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Encyclopedia > Digital library

A digital library is a library in which collections are stored in digital formats (as opposed to print, microform, or other media) and accessible by computers [1]. The digital content may be stored locally, or accessed remotely via computer networks. For other uses, see Library (disambiguation). ... A roll of microfilm Microfiche Microforms are processed films that carry images of documents to users for transmission, storage, reading and printing. ...


The first use of the term digital library in print may have been in a 1988 report to the Corporation for National Research Initiatives[2] The term digital libraries was first popularized by the NSF/DARPA/NASA Digital Libraries Initiative in 1994[3]. The older names electronic library or virtual library are also occasionally used, though electronic library nowadays more often refers to portals, often provided by government agencies, as in the case of the Florida Electronic Library. The Corporation For National Research Initiatives is a not-for-profit organization founded in 1986 by Robert E. Kahn. ... The logo of the National Science Foundation The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering. ... The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of new technology for use by the military. ... This article is about the American space agency. ...

Contents

Digitization

Digitization is the process of representing an object, an image, or a signal (usually an analog signal) by a discrete set of its points or samples. The result is called "digital representation" or, more specifically, a "digital image", for the object, and "digital form", for the signal. Digitizing, or digitization, is the process of turning an analog signal into a digital representation of that signal. ... An analog or analogue signal is any time continuous signal where some time varying feature of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity. ...


Analog signals are continuously variable, both in the number of possible values of the signal at a given time, as well as in the number of points in the signal in a given period of time. However, digital signals are discrete in both of those respects, and so a digitization can only ever be an approximation of the signal it represents. The digital representation does not necessarily lose information in this transformation since the analog signal usually contains both information and noise.


A digital signal may be represented by a sequence of integers. Digitization is performed by reading an analog signal A, and, at regular time intervals (sampling frequency), representing the value of A at that point by an integer. Each such reading is called a sample.


A series of integers can be transformed back into an analog signal that approximates the original analog signal. Such a transformation is called DA conversion. There are two factors determining how close such an approximation to an analog signal A a digitization D can be, namely the sampling rate and the number of bits used to represent the integers.


In the past few years, procedures for digitizing books at high speed and comparatively low cost have improved considerably with the result that it is now possible to plan the digitization of millions of books per year for creating digital libraries [4].


Types of digital libraries

The term digital library is diffuse enough to be applied to a wide range of collections and organizations, but, to be considered a digital library, an online collection of information must be managed by and made accessible to a community of users. Thus, some web sites can be considered digital libraries, but far from all. Many of the best known digital libraries are older than the web including Project Perseus, Project Gutenberg, and ibiblio. Nevertheless, as a result of the development of the internet and its search potential, digital libraries such as the European Library and the Library of Congress are now developing in a Web-based environment. The Perseus Project is a digital library project of Tufts University that assembles digital collections of humanities resources. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... ibiblio (formerly SunSITE and MetaLab) is a collection of collections, and hosts a diverse range of publicly available information and open source software. ... The European Library is a library portal for searching the databases and open public access catalogues as well as for accessing the digital content of European national libraries. ... Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ...


A distinction is often made between content that was created in a digital format, known as born digital, and information that has been converted from a physical medium, e.g., paper, by digitizing. The term hybrid library is sometimes used for libraries have both physical collections and digital collections. For example, American Memory is a digital library within the Library of Congress. Some important digital libraries also serve as long term archives, for example, the ePrint arXiv, and the Internet Archive. Digitizing, or digitization, is the process of turning an analog signal into a digital representation of that signal. ... American Memory is an internet archive for public domain image resources, as well as audio, video, and archived Web content. ... Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ... arXiv (pronounced archive, as if the X were the Greek letter χ) is an archive for electronic preprints of scientific papers in the fields of physics, mathematics, computer science and quantitative biology which can be accessed via the Internet. ... The logo of Internet Archive The Internet Archive (IA) is a non-profit organization dedicated to maintaining an on-line library and archive of Web and multimedia resources. ...


Collaborative digitization projects

There are many collaborative digitization projects throughout the United States and in Europe, Australia and Asia (see below). Two of the earliest projects were the Collaborative Digitization Project in Colorado and NC ECHO - North Carolina Exploring Cultural Heritage Online, based at the State Library of North Carolina. These projects helped to establish and publish best practices for digitization and work with regional partners to digitize cultural heritage materials. Additional criteria for best practice have more recently been established in the UK, Australia and the European Union[5].


Advantages

The advantages of digital libraries as a means of easily and rapidly accessing books, archives and images of various types are now widely recognized by commercial interests and public bodies alike[6].


Traditional libraries are limited by storage space; digital libraries have the potential to store much more information, simply because digital information requires very little physical space to contain it. As such, the cost of maintaining a digital library is much lower than that of a traditional library. A traditional library must spend large sums of money paying for staff, book maintenance, rent, and additional books. Digital libraries do away with these fees.


Digital libraries can immediately adopt innovations in technology providing users with improvements in electronic and audio book technology as well as presenting new forms of communication such as wikis and blogs.

  • No physical boundary. The user of a digital library need not to go to the library physically; people from all over the world can gain access to the same information, as long as an Internet connection is available.
  • Round the clock availability. A major advantage of digital libraries is that people can gain access to the information at any time, night or day.
  • Multiple accesses. The same resources can be used at the same time by a number of users.
  • Structured approach. Digital libraries provide access to much richer content in a more structured manner, i.e. we can easily move from the catalog to the particular book then to a particular chapter and so on.
  • Information retrieval. The user is able to use any search term (word, phrase, title, name, subject) to search the entire collection. Digital libraries can provide very user-friendly interfaces, giving clickable access to its resources.
  • Preservation and conservation. An exact copy of the original can be made any number of times without any degradation in quality.
  • Space. Whereas traditional libraries are limited by storage space, digital libraries have the potential to store much more information, simply because digital information requires very little physical space to contain them. When a library has no space for extension digitization is the only solution.
  • Networking. A particular digital library can provide a link to any other resources of other digital libraries very easily; thus a seamlessly integrated resource sharing can be achieved.
  • Cost. In theory, the cost of maintaining a digital library is lower than that of a traditional library. A traditional library must spend large sums of money paying for staff, book maintenance, rent, and additional books. Although digital libraries do away with these fees, it has since been found that digital libraries can be no less expensive in their own way to operate. Digital libraries can and do incur large costs for the conversion of print materials into digital format, for the technical skills of staff to maintain them, and for the costs of maintaining online access (i.e. servers, bandwidth costs, etc.). Also, the information in a digital library must often be "migrated" every few years to the latest digital media. This process can incur very large costs in hardware and skilled personnel.(See data migration).

Data migration is the transferring of data between storage types, formats, or computer systems. ...

Problems

Some people have criticized that digital libraries are hampered by copyright law, because works cannot be shared over different periods of time in the manner of a traditional library. The content is, in many cases, public domain or self-generated content only. Some digital libraries, such as Project Gutenberg, work to digitize out-of-copyright works and make them freely available to the public. An estimate of the number of distinct books still existent in library catalogues from 2000BC to 1960, has been made [6]. Not to be confused with copywriting. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ...


Other digital libraries (more specifically, digital collections such as [OverDrive]http://www.overdrive.com, which may be acquired by libraries) accommodate copyright concerns by licensing content and distributing it on a commercial basis, which allows for better management of the content's reproduction and the payment (if required) of royalties.


Access to digital libraries and their collections is dependent upon a stable information technology infrastructure (power, computers, communications links etc.). Hence, despite the egalitarian potential of the digital library, many of those who could most benefit from its global reach (for instance in the Third World) are not able to do so. For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ...


Academic repositories

Many academic libraries are actively involved in building institutional repositories of the institution's books, papers, theses, and other works which can be digitized or were 'born digital'. Many of these repositories are made available to the general public with few restrictions, in accordance with the goals of open access. Institutional, truly free, and corporate repositories are often referred to as digital libraries. Institutional repository refers to the digital collection, capturing and preserving of intellectual output of an institution, particularly those involved in research. ... Open access (OA) means immediate, free and unrestricted online access to digital scholarly material[1], primarily peer-reviewed research articles in scholarly journals. ...


Digital archives

Archives differ from libraries in several ways. Traditionally, archives were defined as: For alternate uses see: Archive (disambiguation). ...

  1. Containing primary sources of information (typically letters and papers directly produced by an individual or organization) rather than the secondary sources found in a library (books, etc);
  2. Having their contents organized in groups rather than individual items. Whereas books in a library are cataloged individually, items in an archive are typically grouped by provenance (the individual or organization who created them) and original order (the order in which the materials were kept by the creator);
  3. Having unique contents. Whereas a book may be found at many different libraries, depending on its rarity, the records in an archive are usually one-of-a-kind, and cannot be found or consulted at any other location except at the archive that holds them.

The technology used to create digital libraries has been even more revolutionary for archives since it breaks down the second and third of these general rules. The use of search engines, Optical Character Recognition and metadata allow digital copies of individual items (i.e. letters) to be cataloged, and the ability to remotely access digital copies has removed the necessity of physically going to a particular archive to find a particular set of records. The Oxford Text Archive is generally considered to be the oldest digital archive of academic primary source materials. The success of the Google search engine was mainly due to its powerful PageRank algorithm and its simple, easy-to-use interface. ... Optical character recognition, usually abbreviated to OCR, is a type of computer software designed to translate images of handwritten or typewritten text (usually captured by a scanner) into machine-editable text, or to translate pictures of characters into a standard encoding scheme representing them (e. ... Metadata is data about data. ... Oxford Text Archive (OTA) is an archive of electronic texts and other language resources which have been created, collected and distributed for the purpose of research into literary and linguistic topics. ...


Project Gutenberg, Google Book Search, Windows Live Search Books, Internet Archive, Cornell University, The Library of Congress World Digital Library, The Digital Library at the University of Michigan, and CMU's Universal Library are considered leaders in the field of digital archive creation and management. There are hundreds of regionals such as and the Wisconsin Historical Society. The Vatican maintains an extensive digital library inventory and associated technology. The entire works of Martin Luther are held at Emory University and are being digitized under an $8M Grant from Coca-Cola heirs, and the Packard Foundation maintains digitization facilities near the Acropolis in Athens, Greece, as examples. Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... At the Frankfurt Book Fair in October 2004, Google introduced its Google Print service, now known as Google Book Search. ... Live Search Books is a search service for books, part of Microsofts Windows Live range of services. ... The logo of Internet Archive The Internet Archive (IA) is a non-profit organization dedicated to maintaining an on-line library and archive of Web and multimedia resources. ... “Cornell” redirects here. ... The World Digital Library (WDL) is a project by the Library of Congress to digitally preserve books and other objects from all world cultures. ... The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (U of M, UM or simply Michigan) is a coeducational public research university in the state of Michigan, and one of the foremost universities in the United States. ... Wisconsin Historical Society Headquarters, Madison, Wisconsin. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Emory University is a private university located in the metropolitan area of the city of Atlanta and in western unincorporated DeKalb County, Georgia, United States. ... The David and Lucile Packard Foundation is a private foundation that provides grants to not-for-profit organizations. ... For other uses, see Athens (disambiguation). ...


Searching

Most digital libraries provide a search interface which allows resources to be found. These resources are typically deep web (or invisible web) resources since they frequently cannot be located by search engine crawlers. Some digital libraries create special pages or sitemaps to allow search engines to find all their resources. Digital libraries frequently use the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) to expose their metadata to other digital libraries, and search engines like Google Scholar, Google, Yahoo! and Scirus can also use OAI-PMH to find these deep web resources[7]. The deep Web (or Deepnet, invisible Web or hidden Web) refers to World Wide Web content that is not part of the surface Web indexed by search engines. ... This article is about search engines. ... A web crawler (also known as a Web spider or Web robot) is a program or automated script which browses the World Wide Web in a methodical, automated manner. ... A sitemap is a collection of hyperlinks that outlines a websites structure. ... A protocol developed by the Open Archives Initiative. ... Google Scholar Logo Google Scholar (GS) is a freely-accessible web search engine that indexes the full-text of scholarly literature across an array of publishing formats and disciplines. ... This article is about the corporation. ... “Yahoo” redirects here. ... Scirus is a comprehensive science-specific search engine. ...


There are two general strategies for searching a federation of digital libraries:

  1. distributed searching, and
  2. searching previously harvested metadata.

Distributed searching typically involves a client sending multiple search requests in parallel to a number of servers in the federation. The results are gathered, duplicates are eliminated or clustered, and the remaining items are sorted and presented back to the client. Protocols like Z39.50 are frequently used in distributed searching. A benefit to this approach is that the resource intensive tasks of indexing and storage are left to the respective servers in the federation. A drawback to this approach is that the search mechanism is limited by the different indexing and ranking capabilities of each database, making it difficult to assemble a combined result consisting of the most relevant found items. Metadata is data about data. ... Z39. ...


Searching over previously harvested metadata involves searching a locally stored index of information that has previously been collected from the libraries in the federation. When a search is performed, the search mechanism does not need to make connections with the digital libraries it is searching - it already has a local representation of the information. This approach requires the creation of an indexing and harvesting mechanism which operates regularly, connecting to all the digital libraries and querying the whole collection in order to discover new and updated resources. OAI-PMH is frequently used by digital libraries for allowing metadata to be harvested. A benefit to this approach is that the search mechanism has full control over indexing and ranking algorithms, possibly allowing more consistent results. A drawback is that harvesting and indexing systems are more resource-intensive and therefore expensive. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A protocol developed by the Open Archives Initiative. ...


Framework

A digital library can be built around specific repository software. The best known examples of it are DSpace, Eprints, Fedora or dLibra, or Greenstone Digital Library Software , DSpace is an open source software package which provides the tools for management of digital assets, and is commonly used as the basis for an institutional repository. ... Eprints is free, open source software for generating an Open Access (OA) Institutional Repository (IR) that is compliant with the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH). ... Fedora (or Flexible Extensible Digital Object Repository Architecture) (not to be confused with Fedora Core) is a modular architecture built on the principle that interoperability and extensibility is best achieved by the integration of data, interfaces, and mechanisms (i. ... Greenstone Digital Library Software is a suite of software for building and distributing digital library collections. ...


The future

Large scale digitization projects are underway at Google, the Million Book Project, MSN, and Yahoo!. With continued improvements in book handling and presentation technologies such as optical character recognition and ebooks, and development of alternative depositories and business models, digital libraries are rapidly growing in popularity as demonstrated by Google, Yahoo!, and MSN's efforts. Just as libraries have ventured into audio and video collections, so have digital libraries such as the Internet Archive. This article is about the corporation. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see MSN (disambiguation). ... “Yahoo” redirects here. ... Optical character recognition, usually abbreviated to OCR, is a type of computer software designed to translate images of handwritten or typewritten text (usually captured by a scanner) into machine-editable text, or to translate pictures of characters into a standard encoding scheme representing them (e. ... An eBook (also: e-book, ebook) is an electronic (or digital) version of a book. ... The logo of Internet Archive The Internet Archive (IA) is a non-profit organization dedicated to maintaining an on-line library and archive of Web and multimedia resources. ...


References

  1. ^ Greenstein, Daniel I., Thorin, Suzanne Elizabeth. The Digital Library: A Biography" Digital Library Federation (2002) ISBN 1933645180 (Accessed here June 25, 2007)
  2. ^ [1] Kahn, R. E., & Cerf, V. G. (1988). The Digital Library Project Volume I: The World of Knowbots, (DRAFT): An Open Architecture For a Digital Library System and a Plan For Its Development. Reston, VA: Corporation for National Research Initiatives.
  3. ^ [2] Edward A. Fox: The Digital Libraries Initiative - Update and Discussion, Bulletin of the America Society of Information Science, Vol. 26, No 1, October/November 1999.
  4. ^ [3] Committee on Institutional Cooperation: Partnership announced between CIC and Google, 6 June 2007, Retrieved 7 July 2007.
  5. ^ [4] Digital Libraries: Principles and Practice in a Global Environment, Ariadne April 2005.
  6. ^ [5]] European Commission steps up efforts to put Europe’s memory on the Web via a “European Digital Library” Europa press release, 2 March 2006
  7. ^ Koehler, AEC. Some Thoughts on the Meaning of Open Access for University Library Technical Services Serials Review Vol. 32, 1, 2006, p. 17

See also

This is a list of projects related to digital libraries. ... In classical hypertext navigation occurs among static documents, and, for web users, this experience is reproduced using static web pages. ... A user viewing an electronic page on an eBook reading device In computing, an e-book (for electronic book: also eBook, ebook) is the digital media equivalent of a conventional printed book. ... Electronic journals are scholarly journals or magazines that can be accessed via electronic transmission. ... See also Open access. ... The European Library is a library portal for searching the databases and open public access catalogues as well as for accessing the digital content of European national libraries. ... Institutional repository refers to the digital collection, capturing and preserving of intellectual output of an institution, particularly those involved in research. ... The Library of Congress National Digital Library Program (NDLP) is assembling a digital library of reproductions of primary source materials to support the study of the history and culture of the United States. ... The National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program is a national strategic program being led by the Library of Congress to preserve digital content. ... A national repository is repository for academic publications by scholars working in a particular country is a (Such repositories can also be organized on a more local basis) These can be intended fas the main repository for all such scholarship, or as a supplement to existing institutional repositories. ... A protocol developed by the Open Archives Initiative. ... The Open Content Alliance is a consortium of non-profit and for-profit groups which is dedicated to building a free archive of digital text and multimedia. ... A repository in publishing, and especially in academic publishing, is a real or virtual facility for the deposit of academic publications, such as academic journal articles. ... Storage Resource Broker (SRB) is a data grid middleware software system produced by the San Diego Supercomputer Center and commercialized by Nirvana that is operating in many national and international computational science research projects. ... A universal library is a library which contains all existing or useful information or knowledge. ...

External links

General

Library and information science (LIS) is the study of issues related to libraries and the information fields. ... Look up Wiki in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

National and international archives

Book archives

Major subject archives

  • The American Journeys Project a digital library whose contents center on --the exploration of North America.
  • Biodiversity Heritage Library - major collection of open access taxonomic literature from Linnaeus through current (600,000 plus pages)
  • European Navigator: The first Digital Library on the history of the European Union
  • dLIST dLIST: Digital Library of Information Science and Technology, an open access archive of Information Sciences materials
  • ETANA - Electronic Tools and Ancient Near Eastern Archives Electronic library for the Ancient Near East
  • Kabbalah Digital Library One of the largest multi-language collections of ancient and modern Kabbalistic writings.
  • The International Children's Digital Library
  • Library of Congress, Web Capture
  • OpenMED@NIC Open access archive of Medical and Allied Sciences.

Tools

  • Digital Commons: Hosted Repository Platform
  • University of Southampton: E-Prints for Digital Repositories
  • MIT & HP: DSpace digital repository
  • UNESCO: Greenstone Digital Library Software
  • Search engines that include public digital libraries
  • DL-Harvest DL-Harvest, an open access aggregator for Information Sciences
  • BRICKS Framework BRICKS open-source framework for Digital Libraries
  • Digital Library eXtension Service University of Michigan, Digital Library eXtension Service-- digital library software system for full text books, image databases, finding aids, bibliographic data and more.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Digital library - LISWiki (2463 words)
The open access libraries are shifting towards automated library, the automated one towards the electronics, the electronics to digital and finally end in Digital library and its different aspect/badan barman virtual library.
The majority of the holding of a digital library is in the computer readable form and also acts as a point of access to other on line sources.
Digital libraries are not going to replace the physical existence of document completely but no doubt to meet the present demand, to satisfy the non local user digitization must be introduced so that at least libraries becomes of hybrid nature.
Digital library - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1716 words)
A digital library is a library in which a significant proportion of the resources are available in machine-readable format (as opposed to print or microform), accessible by means of computers.
In libraries, the process of digitization began with the catalog, moved to periodical indexes and abstracting services, then to periodicals and large reference works, and finally to book publishing.
Some people have criticized that digital libraries are hampered by copyright law, because works cannot be shared over different periods of time in the manner of a traditional library.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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