... The Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) is a standards body which develops open standards for the mobile industry. ... Logo of Defective by Design Advocacy poster Defective by Design is an anti-digital restrictions management (DRM) initiative by the Free Software Foundation. ... The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a non-profit corporation founded in October 1985 by Richard Stallman to support the free software movement (free as in freedom), and in particular the GNU project. ... The Pirate Party (Swedish: Piratpartiet) is a political party in Sweden. ... A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... The Free Culture Movement is a student led movement that supports freedom of speech on the Internet and objects to overly restrictive copyright laws, which, members of the movement argue, hinders creativity. ... Knowledge and freedom are strictly connected. ... The Free Software Foundation Europe (FSFE, or FSF Europe) was founded in 2001 as an official European sister organization of the U.S.-based Free Software Foundation (FSF) to take care of all aspects of free software in Europe. ... SDMI (Secure Digital Music Initiative) was a forum formed in late 1998, comprised of more than 200 IT, consumer electronics, security technology, ISP and recording industry companies with the purpose of developing technology specifications that protect the playing, storing and distributing of digital music. ...

References

  1. ^ Christopher Levy (February 3, 2003). Making Money with Streaming Media. streamingmedia.com. Retrieved on 2006-08-28.
  2. ^ Digital Restrictions Management and Treacherous Computing. Retrieved on 2006-08-04.
  3. ^ FairPlay: Another Anti-competitive Use of DRM. Retrieved on 2006-08-01.
  4. ^ a b Cory Doctorow (June 17, 2004). Microsoft Research DRM Talk. craphound.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-17.
  5. ^ Bangeman, Eric (2006-10-28). TiVo tightens the DRM vise. Retrieved on 2006-08-11.
  6. ^ Xeni Jardin (December 28, 2006). Report: HD-DVD copy protection defeated. BoingBoing. Retrieved on 2008-01-01.
  7. ^ Cory Doctorow (May 30, 2007). New AACS processing key leaks onto the net. BoingBoing. Retrieved on 2008-01-01.
  8. ^ Who Controls Your Television?. Electronic Frontier Foundation. Retrieved on 2008-01-01.
  9. ^ CBC to BitTorrent Canada's Next Great Prime Minister (March 20, 2008). Retrieved on 2008-03-25.
  10. ^ McMillan, Robert. "Settlement Ends Sony Rootkit Case." May 23, 2006. PC World. Accessed April 8, 2007. Article
  11. ^ Marechal, Sander, DRM on audio CDs abolished, January 9, 2007.
  12. ^ iTunes Plus DRM-free tracks expanding, dropping to 99 cents. Apple News from ARS Technica (2007-10-16). Retrieved on 2007-10-16.
  13. ^ Nick Timeraos (July 6, 2006). Free, Legal and Ignored. WSJ.com (Wall Street Journal). Retrieved on 2006-11-27.
  14. ^ Testing DRM-free waters: EMI selling a few MP3s through Yahoo Music by Eric Bangeman, Ars Technica, December 6, 2006.
  15. ^ Steve Jobs, Thoughts on Music
  16. ^ Ken Fisher. "Musicload: 75% of customer service problems caused by DRM", Ars Technica, March 18, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-03-20. 
  17. ^ "DRM vs. ERM: Battle to Control Data", Network World. Retrieved on 2008-04-02.
  18. ^ iTunes Plus DRM-free, not free of annoying glitches - Engadget
  19. ^ Macworld | Playlist | Watermarked iTunes files
  20. ^ RIAA challenges SDMI attack 2002-01-07, Retrieved on 2007-02-26
  21. ^ Walker, John (September 13, 2003). The Digital Imprimatur: How big brother and big media can put the Internet genie back in the bottle..
  22. ^ Richard Stallman, The Right to Read
  23. ^ O'Riordan, Ciaran (January 16, 2006). Transcript of Opening session of first international GPLv3 conference.
  24. ^ Cory Doctorow, Microsoft Research DRM talk, June 17, 2004
  25. ^ Frequently Asked Questions - CcWiki (2006-11-09). Retrieved on 2006-11-22.
  26. ^ Baseline Rights - Creative Commons Wiki (2007-07-13). Retrieved on 2007-12-23.
  27. ^ Bill Gates speaks against DRM..
  28. ^ EMIGroup.com (2007-04-02). EMI Music launches DRM-free superior sound quality downloads across its entire digital repertoire. Retrieved on 2008-02-08.
  29. ^ A lot of CRAP. Retrieved on 2006-09-07.
  30. ^ Engadget FairUse4WM strips Windows Media DRM!. Retrieved on 2006-08-25.
  31. ^ Asus Showcases New Generation Audio Card at Computex 2007. Retrieved on 2007-06-26.
  32. ^ MLB Fans Who Bought DRM Videos Get Hosed. slashdot.org (November 7, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-11-08.
  33. ^ Patent application 58-186100 (in Japanese), Software Management System, Japan Patent Office, October 5, 1983, Ryoichi Mori, applicant. (The usual English translation of the application lists Forest Akikazu as the applicant, but that is a mistranslation of Mori's name.)

is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) is an influential international daily newspaper published in New York City, New York with a worldwide average daily circulation of more than 2. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ars Technica is a technology-related website catering to PC enthusiasts. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Digital rights management
  • Lawrence Lessig's Free Culture, published by Basic Books in 2004, is available for free download in PDF format. The book is a legal and social history of copyright. Lessig is well known, in part, for arguing recent landmark cases on copyright law. A Professor of Law at Stanford University, Lessig writes for an educated lay audience, including for non-lawyers. He is, for the most part, an opponent of DRM technologies.
  • Rosenblatt, B. et al, Digital Rights Management: Business and Technology, published by M&T Books (John Wiley & Sons) in 2001. An overview of DRM technology, business implications for content publishers, and relationship to U.S. copyright law.
  • Consumer's Guide to DRM, published in 10 languages (Czech, German, Greek, English, Spanish, French, Hungarian, Italian, Polish, Swedish), produced by the INDICARE research and dialogue project
  • Eberhard Becker, Willms Buhse, Dirk Günnewig, Niels Rump: Digital Rights Management - Technological, Economic, Legal and Political Aspects. An 800 page compendium from 60 different authors on DRM.
  • Fetscherin, M., Implications of Digital Rights Management on the Demand for Digital Content, provides an excellent view on DRM from a consumers perspective. [6]
  • Bound by Law, by James Boyle et al, at Duke University Law School (http://www.law.duke.edu/cspd/comics/zoomcomic.html), a comic book treatment of the US Fair Use doctrine (with some relevance to other jurisdictions, for example in the Commonwealth usually called Fair Dealing), that is a license fee or permission free, under statute and common law precedent, use of copyrighted material.
  • DRM on Open Platforms - A paper by Hagai Bar-El and Yoav Weiss on ways to partially close open platforms to make them suitable for DRM implementations. It has been released under a Creative commons by NC-SA license.
  • The Pig and the Box, a book with colorful illustrations and having a coloring book version, by 'MCM'. It describes DRM in terms suited to kids, written in reaction to a Canadian entertainment industry copyright education initiative, aimed at children.
  • Present State and Emerging Scenarios of Digital Rights Management Systems - A paper by Marc Fetscherin which provides an overview of the various components of DRM, pro and cons and future outlook of how, where, when such systems might be used.
  • DRM is Like Paying for Ice - Richard Menta article on MP3 Newswire discusses how DRM is implemented in ways to control consumers, but is undermining perceived product value in the process.
  • Challenges in Designing Content Protection Solutions - A paper by Hagai Bar-El and Discretix that addresses technical dilemmas and difficulties met when designing DRM products.
  • A Semantic Web Approach to Digital Rights Management - PhD Thesis by Roberto García that tries to address DRM issues using Semantic Web technologies and methodologies.

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Not to be confused with Lawrence Lessing. ... The book cover Free Culture: How Big Media Uses Technology and the Law to Lock Down Culture and Control Creativity (2004) is a book by law professor Lawrence Lessig that was released on the Internet under the Creative Commons Attribution/Non-commercial license (by-nc 1. ... Basic Books is a book publisher founded in 1952. ... Stanford redirects here. ... John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ... James Boyle is the William Neal Reynolds Professor of Law and co-founder of the Center for the Study of the Public Domain at Duke University School of Law in Durham, North Carolina. ... The cover of The Pig and the Box by MCM‎ The Pig and the Box is a childrens book written and drawn by a Canadian writer, producer and programmer known as MCM. Written in July 2006, The Pig and the Box is a book about the negative sides of... MP3 Newswire is one of the earliest news sites focused on digital media technology. ...

External links

  • BBC News |Technology Q&A: What is DRM?
  • White Paper: Introduction to Digital Rights Management
  • Cory Doctorow's bi-weekly column for The Guardian on DRM and the entertainment industry
  • Guardian article
  • INDICARE research and dialogue project on consumer issues of DRM
  • Windows Media DRM FAQ from Microsoft
  • Current Developments in the Field of Digital Rights Management from World Intellectual Property Organisation, Standing Committee on Copyright and Related Rights. SCCR/10/2. August 2003.
  • Digital Rights Management from CEN/ISSS (European Committee for Standardization / Information Society Standardization System). Contains a range of possible definitions for DRM from various stakeholders. 30 September 2003
  • Defectivebydesign.org, FSF campaign against DRM.
  • The Digital Imprimatur - How big brother and big media can put the Internet genie back in the bottle. See also: The Digital Imprimatur.
  • The Right to Read by Richard Stallman.
  • Music Downloads: Pirates- or Customers?. Silverthorne, Sean. Harvard Business School Working Knowledge, 2004.
  • OpenIPMP - an open source DRM project with cross-platform software.
  • Advanced Peer-Based Technology Business Models. Ghosemajumder, Shuman. MIT Sloan School of Management, 2002. DRM-free model for distributing digital music.
  • Microsoft Research DRM talk by Cory Doctorow June 17, 2004
  • Digital rights management: When a standard isn't, information from IBM.
  • A Special Guide to DRM and Software Activation Tools: Protect Data, Enforce Licenses, information about DRM for software
  • DRM.info collaboration against DRM
  • DRM Watch - Web site with news and commentary about DRM.
  • Libraries fear digital lockdown - BBC News Article.
  • "Lessons from the Sony CD DRM Episode" (PDF format), by J. Alex Halderman and Edward Felten, February 14, 2006.
  • Artist controled rights
  • What Colour are your bits? Copyright communication difficulties between lawyers and computer scientists.
  • La France v. Apple: who’s the dadvsi in DRMs?, Nicolas Jondet (University of Edinburgh), SCRIPT-ed, December 2006
  • What DRM is and how to get around it
Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is one of the specialized agencies of the United Nations, and has as its core objectives the promotion of creative intellectual activity and the facilitation of the transfer of technology related to intellectual property to the developing countries in order to accelerate economic, social... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a non-profit organisation founded in 1985 by Richard Stallman to support the free software movement (free as in freedom), and in particular the GNU project. ... The Digital Imprimatur is a term widely associated with John Walker, due to his article of the same name. ... Richard Matthew Stallman (born March 16, 1953), often abbreviated rms,[1] is an American software freedom activist, hacker,[2] and software developer. ... Harvard Business School, officially named the Harvard Business School: George F. Baker Foundation, and also known as HBS, is one of the graduate schools of Harvard University. ... Open source refers to projects that are open to the public and which draw on other projects that are freely available to the general public. ... Shuman Ghosemajumder is the co-founder and former CEO of Anadas Consulting, a Canadian software development firm. ... The MIT Sloan School of Management is one of the five schools of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. It is one of the worlds leading business schools, conducting research and teaching in finance, entrepreneurship, marketing, strategic management, economics, organizational behavior, operations management, supply chain... Cory Doctorow (born July 17, 1971) is a blogger, journalist and science fiction author who serves as co-editor of the blog Boing Boing. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... Edward William Felten (born March 25, 1963) is a professor of computer science and public affairs at Princeton University. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... SCRIPT-ed [1] is the online journal of the AHRC Research Centre for Studies in Intellectual Property and Technology Law SCRIPT (AHRC Centre) [2] based in the School of Law at the University of Edinburgh [3]. SCRIPT-ed is founded on the combined strength of the Faculty and postgraduate communities... Free software is software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction, and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified form either without restriction, or with minimal restrictions only to ensure that further recipients can also do these things. ... ... The Common Unix Printing System (CUPS) is a modular computer printing system for Unix-like operating systems that allows a computer to act as a powerful print server. ... The Free Software Definition is a definition published by Free Software Foundation (FSF) for what constitutes free software. ... The GNU logo, drawn by Etienne Suvasa The GNU Project was announced in 1983 by Richard Stallman. ... This is a list of open-source software packages: computer software licensed under an open-source license. ... Open source refers to projects that are open to the public and which draw on other projects that are freely available to the general public. ... “X11” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Free_Software_Portal_Logo. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This timeline shows the development of the Linux kernel. ... Mozilla Application Suite began as an open source base of the Netscape suite. ... Mozilla Firefox browser The Mozilla Firefox project was created by Dave Hyatt and Blake Ross as an experimental branch of the Mozilla project. ... Originally launched as Minotaur shortly after Phoenix (the original name for Mozilla Firefox), the project failed to gain momentum. ... These tables compare the various free software / open source operating systems. ... BSD redirects here. ... Darwin is a free and open source, Unix-like operating system first released by Apple Inc. ... GNU (pronounced ) is a computer operating system composed entirely of free software. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... OpenSolaris is an open source project created by Sun Microsystems to build a developer community around Solaris Operating System technology. ... ReactOS is a project to develop an operating system that is binary-compatible with application software and device drivers for Microsoft Windows NT version 5. ... Open source software development is the process by which open source software (or similar software whose source is publicly available) is developed. ... The GNU Compiler Collection (usually shortened to GCC) is a set of programming language compilers produced by the GNU Project. ... Low Level Virtual Machine, generally known as LLVM, is a compiler infrastructure designed for compile-time, link-time, run-time, and idle-time optimization of programs written in arbitrary programming languages. ... For other uses, see PHP (disambiguation). ... Python is a general-purpose, high-level programming language. ... Wikibooks has a book on the topic of Perl Programming Perl is a dynamic programming language created by Larry Wall and first released in 1987. ... Java language redirects here. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... In Unix computing, Blackbox is a window manager for the X Window System. ... EDE or Equinox Desktop Environment is a small desktop environment that is meant to be simple and fast. ... Enlightenment, also known simply as E, is a free software/open source window manager for the X Window System which can be used alone or in conjunction with a desktop environment such as GNOME or KDE. It has a rich feature set, including extensive support for themes and advanced graphics... Étoilé is a GNUstep-based free software desktop environment built from the ground up on highly modular and light components with project and document orientation in mind, in order to allow users to create their own workflow by reshaping or recombining provided Services (aka Applications), Components, etc. ... In Unix computing, Fluxbox is an X window manager based on Blackbox. ... This article is about the mythical creature. ... In Unix computing, IceWM is a window manager for the X Window System graphical infrastructure, written by Marko Maček. ... For the NYSE stock ticker symbol KDE, see 4Kids Entertainment. ... Openbox is a free window manager for the X Window System, licensed under the GNU General Public License. ... A screenshot of the ROX desktop. ... Window Maker is a window manager for the X Window System, which allows graphical applications to be run on Unix-like operating-systems. ... Xfce ([1]) is a free software desktop environment for Unix and other Unix-like platforms, such as Linux, Solaris and BSD. Its configuration is entirely mouse-driven and the configuration files are hidden from the casual user. ... The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a non-profit corporation founded in October 1985 by Richard Stallman to support the free software movement (free as in freedom), and in particular the GNU project. ... The Free Software Foundation Europe (FSFE, or FSF Europe) was founded in 2001 as an official European sister organization of the U.S.-based Free Software Foundation (FSF) to take care of all aspects of free software in Europe. ... The Free Software Foundation India (FSF-India), founded in 2001, is a sister organisation to Free Software Foundation. ... Free Software Foundation Latin America (FSFLA) is the Latin American sister organisation of Free Software Foundation. ... The Linux Foundation (LF) is a nonprofit consortium dedicated to fostering the growth of Linux. ... The Mountain View office shared by the Mozilla Foundation and the Mozilla Corporation The Mozilla Foundation (abbreviated MF or MoFo) is a non-profit organization that exists to support and provide leadership for the open source Mozilla project. ... The Open Source Initiative is an organization dedicated to promoting open source software. ... A free software licence is a software licence which grants recipients rights to modify and redistribute the software which would otherwise be prohibited by copyright law. ... The Apache License (Apache Software License previous to version 2. ... The BSD daemon BSD licenses represent a family of permissive free software licenses. ... GPL redirects here. ... The GNU Lesser General Public License (formerly the GNU Library General Public License) or LGPL is a free software license published by the Free Software Foundation. ... The MIT License, also called the X License or the X11 License, originated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is a license for the use of certain types of computer software. ... In computing, the Mozilla Public License (MPL) is an open source and free software license. ... Permissive free software licences are software licences for a copyrighted work that offer many of the same freedoms as releasing a work to the public domain. ... Tivoization is the creation of a system that incorporates software under the terms of a copyleft software license, but uses hardware to prevent users from running modified versions of the software on that hardware. ... Opposition to software patents is widespread in the free software community. ... Logo of Trusted Computing Group, an initiative to implement Trusted Computing Trusted Computing (commonly abbreviated TC) is a technology developed and promoted by the Trusted Computing Group (TCG). ... Proprietary software is software with restrictions on copying and modifying as enforced by the proprietor. ... The SCO-Linux controversies are a series of legal and public disputes between the software company SCO Group (SCO) and various Linux vendors and users. ... In computing, a binary blob is an object file loaded into the kernel of a free or open source operating system without publicly available source code. ... From the early 90s onward, alternative terms for free software have come into common use, with much debate in the free software community. ... // The free software community is also called the open source community or the Linux community. ... The free software movement, also known as the free software philosophy, began in 1983 when Richard Stallman announced the GNU Project. ... For the specific comparison of the open source Linux operating system with the closed source Windows Operating system please see Comparison of Windows and Linux Open source (or free software) and closed source (or proprietary software) are two approaches to the control, exploitation and commercializing of computer software. ... Free and Open Source Software, also F/OSS or FOSS, is software which is liberally licensed to grant the right of users to study, change, and improve its design through the availability of its source code. ... Promotional poster for two disc edition of Revolution OS Revolution OS is a documentary which traces the history of GNU, Linux, Free Software and the Open Source movement. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Digital Rights Management: Digital Rights Management Portal - Nachrichten - Buch Fränkl Karpf (574 words)
In eigener Sache: Neues Digital Rights Management Buch von Gerald Fränkl: Digital Rights Management in der Praxis
Rund um Digital Rights Management (DRM) ranken sich viele Mythen und Lügen (es sich schon oft keine Halbwahrheiten mehr).
Digital Rights Management (DRM) ist ein sehr aktuelles Thema, zu dem es bisher noch vergleichsweise wenig Literatur gibt.
Digital Rights Management - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4905 words)
DRM vendors and publishers coined the term digital rights management to refer to the types of technical measures discussed here, applying it only to digital media (and analog media that has been released in digital form).
Digital Rights Management holds an uncertain legal status in most countries, as the rights of users and producers regarding content are rarely defined clearly enough currently for the legal situation to be widely agreed upon.
DRM has been used by organizations such as the British Library in its secure electronic delivery service to permit worldwide access to substantial numbers of rare (and in many cases unique) documents which, for legal reasons, were previously only available to authorized individuals actually visiting the Library's document centre at Boston Spa in England.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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