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Encyclopedia > Digital image processing

Digital image processing is the use of computer algorithms to perform image processing on digital images. Digital image processing has the same advantages over analog image processing as digital signal processing has over analog signal processing — it allows a much wider range of algorithms to be applied to the input data, and can avoid problems such as the build-up of noise and signal distortion during processing. In mathematics, computing, linguistics, and related disciplines, an algorithm is a finite list of well-defined instructions for accomplishing some task that, given an initial state, will terminate in a defined end-state. ... UPIICSA IPN - Binary image Image processing is any form of information processing for which the input is an image, such as photographs or frames of video; the output is not necessarily an image, but can be for instance a set of features of the image. ... A digital image is a representation of a two-dimensional image as a finite set of digital values, called picture elements or pixels. ... Digital signal processing (DSP) is the study of signals in a digital representation and the processing methods of these signals. ...

The most common kind of digital image processing is digital image editing. Digital image editing is the process of altering digital images, whether they be digital photographs or other types of digitally represented images. ...

## Contents

Many of the techniques of digital image processing, or digital picture processing as it was often called, were developed in the 1960s at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MIT, Bell Labs, University of Maryland, and a few other places, with application to satellite imagery, wirephoto standards conversion, medical imaging, videophone, character recognition, and photo enhancement.[1] But the cost of processing was fairly high with the computing equipment of that era. In the 1970s, digital image processing proliferated, when cheaper computers and dedicated hardware became available. Images could then be processed in real time, for some dedicated problems such as television standards conversion. As general-purpose computers became faster, they started to take over the role of dedicated hardware for all but the most specialized and compute-intensive operations. The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ... For the singer/songwriter, see Jon Peter Lewis. ... MapÃºa Institute of Technology (MIT, MapÃºaTech or simply MapÃºa) is a private, non-sectarian, Filipino tertiary institute located in Intramuros, Manila. ... Bell Laboratories (also known as Bell Labs and formerly known as AT&T Bell Laboratories and Bell Telephone Laboratories) was the main research and development arm of the United States Bell System. ... The University of Maryland, College Park (also known as UM, UMD, or UMCP) is a public university located in the city of College Park, in Prince Georges County, Maryland, just outside Washington, D.C., in the United States. ... Satellite imagery consists of photographs of Earth or other planets made from artificial satellites. ... Medical physics is a branch of applied physics concerning the application of physics to medicine. ... It has been suggested that Visiophone be merged into this article or section. ... Optical character recognition, usually abbreviated to OCR, involves computer systems designed to translate images of typewritten text (usually captured by a scanner) into machine-editable text--to translate pictures of characters into a standard encoding scheme representing them (ASCII or Unicode). ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... Converting between a different numbers of pixels and different frame rates in video pictures is a complex technical problem. ...

With the fast computers and signal processors available in the 2000s, digital image processing has become the most common form of image processing, and is generally used because it is not only the most versatile method, but also the cheapest. This article is about the first decade of the 21st century. ...

## Digital processing of camera images

Digital cameras generally include dedicated digital image processing chips to convert the raw data from the image sensor into a color-corrected image in a standard image file format. Images from digital cameras often receive further processing to improve their quality, a distinct advantage digital cameras have over film cameras. The digital image processing is typically done by special software programs that can manipulate the images in many ways.

Many digital cameras also enable viewing of histograms of images, as an aid for the photographer to better understand the rendered brightness range of each shot. For the histogram used in digital image processing, see Color histogram. ...

## Uses

Digital Image Processing allows the use of much more complex algorithms for image processing, and hence can offer both more sophisticated performance at simple tasks, and the implementation of methods which would be impossible by analog means.

In particular, digital image processing is the only practical technology for:

Some techniques which are used in digital image processing include: In pattern recognition and in image processing, Feature extraction is a special form of dimensionality reduction. ... Pattern recognition is a field within the area of machine learning. ... The word projection can mean more than one thing. ... It means study the signal or looking at the signal with a varying degree or coarseness (or fineness). ...

Principal components analysis (PCA) is a technique used to reduce multidimensional data sets to lower dimensions for analysis. ... Independent component analysis (ICA) is a computational method for separating a multivariate signal into additive subcomponents supposing the mutual statistical independence of the non-Gaussian source signals. ... The self-organizing map (SOM) is a subtype of artificial neural networks. ... State transitions in a hidden Markov model (example) x â€” hidden states y â€” observable outputs a â€” transition probabilities b â€” output probabilities A hidden Markov model (HMM) is a statistical model in which the system being modeled is assumed to be a Markov process with unknown parameters, and the challenge is to... A neural network is an interconnected group of neurons. ...

Digital image editing is the process of altering digital images, whether they be digital photographs or other types of digitally represented images. ... This article is about the scientific discipline of computer graphics. ... Computer vision is the science and technology of machines that see. ... General-purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU, also referred to as GPGP and to a lesser extent GPÂ²) is a recent trend focused on using GPUs to perform computations rather than the CPU. The addition of programmable stages and higher precision arithmetic to the rendering pipelines allowed software developers... Homomorphic filtering is a generalized technique for image enhancement. ... Imaging refers to the science of obtaining pictures or more complicated spatial representations, such as animations or 3-D computer graphics models, from physical things. ... Satellite imagery consists of photographs of Earth or other planets made from artificial satellites. ... Common definitions related to the Machine Vision field. ...

## References

Sorted alphabetically with respect to first author's family name

• Wilhelm Burger and Mark J. Burge (2007). Digital Image Processing: An Algorithmic Approach Using Java. Springer. ISBN 1846283795.
• Rafael C. Gonzalez, Richard E. Woods (1992). Digital Image Processing. ISBN 0-201-50803-6.
• William K. Pratt (1978). Digital Image Processing. ISBN 0-471-01888-0.
• John C. Russ (2006). The Image Processing Handbook. ISBN 0849372542.
• Jean Serra (1982). Image Analysis and Mathematical Morphology. ISBN 0126372403.
• (1988) Image Analysis and Mathematical Morphology Volume 2: Theoretical Advances. ISBN 0-12-637241-1.
• Bart M. ter Haar Romeny (2003). Front-End Vision and Multi-Scale Image Analysis. ISBN 1-4020-1507-0.
• Bart M. ter Haar Romeny (Ed.) (1994). Geometry-Driven Diffusion in Computer Vision. ISBN 0792330870.
• Ian T. Young, Jan J. Gerbrands, Lucas J. Van Vliet (1995). Fundamentals of Image Processing. ISBN 90-75691-01-7.
1. ^ Azriel Rosenfeld, Picture Processing by Computer, New York: Academic Press, 1969

Springer is the name of several places in the United States: Springer, New Mexico Springer Township, North Dakota Springer, Oklahoma Springer is the name of: Springer Science+Business Media, a worldwide publishing group based in Germany (including Springer-Verlag) Axel Springer Verlag AG, famous conservative German publishing house Springer (EP...

Results from FactBites:

 Recommendations and Guidelines for the Use of Digital Image Processing in the Criminal Justice System, Forensic ... (4183 words) Digital image processing is an accepted practice in forensic science. Image restoration is any process applied to an image that has been degraded by a known cause (e.g., defocus or motion blur) to partially or totally remove the effects of that degradation. Image processing does not mean that the input image is overwritten during the process.
 Olympus Microscopy Resource Center: Digital Image Processing Interactive Java Tutorials (2526 words) Digital images having higher gray-level resolution are composed with a larger number of gray shades and have a greater dynamic range than those of lower gray-level resolution. Image Averaging and Noise Removal - Random noise is a problem that often arises in fluorescence microscopy due to the extremely low light levels experienced with this technique, and its presence can seriously degrade the spatial resolution of a digital image. Median Filters for Digital Images - The median filter is an algorithm that is useful for the removal of impulse noise (also known as binary noise), which is manifested in a digital image by corruption of the captured image with bright and dark pixels that appear randomly throughout the spatial distribution.
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