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Encyclopedia > Digital camera
Look up digital camera in
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A SiPix digital camera next to a matchbox to show scale
A SiPix digital camera next to a matchbox to show scale
Nikon D200 SLR with Nikon film scanner, which converts film images to digital
Nikon D200 SLR with Nikon film scanner, which converts film images to digital
A CompactFlash (CF) card stores digital photographs
A CompactFlash (CF) card stores digital photographs
A Hasselblad 503CW with a digital camera back
A Hasselblad 503CW with a digital camera back

A digital camera is an electronic device used to capture and store photographs digitally, instead of using photographic film like conventional cameras, or recording images in an analog format to magnetic tape like many video cameras. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Download high resolution version (1000x590, 108 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1000x590, 108 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Coolscan-V.jpg‎ Photo © by Jeff Dean File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Coolscan-V.jpg‎ Photo © by Jeff Dean File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Nikon (disambiguation). ... The Nikon D200 is a semi-professional digital SLR camera. ... Cross-section view of SLR system: 1) Lens 2) Mirror 3) Shutter 4) Film or sensor 5) Focusing screen 6) Condensing lens 7) Pentaprism 8) Eyepiece The single-lens reflex (SLR) is a type of camera that uses a movable mirror placed between the lens and the film to project... A film scanner is a specialized device made for scanning photographic film, either in standard 35mm format, slides, or medium format. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A 32 MB High Speed CompactFlash Type I card CompactFlash (CF) was originally developed as a type of data storage device used in portable electronic devices. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2170x1838, 344 KB) Summary Description = Hasselblad 503 CW with Zeiss F-Distagon 3,5/30 and digital back Ixpress V96C (16 MB pixel sensor) Source = Author Date = 2006-03-12 Author = Hannes Grobe Licensing File links The following pages link to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2170x1838, 344 KB) Summary Description = Hasselblad 503 CW with Zeiss F-Distagon 3,5/30 and digital back Ixpress V96C (16 MB pixel sensor) Source = Author Date = 2006-03-12 Author = Hannes Grobe Licensing File links The following pages link to... Hasselblad 503CW with Zeiss Distagon 3,5/30 and Ixpress V96C Hasselblad is a Swedish manufacturer of high-quality still photography cameras based in Gothenburg, Sweden. ... This article is about the engineering discipline. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the photographing device. ... Compact audio cassette Magnetic tape is a non-volatile storage medium consisting of a magnetic coating on a thin plastic strip. ... A video camera can be classified three ways: Professional video cameras, such as those used in television production; these may be studio-based or mobile Camcorders used by consumers and police; these are mobile Closed-circuit television used for surveillance; these are not mounted on vehicles This is a disambiguation...


Modern compact digital cameras are typically multifunctional, with some devices capable of recording sound and/or video as well as photographs. In the Western market, digital cameras now outsell their 35 mm film counterparts.[1] Sound is a disturbance of mechanical energy that propagates through matter as a wave. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Occident redirects here. ... 135 Film Size, Kodak Tri-X 400 speed 135 (ISO 1007) is a film format for still photography. ...

Contents

Classification

Digital cameras can be classified into several categories:


Video cameras

Video cameras are classified as devices whose main purpose is to record moving images.

In addition, many Live-Preview Digital cameras have a "movie" mode, in which images are continuously acquired at a frame rate sufficient for video. Sony camera head with Betacam SP dock recorder. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... Image resolution describes the detail an image holds. ... In computer graphics, the gamut, or color gamut, is a certain complete subset of colors. ... The video cassette recorder (or VCR, less popularly video tape recorder) is a type of video tape recorder that uses removable cassettes containing magnetic tape to record audio and video from a television broadcast so it can be played back later. ... “Microphones” redirects here. ... Sony DV Handycam A camcorder is a portable electronic device for recording video images and audio onto an internal storage device. ... LCD redirects here. ... A typical webcam A web camera (or webcam) is a real-time camera (usually, though not always, a video camera) whose images can be accessed using the World Wide Web, instant messaging, or a PC video calling application. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Groupware | Telecommunications stubs ... A live-preview digital camera (LPD) or more precisely, conventionally-generated live-preview digital camera (CGLPD) is a camera that uses a conventionally generated digital image (live-preview) on an electronic screen as its principle means of framing and previewing before taking the photograph. ...


Live-preview digital cameras

Main article: Live-preview digital camera

The term digital still camera (DSC) most commonly refers to the class of live-preview digital cameras, cameras that use an electronic screen as the principal means of framing and previewing before taking the photograph. All use either a charge-coupled device (CCD) or a CMOS image sensor to sense the light intensities across the focal plane. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 231 KB) Canon Powershot A95 with a loaded CF card File links The following pages link to this file: Digital camera ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 231 KB) Canon Powershot A95 with a loaded CF card File links The following pages link to this file: Digital camera ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A 32 MB High Speed CompactFlash Type I card CompactFlash (CF) was originally developed as a type of data storage device used in portable electronic devices. ... A live-preview digital camera (LPD) or more precisely, conventionally-generated live-preview digital camera (CGLPD) is a camera that uses a conventionally generated digital image (live-preview) on an electronic screen as its principle means of framing and previewing before taking the photograph. ... A specially developed CCD used for ultraviolet imaging in a wire bonded package. ... For other uses, see CMOS (disambiguation). ... A dismantled USB webcam, with and without a lens over its (Bayer format) image sensor. ...


Many modern live-preview cameras have a movie mode, and a growing number of camcorders can take still photographs. However, even a low-end live-preview camera can take better still pictures than a mid-range video camera, and mid-range live-preview cameras have much lower video quality than low-end video cameras; that is, products are not generally optimized for both still and video photography, due to their different requirements. 8mm Camcorder mini-DV Camcorder A camcorder is a portable electronic device (generally a digital camera) for recording images and audio onto a storage device. ...


Among live-preview cameras, most have a rear liquid crystal display for both preview and reviewing photographs. Transfers to a computer are commonly carried out using the USB mass storage device class (so that the camera appears as a drive) or using the Picture Transfer Protocol (PTP) and its derivatives; in addition, Firewire is sometimes supported. LCD redirects here. ... The USB mass storage device class is a set of computing communications protocols defined by the USB Implementers Forum that run on the Universal Serial Bus. ... Picture Transfer Protocol (PTP) is a widely supported protocol developed by the International Imaging Industry Association to allow the transfer of images from digital cameras to computers and other peripheral devices without the need of additional device drivers. ... The 6-pin and 4-pin FireWire Connectors The alternative ethernet-style cabling used by 1394c FireWire is Apple Inc. ...


The live-preview cameras are typically divided into compact (and subcompact) and bridge cameras.

A student taking a picture
A student taking a picture

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2160 × 1440 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2160 × 1440 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1796x1478, 1029 KB) Canon camera a60 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Digital camera Canon PowerShot A60 Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1796x1478, 1029 KB) Canon camera a60 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Digital camera Canon PowerShot A60 Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the... The Canon PowerShot A60 is a 2. ...

Compact digital cameras

Also called digicams, this encompasses most digital cameras. They are characterized by great ease in operation and easy focusing; this design allows for limited motion picture capability. They tend to have significantly smaller zooms than bridge and DSLR cameras. They have an extended depth of field. This allows objects at a larger range of depths to be in focus, which accounts for much of their ease of use. They excel in landscape photography and casual use. They typically save pictures in only the JPEG file format. All but the cheapest models have a built-in flash, although its guide number tends to be very low, perhaps just 6 or 8. For other uses see film (disambiguation) Film refers to the celluliod media on which movies are printed Film — also called movies, the cinema, the silver screen, moving pictures, photoplays, picture shows, flicks, or motion pictures, — is a field that encompasses motion pictures as an art form or as... A Canon Inc. ... In optics, particularly film and photography, the depth of field (DOF) is the distance in front of and beyond the subject that appears to be in focus. ... JPG redirects here. ... Running water frozen by flash. ... Guide number table on a manual flash unit The guide number for an electronic camera flash defines the strength of the flash and hence the ability to illuminate a subject to be photographed. ...


Bridge cameras

Main article: Bridge digital camera

Bridge or SLR-like cameras form a general group of higher-end live-preview cameras that physically resemble DSLRs and share with these some advanced features, but share with compacts the live-preview design and small sensor sizes. the Panasonic DMC-FZ20 Bridge digital cameras are a kind of digital cameras occupied a niche which draws a bridge between digital single-lens reflex cameras and compact digital cameras. ...

Bridge cameras tend to have superzoom lenses, which compromises – in varying degrees, depending on the quality of the zoom lens – a "do it all" ability with barrel distortion and pincushioning. These cameras are sometimes marketed as and confused with digital SLR cameras since the bodies resemble each other. The distinguishing characteristics are that bridge cameras lack the mirror and reflex system of DSLRs, have so far been always produced with only one single sealed (non-interchangeable) lens (but accessory wide angle or telephoto converters can be attached to the front of the sealed lens), can usually take movies, record audio and the scene composition is done with either the liquid crystal display or the electronic viewfinder (EVF). The overall performance tends to be slower than a true digital SLR, but they are capable of very good image quality while being more compact and lighter than DSLRs. The high-end models of this type have comparable resolutions to low and mid-range DSLRs. Many of the these cameras can save in JPEG or RAW format. The majority have a built-in flash, often a unit which flips up over the lens. The guide number tends to be between 11 and 15. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1504x1180, 1181 KB) Fujifilm Finepix S9000 (S9500 in Europe) Author:Mohylek File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Digital camera List of Fujifilm FinePix cameras FinePix S9000 Metadata... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1504x1180, 1181 KB) Fujifilm Finepix S9000 (S9500 in Europe) Author:Mohylek File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Digital camera List of Fujifilm FinePix cameras FinePix S9000 Metadata... Fujifilm FinePix S9000 (in Europe and Asia known as FinePix S9500) is a compact but SLR-like Fujifilm digital camera (sometimes referred to as a bridge digital camera) for advanced amateurs. ... The term hyperzoom or superzoom is used to advertise photographic zoom lenses with unconventionally large focal length factors, typically more than 4× and ranging up to 10×, e. ... EVF are digital cameras with electronic viewfinders. ... JPG redirects here. ... A raw image file (sometimes written RAW image file ) contains minimally processed data from the image sensor of a digital camera or image scanner. ...


Digital single lens reflex cameras

Digital single-lens reflex cameras (DSLRs) are digital cameras based on film single-lens reflex cameras (SLRs), both types are characterized by the existence of a mirror and reflex system. See the main article on DSLRs for a detailed treatment of this category. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Cross-section view of SLR system: 1) Lens 2) Mirror 3) Shutter 4) Film or sensor 5) Focusing screen 6) Condensing lens 7) Pentaprism 8) Eyepiece The single-lens reflex (SLR) is a type of camera that uses a movable mirror placed between the lens and the film to project... This article is in need of attention. ...


Digital rangefinders

Main article: Rangefinder camera

A rangefinder is a focusing mechanism once widely used on film cameras, but much less common in digital cameras. The term rangefinder alone is often used to mean a rangefinder camera, that is, a camera equipped with a rangefinder. A Foca camera of 1947 at the Musée des Arts et Métiers in Paris. ...


For information on digital rangefinders specifically, check the digital rangefinder section in the main article linked above. A Foca camera of 1947 at the Musée des Arts et Métiers in Paris. ...


Professional modular digital camera systems

This category includes very high end professional equipment that can be assembled from modular components (winders, grips, lenses, etc.) to suit particular purposes. Common makes include Hasselblad and Mamiya. They were developed for medium or large format film sizes, as these captured greater detail and could be enlarged more than 35mm.


Typically these cameras are used in studios for commercial production; being bulky and awkward to carry they are rarely used in action or nature photography. They can often be converted into either film or digital use by changing out the back part of the unit, hence the use of terms such as a "digital back" or "film back." These cameras are very expensive (up to $40,000) and are typically not seen in the hands of consumers.


Line-scan camera systems

A line-scan camera is a camera device containing a line-scan image sensor chip, and a focusing mechanism. These cameras are almost solely used in industrial settings to capture an image of a constant stream of moving material. Unlike video cameras, line-scan cameras use a single array of pixel sensors, instead of a matrix of them. Data coming from the line-scan camera has a frequency, where the camera scans a line, waits, and repeats. The data coming from the line-scan camera is commonly processed by a computer, to collect the one-dimensional line data and to create a two-dimensional image. The collected two-dimensional image data is then processed by image-processing methods for industrial purposes. A dismantled USB webcam, with and without a lens over its (Bayer format) image sensor. ... A high-tech CMOS imager, mainly developed for medical imaging. ...


Line-scan technology is capable of capturing data extremely fast, and at very high image resolutions. Usually under these conditions, resulting collected image data can quickly exceed 100MB in a fraction of a second. Line-scan-camera–based integrated systems, therefore are usually designed to streamline the camera's output in order to meet the system's objective, using computer technology which is also affordable.


Line-scan cameras intended for the parcel handling industry can integrate adaptive focusing mechanisms to scan 6 sides of any rectangular parcel in focus, regardless of angle, and size. The resulting 2-D captured images could contain, but are not limited to: 1D and 2D barcodes, address information, and any pattern that can be processed via image processing methods. Since the images are 2-D, they are also human-readable and can be viewable on a computer screen. Advanced integrated systems include video coding and optical character recognition (OCR). Human-readable refers to a representation of information that can be naturally read by humans. ... Video coding is the field in computer science that deals with finding efficient coding formats for digital video. ... Optical character recognition, usually abbreviated to OCR, is a type of computer software designed to translate images of handwritten or typewritten text (usually captured by a scanner) into machine-editable text, or to translate pictures of characters into a standard encoding scheme representing them (e. ...


Conversion of film cameras to digital

When digital cameras became common, a question many photographers asked was if their film cameras could be converted to digital. The answer was yes and no. For the majority of 35 mm film cameras the answer is no, the reworking and cost would be too great, especially as lenses have been evolving as well as cameras. For the most part a conversion to digital, to give enough space for the electronics and allow a liquid crystal display to preview, would require removing the back of the camera and replacing it with a custom built digital unit. Photographic film a sheet of plastic (polyester, celluloid (nitrocellulose) or cellulose acetate) coated with an emulsion containing light-sensitive silver halide salts (bonded by gelatin) with variable crystal sizes that determine the sensitivity or resolution of the film. ...


Many early professional SLR cameras, such as the NC2000 and the Kodak DCS series, were developed from 35 mm film cameras. The technology of the time, however, meant that rather than being a digital "back" the body was mounted on a large and blocky digital unit, often bigger than the camera portion itself. These were factory built cameras, however, not aftermarket conversions.


A notable exception was a device called the EFS-1, which was developed by Silicon Film from ca. 1998–2001. It was intended to insert into a film camera in the place of film, giving the camera a 1.3 MP resolution and a capacity of 24 shots. Units were demonstrated, and in 2002 the company was developing the EFS-10, a 10 MP device that was more a true digital back.


A few 35 mm cameras have had digital backs made by their manufacturer, Leica being a notable example. Medium format and large format cameras (those using film stock greater than 35 mm), have users who are capable of and willing to pay the price a low unit production digital back requires, typically over $10,000. These cameras also tend to be highly modular, with handgrips, film backs, winders, and lenses available separately to fit various needs. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Old studio camera. ...


The very large sensor these backs use leads to enormous image sizes. The largest in early 2006 is the Phase One's P45 39 MP imageback, creating a single TIFF image of size up to 224.6 MB. Medium format digitals are geared more towards studio and portrait photography than their smaller DSLR counterparts, the ISO speed in particular tends to have a maximum of 400, versus 6400 for some DSLR cameras. Film speed is the measure of a photographic films sensitivity to light. ...


History

Early development

Steven Sasson, an Eastman Kodak engineer, with his prototype digital camera

The concept of digitizing images on scanners, and the concept of digitizing video signals, predate the concept of making still pictures by digitizing signals from an array of discrete sensor elements. Eugene F. Lally of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory published the first description of how to produce still photos in a digital domain using a mosaic photosensor.[2] The purpose was to provide onboard navigation information to astronauts during missions to planets. The mosaic array periodically recorded still photos of star and planet locations during transit and when approaching a planet provided additional stadiametric information for orbiting and landing guidance. The concept included camera design elements foreshadowing the first digital camera. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Steven J. Sasson (1950—) is an electrical engineer and the inventor of the digital camera. ... Eastman Kodak Company (NYSE: EK) is a large multinational public company producing photographic equipment. ... For the singer/songwriter, see Jon Peter Lewis. ... U.S. Space Shuttle astronaut Bruce McCandless II using a manned maneuvering unit. ...


Texas Instruments designed a filmless analog camera in 1972, but it is not known if it was ever built. The first recorded attempt at building a digital camera was by Steven Sasson, an engineer at Eastman Kodak.[3] It used the then-new solid-state CCD image sensor chips developed by Fairchild Semiconductor in 1973.[4] The camera weighed 8 pounds (3.6 kg), recorded black and white images to a cassette tape, had a resolution of 0.01 megapixel (10,000 pixels), and took 23 seconds to capture its first image in December of 1975. The prototype camera was a technical exercise, not intended for production. Steven J. Sasson (1950—) is an electrical engineer and the inventor of the digital camera. ... A dismantled USB webcam, with and without a lens over its (Bayer format) image sensor. ... Fairchild Semiconductor introduced the first commercially available integrated circuit (although at almost the same time as one from Texas Instruments), and would go on to become one of the major players in the evolution of Silicon Valley in the 1960s. ...


Analog electronic cameras

Handheld electronic cameras, in the sense of a device meant to be carried and used like a handheld film camera, appeared in 1981 with the demonstration of the Sony Mavica (Magnetic Video Camera). This is not to be confused with the later cameras by Sony that also bore the Mavica name. This was an analog camera based on television technology that recorded to a 2 × 2 inch "video floppy". In essence it was a video movie camera that recorded single frames, 50 per disk in field mode and 25 per disk in frame mode. The image quality was considered equal to that of then-current televisions. Mavica FD5, the first digital model. ... A floppy disk is a data storage device that is composed of a disk of thin, flexible (floppy) magnetic storage medium encased in a square or rectangular plastic shell. ...


Analog cameras do not appear to have reached the market until 1986 with the Canon RC-701. Canon demonstrated this model at the 1984 Olympics, printing the images in newspapers. Several factors held back the widespread adoption of analog cameras; the cost (upwards of $20,000), poor image quality compared to film, and the lack of quality affordable printers. Capturing and printing an image originally required access to equipment such as a frame grabber, which was beyond the reach of the average consumer. The "video floppy" disks later had several reader devices available for viewing on a screen, but were never standardized as a computer drive. There were two Olympic Games in the year 1984: 1984 Summer Olympics 1984 Winter Olympics This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... USD redirects here. ...


The early adopters tended to be in the news media, where the cost was negated by the utility and the ability to transmit images by telephone lines. The poor image quality was offset by the low resolution of newspaper graphics. This capability to transmit images without a satellite link was useful during the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 and the first Gulf War in 1991. The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, commonly referred to as the Tiananmen Square Massacre,[1] were a series of demonstrations led by students, intellectuals, and labor activists in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) between April 15 and June 4, 1989. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ...


The first analog camera marketed to consumers may have been the Canon RC-250 Xapshot in 1988. A notable analog camera produced the same year was the Nikon QV-1000C, designed as a press camera and not offered for sale to general users, which sold only a few hundred units. It recorded images in greyscale, and the quality in newspaper print was equal to film cameras. In appearance it closely resembled a modern digital single-lens reflex camera. Images were stored on video floppy disks. In computing, a grayscale or greyscale digital image is an image in which the value of each pixel is a single sample. ... Cross-section view of SLR system: 1) Lens 2) Mirror 3) Shutter 4) Film or sensor 5) Focusing screen 6) Condensing lens 7) Pentaprism 8) Eyepiece The single-lens reflex (SLR) is a type of camera that uses a movable mirror placed between the lens and the film to project...


The arrival of true digital cameras

The first true digital camera that recorded images as a computerized file was likely the Fuji DS-1P of 1988, which recorded to a 16 MB internal memory card that used a battery to keep the data in memory. This camera was never marketed in the United States, and has not been confirmed to have shipped even in Japan. Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ...


The first commercially available digital camera was the 1990 Dycam Model 1; it also sold as the Logitech Fotoman. It used a CCD image sensor, stored pictures digitally, and connected directly to a PC for download.[5][6][7] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A dismantled USB webcam, with and without a lens over its (Bayer format) image sensor. ...


In 1991, Kodak brought to market the Kodak DCS-100, the beginning of a long line of professional SLR cameras by Kodak that were based in part on film bodies, often Nikons. It used a 1.3 megapixel sensor and was priced at $13,000. The Kodak DCS-100 was the first DSLR camera. ...


The move to digital formats was helped by the formation of the first JPEG and MPEG standards in 1988, which allowed image and video files to be compressed for storage. The first consumer camera with a liquid crystal display on the back was the Casio QV-10 in 1995, and the first camera to use CompactFlash was the Kodak DC-25 in 1996. JPG redirects here. ... The Moving Picture Experts Group or MPEG is a working group of ISO/IEC charged with the development of video and audio encoding standards. ... Casio Computer Co. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... A 32 MB High Speed CompactFlash Type I card CompactFlash (CF) was originally developed as a type of data storage device used in portable electronic devices. ...


The marketplace for consumer digital cameras was originally low resolution (either analog or digital) cameras built for utility. In 1997 the first megapixel cameras for consumers were marketed. The first camera that offered the ability to record video clips may have been the Ricoh RDC-1 in 1995. For the band, see 1997 (band). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


1999 saw the introduction of the Nikon D1, a 2.74 megapixel camera that was the first digital SLR developed entirely by a major manufacturer, and at a cost of under $6,000 at introduction was affordable by professional photographers and high end consumers. This camera also used Nikon F-mount lenses, which meant film photographers could use many of the same lenses they already owned. This article is about the year. ... The Nikon D1 was an advanced digital SLR camera introduced in 1999. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Also in 1999, Minolta introduced the RD-3000 D-SLR at 2.7 megapixels. This camera found many professional adherents. Limitations to the system included the need to use Vectis lenses which were designed for APS size film. The camera was sold with 5 lenses at various focal lengths and ranges (zoom). Minolta did not produce another D-SLR until September 2004 when they introduced the Alpha 7D (Alpha in Japan, Maxxum in North America, Dynax in the rest of the world) but using the Minolta A-mount system from its 35mm line of cameras.


2003 saw the introduction of the Canon 300D, also known as the Digital Rebel, a 6 megapixel camera and the first DSLR priced under $1,000, and marketed to consumers. Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Canon EOS_300D, marketed in The Americas as the EOS Digital Rebel and in Japan as the EOS Kiss Digital, is a 6. ... The Canon EOS-300D, marketed in The Americas as the EOS Digital Rebel and in Japan as the EOS Kiss Digital, is a 6. ...


Image resolution

The resolution of a digital camera is often limited by the camera sensor (usually a charge-coupled device or CCD chip) that turns light into discrete signals, replacing the job of film in traditional photography. The sensor is made up of millions of "buckets" that collect charge in response to light. Generally, these buckets respond to only a narrow range of light wavelengths, due to a color filter over each. Each one of these buckets is called a pixel, and a demosaicing/interpolation algorithm is needed to turn the image with only one wavelength range per pixel into an RGB image where each pixel is three numbers to represent a complete color. Image resolution describes the detail an image holds. ... Not to be confused with censure, censer, or censor. ... A specially developed CCD used for ultraviolet imaging in a wire bonded package. ... Coloured and Neutral Density filters An optical filter is a device which selectively transmits light having certain properties (often, a particular range of wavelengths, that is, range of colours of light), while blocking the remainder. ... This example shows an image with a portion greatly enlarged, in which the individual pixels are rendered as little squares and can easily be seen. ... A demosaicing algorithm is a digital image process used to interpolate a complete image from the partial raw data received from the color-filtered image sensor internal to many digital cameras in form of a matrix of colored pixels. ... REDIRECT RGB color model ...


The one attribute most commonly compared on cameras is the pixel count. Due to the ever increasing sizes of sensors, the pixel count is into the millions, and using the SI prefix of mega- (which means 1 million) the pixel counts are given in megapixels. For example, an 8.0 megapixel camera has 8.0 million pixels. An SI prefix (also known as a metric prefix) is a name or associated symbol that precedes a unit of measure (or its symbol) to form a decimal multiple or submultiple. ...


The pixel count alone is commonly presumed to indicate the resolution of a camera, but this is a misconception. There are several other factors that impact a sensor's resolution. Some of these factors include sensor size, lens quality, and the organization of the pixels (for example, a monochrome camera without a Bayer filter mosaic has a higher resolution than a typical color camera). Many digital compact cameras are criticized for having too many pixels, in that the sensors can be so small that the resolution of the sensor is greater than the lens could possibly deliver. The Bayer arrangement of color filters on the pixel array of an image sensor Front page of Dr. Bryce Bayers 1976 patent on the Bayer pattern filter mosaic, showing his terminology of luminance-sensitive and chrominance-sensitive elements A Bayer filter mosaic is a color filter array (CFA) for...


Excessive pixels can even lead to a decrease in image quality. As each pixel sensor gets smaller it is catching fewer photons, and so the signal-to-noise ratio will decrease. This decrease leads to noisy pictures, poor shadow region quality and generally poorer-quality pictures.

Australian recommended retail price of Kodak digital cameras
Australian recommended retail price of Kodak digital cameras

As the technology has improved, costs have decreased dramatically. Measuring the "pixels per dollar" as a basic measure of value for a digital camera, there has been a continuous and steady increase in the number of pixels each dollar buys in a new camera consistent with the principles of Moore's Law. This predictability of camera prices was first presented in 1998 at the Australian PMA DIMA conference by Barry Hendy and since referred to as "Hendy's Law".[8] Image File history File linksMetadata Hendys_Law. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Hendys_Law. ... Gordon Moores original graph from 1965 Growth of transistor counts for Intel processors (dots) and Moores Law (upper line=18 months; lower line=24 months) For the observation regarding information retrieval, see Mooers Law. ...

Methods of image capture

This digital camera is partly disassembled. The lens assembly (bottom right) is removed, but the sensor (top right) still captures a usable image, as seen on the LCD screen (bottom left).
This digital camera is partly disassembled. The lens assembly (bottom right) is removed, but the sensor (top right) still captures a usable image, as seen on the LCD screen (bottom left).

Since the first digital backs were introduced, there have been three main methods of capturing the image, each based on the hardware configuration of the sensor and color filters. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 582 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1999 × 2060 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 582 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1999 × 2060 pixel, file size: 1. ...


The first method is often called single-shot, in reference to the number of times the camera's sensor is exposed to the light passing through the camera lens. Single-shot capture systems use either one CCD with a Bayer filter mosaic it, or three separate image sensors (one each for the primary additive colors red, green, and blue) which are exposed to the same image via a beam splitter. The Bayer arrangement of color filters on the pixel array of an image sensor Front page of Dr. Bryce Bayers 1976 patent on the Bayer pattern filter mosaic, showing his terminology of luminance-sensitive and chrominance-sensitive elements A Bayer filter mosaic is a color filter array (CFA) for... A dismantled USB webcam, with and without a lens over its (Bayer format) image sensor. ... A primary color or colour is a color that cannot be created by mixing other colors in the gamut of a given color space. ...


The second method is referred to as multi-shot because the sensor is exposed to the image in a sequence of three or more openings of the lens aperture. There are several methods of application of the multi-shot technique. The most common originally was to use a single image sensor with three filters (once again red, green and blue) passed in front of the sensor in sequence to obtain the additive color information. Another multiple shot method utilized a single CCD with a Bayer filter but actually moved the physical location of the sensor chip on the focus plane of the lens to "stitch" together a higher resolution image than the CCD would allow otherwise. A third version combined the two methods without a Bayer filter on the chip. A dismantled USB webcam, with and without a lens over its (Bayer format) image sensor. ...


The third method is called scanning because the sensor moves across the focal plane much like the sensor of a desktop scanner. Their linear or tri-linear sensors utilize only a single line of photosensors, or three lines for the three colors. In some cases, scanning is accomplished by rotating the whole camera; a digital rotating line camera offers images of very high total resolution. A rotating line camera, is a digital camera which uses a linear CCD array (called the line) to assemble a digital image during a rotation of the camera, line by line. ...


The choice of method for a given capture is of course determined largely by the subject matter. It is usually inappropriate to attempt to capture a subject that moves with anything but a single-shot system. However, the higher color fidelity and larger file sizes and resolutions available with multi-shot and scanning backs make them attractive for commercial photographers working with stationary subjects and large-format photographs.


Recently, dramatic improvements in single-shot cameras and RAW image file processing have made single shot, CCD-based cameras almost completely predominant in commercial photography, not to mention digital photography as a whole. CMOS-based single shot cameras are also somewhat common.


Filter mosaics, interpolation, and aliasing

The Bayer arrangement of color filters on the pixel array of an image sensor
The Bayer arrangement of color filters on the pixel array of an image sensor

In most current consumer digital cameras, a Bayer filter mosaic is used, in combination with an optical anti-aliasing filter to reduce the aliasing due to the reduced sampling of the different primary-color images. A demosaicing algorithm is used to interpolate color information to create a full array of RGB image data. Image File history File links Bayer_pattern_on_sensor. ... Image File history File links Bayer_pattern_on_sensor. ... The Bayer arrangement of color filters on the pixel array of an image sensor Front page of Dr. Bryce Bayers 1976 patent on the Bayer pattern filter mosaic, showing his terminology of luminance-sensitive and chrominance-sensitive elements A Bayer filter mosaic is a color filter array (CFA) for... An anti-aliasing filter is commonly used in conjuction with digital signal processing and is a filter to restrict the bandwidth to approximately satisfy the Shannon-Nyquist sampling theorem. ... A demosaicing algorithm is a digital image process used to interpolate a complete image from the partial raw data received from the color-filtered image sensor internal to many digital cameras in form of a matrix of colored pixels. ... In the mathematical subfield of numerical analysis, interpolation is a method of constructing new data points from a discrete set of known data points. ...


Cameras that use a beam-splitter single-shot 3CCD approach, three-filter multi-shot approach, or Foveon X3 sensor do not use anti-aliasing filters, nor demosaicing. 3CCD is a term used to describe an imaging system used used by some video camcorders. ... The Foveon X3 sensor is an image sensor for digital cameras produced by Foveon, Inc. ... An anti-aliasing filter is commonly used in conjuction with digital signal processing and is a filter to restrict the bandwidth to approximately satisfy the Shannon-Nyquist sampling theorem. ...


Firmware in the camera, or a software in a raw converter program such as Adobe Camera Raw, interprets the raw data from the sensor to obtain a full color image, because the RGB color model requires three intensity values for each pixel: one each for the red, green, and blue (other color models, when used, also require three or more values per pixel). A single sensor element cannot simultaneously record these three intensities, and so a color filter array (CFA) must be used to selectively filter a particular color for each pixel. Adobe DNG Converter is published by Adobe Systems on September 27, 2004. ... A representation of additive color mixing—In CRT based (analog electronics) television three color electron guns are used to stimulate such an arrangement of phosphorescent coatings of the glass, the resultant reemission of photons providing the image seen by the eye. ... A demosaicing algorithm is a digital image process used to interpolate a complete image from the partial raw data received from the color-filtered image sensor internal to many digital cameras in form of a matrix of colored pixels. ...


The Bayer filter pattern is a repeating 2×2 mosaic pattern of light filters, with green ones at opposite corners and red and blue in the other two positions. The high proportion of green takes advantage of properties of the human visual system, which determines brightness mostly from green and is far more sensitive to brightness than to hue or saturation. Sometimes a 4-color filter pattern is used, often involving two different hues of green. This provides potentially more accurate color, but requires a slightly more complicated interpolation process.


The color intensity values not captured for each pixel can be interpolated (or guessed) from the values of adjacent pixels which represent the color being calculated.


Connectivity

Many digital cameras can connect directly to a computer to transfer data:

A common alternative is the use of a card reader which may be capable of reading several types of storage media, as well as high speed transfer of data to the computer. Use of a card reader also avoids draining the camera battery during the download process, as the device takes power from the USB port. An external card reader allows convenient direct access to the images on a collection of storage media. But if only one storage card is in use, moving it back and forth between the camera and the reader can be inconvenient. A personal computer (PC) is a computer whose price, size, and capabilities make it useful for individuals. ... A male DE-9 connector used for a serial port on a PC style computer. ... Note: USB may also mean upper sideband in radio. ... The USB mass storage device class is a set of computing communications protocols defined by the USB Implementers Forum that run on the Universal Serial Bus. ... The 6-pin and 4-pin FireWire Connectors The alternative ethernet-style cabling used by 1394c FireWire is Apple Inc. ... Picture Transfer Protocol (PTP) is a widely-supported protocol developed by the International Imaging Industry Association to allow the transfer of images from digital cameras to computers and other peripheral devices without the need of additional device drivers. ... The USB mass storage device class is a set of computing communications protocols defined by the USB Implementers Forum that run on the Universal Serial Bus. ... Bluetooth logo This article is about the electronic protocol named after Harald Bluetooth Gormson. ... IEEE 802. ... Eastman Kodak Company (NYSE: EK) is a large multinational public company producing photographic equipment. ... A card reader is a device used for communication with a smart card or a flash memory card. ... USB redirects here. ...


Many modern cameras offer the PictBridge standard, which allows sending data directly to printers without the need of a computer. PictBridge is an industry standard from the Camera & Imaging Products Association (CIPA) for direct printing. ...


Integration

Many devices include digital cameras built into or integrated into them. For example, mobile phones often include digital cameras; those that do are sometimes known as camera phones. Other small electronic devices (especially those used for communication) such as PDAs, laptops and BlackBerry devices often contain an integral digital camera. Additionally, some digital camcorders contain a digital camera built into them. Instantly sharing media A Sony Ericsson K750 camera phone in use Philippe Kahn Working on and early camera-phone A camera phone is a mobile phone which has a camera built-in and is coupled with a server-based infrastructure that allows the user to share pictures and video with... Look up Personal digital assistant in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the wireless e-mail device. ... 8mm Camcorder mini-DV Camcorder A camcorder is a portable electronic device (generally a digital camera) for recording images and audio onto a storage device. ...


Due to the limited storage capacity and general emphasis on convenience rather than image quality in such integrated or converged devices, the vast majority of these devices store images in the lossy but compact JPEG file format. JPG redirects here. ...


Storage

Digital cameras need memory to store data. A wide variety of storage media has been used. These include: This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Onboard flash memory 
Cheap cameras and cameras secondary to the device's main use (such as a camera phone).
3.5" floppy disks 
Mainly the Sony Mavica line of the late 1990s.
Video Floppy
A 2x2 inch (50 mm × 50 mm) floppy disk used for early analog cameras.
PC Card hard drives 
Early professional cameras, discontinued.
CD single or DVD 
a 185 MB small form factor CD, most commonly seen in the Sony CD-1000.
Thermal printer 
Known only in one model of camera that printed images immediately rather than storing.

A USB flash drive. ... A floppy disk is a data storage device that is composed of a circular piece of thin, flexible (i. ... Mavica FD5, the first digital model. ... The PCMCIA is the Personal Computer Memory Card International Association, an industry trade association that creates standards for notebook computer peripheral devices. ... A CD single is a music single in the form of a compact disc. ... ReBoot character, see Megabyte (ReBoot). ... A thermal printer (or direct thermal printer) produces a printed image by selectively heating coated thermochromic paper, or thermal paper as it is commonly known, when the paper passes over the thermal print head. ...

Memory cards

CompactFlash cards/Microdrives 
Typically higher end professional cameras. The microdrives are actual hard drives in the CompactFlash form factor. Adapters exist to allow using SD cards in a CompactFlash device. CompactFlash cards are much larger than most cards, but have an extremely quick data transfer time.
Memory Stick 
A proprietary flash memory type manufactured by Sony.
SD/MMC 
A flash memory card in a small form factor that is gradually supplanting CompactFlash. The original storage limit was 2 GB, which is being supplanted by 4 GB cards. 4 GB cards are not recognized in all cameras as a revision was made to the SD standard as SDHC (SD High Capacity). The cards also have to be formatted in the FAT32 file format while many older cameras use FAT16 which has a 2 GB partition limit.
MiniSD Card 
A smaller (slightly less than half-size) card used in devices such as camera phones.
MicroSD Card 
A smaller yet (less than a quarter size) version of the SD card. Used in camera phones.
xD-Picture Card 
Developed by Fuji and Olympus in 2002, a format smaller than an SD card.
SmartMedia 
A now obsolete format that competed with CompactFlash, and was limited to 128 MB in capacity. One of the major differences was that SmartMedia had the memory controller built in the reading device, while in CompactFlash it was in the card. The xD picture card was developed as a replacement for SmartMedia.
FP Memory
A 2-4 MB serial flash memory, known from the Mustek/Relisys Dimera low end cameras.

A 32 MB High Speed CompactFlash Type I card CompactFlash (CF) was originally developed as a type of data storage device used in portable electronic devices. ... IBM 1 GB Microdrive The Microdrive is a brand name for a miniature, 1-inch hard disk designed to fit in a Compact Flash (CF) Type II slot. ... A 2GB Sony High Speed Memory Stick PRO Duo with MagicGate support. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... A SanDisk Multi Card Reader, with a 2 GB SD Card inserted. ... A 32 MB MultiMediaCard MultiMediaCard A 128 MB RS-MMC card and an adapter An RS-MMC card with adapter attached The MultiMediaCard (MMC) is a flash memory memory card standard. ... This article is about the unit of measurement. ... File Allocation Table (FAT) is a partially patented file system developed by Microsoft for MS-DOS and was the primary file system for consumer versions of Microsoft Windows up to and including Windows Me. ... The miniSD Card is a removable and portable memory device intended for use in cell phones/mobile phones, digital cameras, MP3 players and many other gadgets. ... microSD is an ultra-compact (currently the worlds smallest) flash RAM memory card format. ... The xD-Picture Card is a type of flash memory card, used mainly in digital cameras. ... A 128MB SmartMedia flash memory card. ...

Batteries

Digital cameras have high power requirements, and over time have become increasingly smaller in size, which has resulted in an ongoing need to develop a battery small enough to fit in the camera and yet able to power it for a reasonable length of time. For delivered electrical power, see Electrical power industry. ... Symbols representing a single Cell (top) and Battery (bottom), used in circuit diagrams. ...


Essentially two broad divisions exist in the types of batteries digital cameras use.


Off-the-shelf

The first is batteries that are an established off-the-shelf form factor, most commonly AA, CR2, or CR-V3 batteries, with AAA batteries in a handful of cameras. The CR2 and CR-V3 batteries are lithium based, and intended for single use. They are also commonly seen in camcorders. The AA batteries are far more common; however, the non-rechargeable alkaline batteries are capable of providing enough power for only a very short time in most cameras. Most consumers use AA Nickel metal hydride batteries (NiMH) (see also chargers and batteries) instead, which provide an adequate amount of power and are rechargeable. NIMH batteries do not provide as much power as lithium ion batteries, and they also tend to discharge when not used. They are available in various ampere-hour (Ah) or milli-ampere-hour (mAh) ratings, which affects how long they last in use. Typically mid-range consumer models and some low end cameras use off-the-shelf batteries; only a very few DSLR cameras accept them (for example, Sigma SD10). Rechargeable RCR-V3 lithium-ion batteries are also available as an alternative to non-rechargeable CR-V3 batteries. ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... CR-V3 (or CRV3) is code used to indicate a type of Lithium battery used in various electronic appliances. ... An AAA battery is 44. ... CR2032 lithium battery Lithium batteries are primary batteries that have lithium metal anodes. ... The common (Arrhenius) definition of a base is a chemical compound that either donates hydroxide ions or absorbs hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. ... A nickel metal hydride battery, abbreviated NiMH, is a type of rechargeable battery similar to a nickel-cadmium (NiCd) battery but has a hydrogen-absorbing alloy for the anode instead of cadmium. ... Lithium ion batteries (sometimes abbreviated Li-Ion or Li-On) are a type of rechargeable battery commonly used in consumer electronics. ... An ampere-hour (abbreviated as Ah or A-h) is a unit of electric charge. ... Milli (symbol m) is an SI prefix in the SI system of units denoting a factor of 10-3, or 1/1,000. ... An example of a modern digital SLR (the Pentax K10D), without a lens installed. ... The Sigma SD10 is a digital SLR camera produced by the Sigma Corporation of Japan. ... RCR-V3 (or RCRV3) is a type of rechargeable Lithium-ion battery used in various electronic appliances. ...


Proprietary

The second division is proprietary battery formats. These are built to a manufacturer's custom specifications, and can be either aftermarket replacement parts or OEM. Almost all proprietary batteries are lithium ion. While they only accept a certain number of recharges before the battery life begins degrading (typically up to 500 cycles), they provide considerable performance for their size. A result is that at the two ends of the spectrum both high end professional cameras and low end consumer models tend to use lithium ion batteries. Original equipment manufacturer, or OEM, is a term that refers to containment-based re-branding, namely where one company uses a component of another company within its product, or sells the product of another company under its own brand. ... Lithium ion batteries (sometimes abbreviated Li-Ion or Li-On) are a type of rechargeable battery commonly used in consumer electronics. ...


Autonomous devices

An autonomous device, such as a PictBridge printer, operates without need of a computer. The camera connects to the printer, which then downloads and prints its images. Some DVD recorders and television sets can read memory cards too. Several types of flash card readers also have a TV output capability. PictBridge is an industry standard from the Camera & Imaging Products Association (CIPA) for direct printing. ... A computer printer, or more commonly a printer, produces a hard copy (permanent human-readable text and/or graphics) of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper transparencies. ...


Formats

Main article: Image file formats

Common formats for digital camera images are the Joint Photography Experts Group standard (JPEG) and Tagged Image File Format (TIFF). Image file formats provide a standardized method of organizing and storing image data. ... JPG redirects here. ... This article is about TIFF, the computer image format. ...


Many cameras, especially professional or DSLR cameras, support a Raw format. A raw image is the unprocessed set of pixel data directly from the camera's sensor. They are often saved in formats proprietary to each manufacturer, such as NEF for Nikon, CR2 for Canon, and MRW for Minolta. Adobe Systems has released the DNG format, a royalty free raw image format which has been adopted by a few camera manufacturers.
A raw image file (sometimes written RAW image file ) contains minimally processed data from the image sensor of a digital camera or image scanner. ... Adobe announced the Specification in 2004. ...


Raw files initially had to be processed in specialized image editing programs, but over time many mainstream editing programs have added support for them, such as Google's Picasa. Editing raw format images allows much more flexibility in settings such as white balance, exposure compensation, color temperature, and so on. In essence raw format allows the photographer make major adjustments without losing image quality that would otherwise require retaking the picture.


Formats for movies are AVI, DV, MPEG, MOV (often containing motion JPEG), WMV, and ASF (basically the same as WMV). Recent formats include MP4, which is based on the QuickTime format and uses newer compression algorithms to allow longer recording times in the same space. AVI, an acronym for Audio Video Interleave, is a multimedia container format introduced by Microsoft in November 1992, as part of the Video for Windows technology. ... A MiniDV Camcorder For other uses, see DV (disambiguation). ... The Moving Picture Experts Group or MPEG is a working group of ISO/IEC charged with the development of video and audio encoding standards. ... QuickTime is a multimedia framework developed by Apple Inc. ... Windows Media Video (WMV) is a generic name for the set of streaming video technologies developed by Microsoft. ... MP4 can refer to: MPEG-4 Part 14 file format Møller-Plesset perturbation theory of the fourth order This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Other formats that are used in cameras but not for pictures are the Design Rule for Camera Format (DCF), an ISO specification for the camera's internal file structure and naming, Digital Print Order Format (DPOF), which dictates what order images are to be printed in and how many copies, and the Exchangeable Image File Format (Exif), which uses metadata tags to document the camera settings and date and time for image files. Design rule for Camera File system (DCF) is an ISO specification which defines the file system for digital cameras, including the directory structure, file naming method, character set and file format. ... Logo of the International Organization for Standardization The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from national standards bodies. ... DPOF (Digital Print Order format) is a format which allows the user of a digicam to define which captured images on the storage card are to be printed, together with information on the number of copies or other image information. ... Exchangeable image file format (Exif) is a specification for the image file format used by digital cameras. ...


See also

A backup camera is a special type of video camera that is produced specifically for the purpose of being attached to the rear of a vehicle to aid in backing up. ... Bluetooth logo This article is about the electronic protocol named after Harald Bluetooth Gormson. ... Instantly sharing media A Sony Ericsson K750 camera phone in use Philippe Kahn Working on and early camera-phone A camera phone is a mobile phone which has a camera built-in and is coupled with a server-based infrastructure that allows the user to share pictures and video with... A digital photo frame is a picture frame that displays digital photos without the need to print them. ... A computer printer, or more commonly a printer, produces a hard copy (permanent human-readable text and/or graphics) of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper transparencies. ... Digital camera memeory media, or just memory media when used in reference to Digital media recording devices, generally refers to any number recording formats, standards, and systems. ... Digital image editing is the process of altering digital images, whether they be digital photographs or other types of digitally represented images. ... 10 MP Nikon D200 and a Nikon film scanner The Canon EOS 350D The Canon PowerShot A95 Digital photography, as opposed to film photography, uses electronic devices to record and capture the image as binary data. ... Four Thirds Logo The Four Thirds System is a standard created by Olympus and Kodak for digital SLR camera design and development. ... A live-preview digital camera (LPD) or more precisely, conventionally-generated live-preview digital camera (CGLPD) is a camera that uses a conventionally generated digital image (live-preview) on an electronic screen as its principle means of framing and previewing before taking the photograph. ... the Panasonic DMC-FZ20 Bridge digital cameras are a kind of digital cameras occupied a niche which draws a bridge between digital single-lens reflex cameras and compact digital cameras. ... List of digital camera brands past and present, updated to 2005, but may miss some. ... Mobile Imaging and Printing Consortium is a non-profit industry association formed to promote the usage of mobile devices with digital cameras, particularly camera phones, and the printing of photographs taken with them. ... Portable storage devices (PSDs) are small hard drives designed to copy digital photographs from your camera. ... PictBridge is an industry standard from the Camera & Imaging Products Association (CIPA) for direct printing. ... Picture Transfer Protocol (PTP) is a widely supported protocol developed by the International Imaging Industry Association to allow the transfer of images from digital cameras to computers and other peripheral devices without the need of additional device drivers. ... The USB mass storage device class is a set of computing communications protocols defined by the USB Implementers Forum that run on the Universal Serial Bus. ... A still video camera is a type of electronic camera that takes still images and stores them as single frames of video. ... Pink Anemonefish hiding in tentacles Underwater photography is the process of taking photographs while underwater. ... Andor Technology PLC is a developer and manufacturer of high performance light measuring solutions (scientific digital cameras). ... A typical webcam A web camera (or webcam) is a real-time camera (usually, though not always, a video camera) whose images can be accessed using the World Wide Web, instant messaging, or a PC video calling application. ...

References

  1. ^ Nikon Says It's Leaving Film-Camera Business. Washington Post (2006-01-12). Retrieved on 2007-02-23.
  2. ^ Eugene F. Lally, "Mosaic Guidance for Interplanetary Travel," Space Flight Report to the Nation, pp. 2249–61, American Rocket Society, New York, October 9–15, 1961.
  3. ^ Digital Photography Milestones from Kodak. Women in Photography International. Retrieved on 2007-09-17.
  4. ^ Michael R. Peres (2007). The Focal Encyclopedia of Photography, 4th ed., Focal Press. ISBN 0240807405. 
  5. ^ 1990. DigiCam History Dot Com. Retrieved on 2007-09-17.
  6. ^ Dycam Model 1: The world's first consumer digital still camera. DigiBarn computer museum.
  7. ^ Carolyn Said, "DYCAM Model 1: The first portable Digital Still Camera", MacWeek, vol. 4, No. 35, Oct. 16, 1990, p. 34.
  8. ^ Bogdan Solca (8 January 2007). More on digital cameras. Softpedia.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The American Rocket Society began life on April 4, 1930, under the name American Interplanetary Society. ... This article is about the state. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • USB Digital Camera HOWTO for Linux
  • Comprehensive digital camera guide: how do you choose your digital camera?
  • Architecture of a still-motion-/picture digital camera
  • Pages with Reviews
    • Digital Photography Review, digital camera news and detailed reviews, has a frontend to query the database for specific features which can really come in handy
    • Digital Camera Resource index of reviews of recent and old digital cameras
    • DigitalCameraInfo.com digital camera reviews with scientific testing

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