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Encyclopedia > Digital audio workstation

A digital audio workstation (DAW) is a system designed to record, edit and play back digital audio. A key feature of DAWs is the ability to freely manipulate recorded sounds, much like a word processor manipulates typed words. Methods and media for sound recording are varied and have undergone significant changes between the first time sound was actually recorded for later playback until now. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Stub | Film techniques ... A word processor (also more formally known as a document preparation system) is a computer application used for the production (including composition, editing, formatting, and possibly printing) of any sort of viewable or printed material. ...


The term "DAW" simply refers to a general combination of audio multitrack software and high-quality audio hardware — the latter being a specialized audio converter unit which performs some variety of both analog to digital (ADC) and digital to analog (DAC) converters. For example a digital 8-track system could have eight discrete inputs, and a certain number of outputs — perhaps only stereo output for playback and monitoring. Multitrack recording is a method of sound recording that allows for the recording and re-recording of multiple sound sources, independent of time. ... In signal processing, an audio converter or digital audio converter is a type of electronic hardware technology which converts an analog audio signal to a digital audio format, either on the input (Analog-to-digital converter or ADC), or the output (Digital-to-analog converter, or DAC). ... 4-channel stereo multiplexed analog-to-digital converter WM8775SEDS made by Wolfson Microelectronics placed on X-Fi Fatal1ty Pro sound card An analog-to-digital converter (abbreviated ADC, A/D or A to D) is an electronic integrated circuit (i/c) that converts continuous signals to discrete digital numbers. ... In electronics, a digital-to-analog converter (DAC or D-to-A) is a device for converting a digital (usually binary) code to an analog signal (current, voltage or electric charge). ... Label for 2. ...


Because "tracks" are symbolic in the digital medium, multitrack systems could have only a pair of mono inputs and outputs — the discrete audio inputs and outputs provide for simultaneous multitracking capability, whereas limited inputs require audio mixing or later overdubbing. Multitrack recording is a method of sound recording that allows for the recording of multiple sound sources, whether simultaneously or at different times. ... Audio mixing is used in sound recording, audio editing and sound systems to balance the relative volume and frequency content of a number of sound sources. ... Les Paul, a pioneer of multi-track recording. ...


A professional DAC performs the same function as a common sound card, but is generally an external and sometimes rackmounted unit which offers the advantage of far less noise, higher recorded resolution, and better dynamic range, when compared with its consumer cousin. A sound card (also known as an audio card) is a computer expansion card that can input and output sound under control of computer programs. ... For the Irish mythological figure, see Naoise. ... Bit resolution is a term describing the dynamic range of a digital audio recording. ... For other uses, see Dynamic range (disambiguation). ...


While almost any home computer with multitrack and editing software can function somewhat as a DAW, the term generally refers to more powerful systems which at minimum have high-quality external ADC-DAC hardware, and some usable audio software, some of which is commercial proprietary software such as Logic Pro, Pro Tools, Cubase, SONAR, FL Studio (formerly Fruityloops), Reason and Digital Performer, some of which is free software such as Audacity and Ardour. Children playing on a Amstrad CPC 464 in the 1980s. ... It has been suggested that closed source be merged into this article or section. ... Logic Pro is a MIDI sequencer and Digital Audio Workstation software application that runs on the Mac OS X platform. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... ÊCakewalk is a company based in Boston, Massachusetts that develops music [[interchange of projects between SONAR and other competing recording/editing software (e. ... FL Studio (formerly Fruity Loops) is a digital audio workstation, developed by Didier Dambrin (also known as Gol), lead programmer of Image-Line Software. ... Reason is a popular music software program developed by Swedish software developers Propellerhead Software. ... Digital Performer is a full-featured Digital Audio Workstation/Sequencer software package published by Mark of the Unicorn (MOTU) of Cambridge, Massachusetts for the Apple Macintosh platform. ... This article is about free software as used in the sociopolitical free software movement; for non-free software distributed without charge, see freeware. ... This article is about the audio software. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

Contents

Varieties

DAWs generally come in two varieties:

  • Computer-based DAWs consist of three components: a computer, an ADC-DAC, and digital audio editor software. The computer acts as a host for the sound card and software and provides processing power for audio editing. The sound card acts as an audio interface, typically converting analog audio signals into digital form, and may also assist in processing audio. The software controls the two hardware components and provides a user interface to allow for recording and editing. Many radio stations in the U.S. prefer using computer-based DAWs over integrated DAWs. Pro Tools, SONAR, and Adobe Audition (formerly known as Syntrillium Cool Edit) are widely used commercial PC-based DAWs. Stand alone audio editors such as Sound Forge are also used.
  • Integrated DAWs consist of a mixing console, control surface, and digital interface in one device. Integrated DAWs were more popular before personal computers became powerful enough to run DAW software. As computer power increased and price decreased, the popularity of the costly integrated systems dropped. However, systems such as the Orban Audicy once flourished in the radio and television markets.

This article is about the machine. ... An audio converter is a type of electronic hardware for converting audio input to digital format, (ADC) and the reverse (DAC). ... A digital audio editor is a computer application for audio editing, i. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cakewalk Sonar is a computer program made by Cakewalk for recording, editing, mixing, mastering and outputting music and other audio. ... Adobe Audition (formerly Cool Edit Pro) is a digital audio editor computer program from Adobe Systems featuring both a multitrack, non-destructive mix/edit environment and a destructive-approach waveform editing view. ... Adobe Audition is a digital audio editor computer program from Adobe Systems. ... Sony Sound Forge, formerly known as Sonic Foundry Sound Forge, is a digital audio editing and creation suite aimed at the professional as well as the semi-professional market. ... BBC Local Radio Mark III radio mixing desk In professional audio, a mixing console, digital mixing console, mixing desk (Brit. ...

History

The first ever system to function as a digital audio workstation was first developed by Soundstream Inc. in the late 1970s. It utilized a Digital PDP-11/60 minicomputer running a custom software package called "DAP" (for Digital Audio Processor) written in-house by Soundstream for digital audio editing and for digitally adding audio effects such as crossfades. A storage oscilloscope that was connected to the 11/60 acted as the audio waveform display. Edits were made by typing in three-letter commands on a separate terminal connected to the PDP-11/60, using the waveform display on the storage oscillioscope as a reference. Soundstream Inc. ... The DEC logo Digital Equipment Corporation was a pioneering American company in the computer industry. ... The PDP-11 was a 16-bit minicomputer sold by Digital Equipment Corp. ... Minicomputer (colloquially, mini) is a largely obsolete term for a class of multi-user computers which make up the middle range of the computing spectrum, in between the largest multi-user systems (traditionally, mainframe computers) and the smallest single-user systems (microcomputers or personal computers). ... A Tektronix model 475A portable analogue oscilloscope, a very typical instrument of the late 1970s. ... A computer terminal is an electronic or electromechanical hardware device that is used for entering data into, and displaying data from, a computer or a computing system. ...


Audio on the system was stored on Digital RP04 disk pack drives connected to the 11/60, with the audio being transferred onto the drives digitally from Soundstream's digital audio tape recorders of their own design, using a special Unibus tape-to-disk interface also of the company's own design. Soundstream also developed a digital-to-analog interface for this system for interfacing to conventional analog tape recorders as well. Disk pack is a layered grouping of hard disk platters (circular, rigid discs coated with a magnetic data storage surface). ... The Unibus was the earliest of several bus technologies used with PDP-11 and early VAX systems manufactured by the Digital Equipment Corporation of Maynard, Massachusetts. ...


Around 1981, recording engineer Roger Nichols built a digital audio workstation of his own design, using a S-100 bus-based computer with a Micropolis 8" form factor 32 MB hard disk used for storage of digital audio data. It interfaced digitally to a 3M multi-track digital audio tape recorder in his studio, and was used to edit audio from the recorder. Nichols' system was used during the recording and production of Donald Fagen's 1982 album, The Nightfly. For the songwriter, please see Roger Nichols (songwriter) Roger Nichols was a nuclear engineer until he turned his hobby of audio recording into a career as a recording engineer and producer. ... The S-100 bus, IEEE696-1983 (withdrawn), was an early computer bus designed in 1974 as a part of the Altair 8800, generally considered today to be the first personal computer. The S-100 bus was the first industry standard bus for the microcomputer industry, and S-100 computers, processor... Micropolis Corporation was a disk drive company located in Chatsworth, California. ... 3M Company (NYSE: MMM), formerly Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company until 2002, is an American corporation with a worldwide presence. ... Donald Jay Fagen (born January 10, 1948 in Passaic, New Jersey) is an American musician and songwriter, best known as co-writer, co-founder, singer, and pianist with the jazz-rock band Steely Dan. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... The Nightfly is the first solo album by Steely Dan member Donald Fagen, released in 1982 (see 1982 in music). ...


In the late 1980s, computers that were available on the consumer level, such as the Apple Macintosh, started to have enough power to handle the task of digital audio editing. The first major capitalization on this fact was done by a company called Digidesign, who in 1987 introduced one of the first hardware & software packages for a personal computer for editing audio (and the predecessor to the now-industry standard Pro Tools system) called Sound Tools for the Macintosh, which would later be renamed to Pro Tools I. Many major studios finally "went digital" due to the fact that Digidesign had modeled its Pro Tools software after the traditional method and signal flow present in almost all analog recording devices. The first Macintosh computer, introduced in 1984, upgraded to a 512K Fat Mac. The Macintosh or Mac, is a line of personal computers designed, developed, manufactured, and marketed by Apple Computer. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sounds are medical instruments designed for insertion into the urethra, the tube connecting the bladder with the outside world. ... The first Macintosh computer, introduced in 1984, upgraded to a 512K Fat Mac. The Macintosh or Mac, is a line of personal computers designed, developed, manufactured, and marketed by Apple Computer. ... A recording studio is a facility for sound recording. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Development

Musicians and composers long had a desire to integrate stereos, turntables, recording equipment, MIDI keyboards and even electric guitars with computers. Serious computer-based composition tools began to appear with the Atari ST and Amiga computer systems. Enthusiasts continued to seek more integrated, easier-to-use and higher-performance tools for audio creation tasks. Many current DAWs even support integration with video streams allowing full A/V production. A musician is a person who plays or composes music. ... Composers are people who write music. ... “Tonearm” redirects here. ... Historical records of events have been made for thousands of years in one form or another. ... Musical Instrument Digital Interface, or MIDI, is a system designed to transmit information between electronic musical instruments. ... An electric guitar is a type of guitar that uses pickups to convert the vibration of its steel-cored strings into electrical current, which is then amplified. ... The Atari ST is a home/personal computer that was commercially popular from 1985 to the early 1990s. ... This article is about the family of home computers. ...


See also: digital audio, digital audio editor, VST (Virtual Studio Technology) Digital audio comprises audio signals stored in a digital format. ... A digital audio editor is a computer application for audio editing, i. ... Steinbergs Virtual Studio Technology and its acronym VST refer to an interface standard for connecting audio synthesizer and effect plugins to audio editors and hard-disk recording systems and also giving the plugins a Graphical User Interface (GUI) for easy manipulation. ...


Common functionality of computer-based DAWs

Setting envelope points in Audacity

Much of the functionality of DAWs borrows from, and enhances on, analogue recording technology. Therefore, computer-based DAWs tend to have a standard layout which includes transport controls (play, rewind, record, etc.), track controls and/or a mixer, and a waveform display. In single-track DAWs, only one (mono or stereo form) sound is displayed at a time. A screenshot of the open-source computer-based DAW program called Audacity. ... Waveform quite literally means the shape and form of a signal, such as a wave moving across the surface of water, or the vibration of a plucked string. ... Label for 1. ... Label for 2. ...


Multitrack DAWs support operations on multiple tracks at once. Like a mixing console, each track typically has controls that allow the user to adjust the overall volume and stereo balance (pan) of the sound on each track. In a traditional recording studio additional processing is physically plugged in to the audio signal path, a DAW, however, uses software plugins to process the sound on a track. Multitrack recording is a method of sound recording that allows for the recording and re-recording of multiple sound sources, independent of time. ... BBC Local Radio Mark III radio mixing desk In professional audio, a mixing console, digital mixing console, mixing desk (Brit. ... The horizontal axis shows frequency in Hz Loudness is the quality of a sound that is the primary psychological correlate of physical intensity. ... A plugin (or plug-in) is a computer program that can, or must, interact with another program to provide a certain, usually very specific, function. ...


While DAWs are capable of mimicking the functions of a traditional recording studio, there are areas where they excel, and in some cases they can do things that are impossible without a DAW.


Perhaps the most significant feature available on a DAW that is not available in analogue recording (some other forms of digital recording do have this) is the ability to 'undo' a previous action, which makes it much easier to avoid accidentally erasing or recording over a previous recording.


Commonly DAWs feature some form of automation, commonly performed through "envelope points." Each dot represents one envelope point. By creating and adjusting multiple points along a waveform or control events, the user can specify parameters of the output over time (e.g., volume or pan).


Commercial systems

Consolidation and commoditization in the commercial space, along with the early adaptation by most major recording studios has left Digidesign's Pro Tools for recording and editing and Apple Logic for music production and composing as the de-facto standards for studio production on Mac OS, while the Windows market is more commonly dominated by Steinberg's Nuendo / Cubase and Cakewalk Sonar. FL Studio is another popular and widely used DAW. A recording studio is a facility for sound recording. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Logic is a music sequencer and digital audio workstation that has been distributed by Apple since they acquired Hamburg-based firm Emagic in July 2002. ... Nuendo is Steinbergs media production suite with audio and MIDI capabilities. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Cakewalk Sonar is a computer program made by Cakewalk for recording, editing, mixing, mastering and outputting music and other audio. ... FL Studio (formerly Fruity Loops) is a digital audio workstation, developed by Didier Dambrin (also known as Gol), lead programmer of Image-Line Software. ...


Nuendo and Cubase suffered from fragmented development and marketing and a recent bout of "pass the potato." Despite a rabid fan base many were surprised to learn that Steinberg was running at a significant loss, even canceling an IPO. In under a year the products were acquired by Pinnacle, then spun off again prior to Digidesign/AVID acquiring Pinnacle, and are now owned by Yamaha. Steinberg's VST standard lives on, and is supported by all commercial DAW products in some fashion (additional third party adapters are sometimes required), as well as some open source packages. However both Nuendo and Cubase maintain significant market share due to a historically strong brand, and they are one of the few DAW systems that have a history of operating in a cross-platform manner on both Mac and Windows platforms. Nuendo is Steinbergs media production suite with audio and MIDI capabilities. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Steinbergs Virtual Studio Technology and its acronym VST refer to an interface standard for connecting audio synthesizer and effect plugins to audio editors and hard-disk recording systems and also giving the plugins a Graphical User Interface (GUI) for easy manipulation. ...


Logic Pro, initially owned by Emagic prior to an Apple buy-out, historically had a much stronger grasp on the Windows DAW market than it does today. However this was all but obliterated by Apple's buyout, which left the Windows version of the product orphaned from version 6 and up. While some Windows users switched to the Mac platform to follow the software and others remained locked at version 5, the big-picture result of this was an expansion of a number of comparable music production and composing systems on the Wintel platform, as remaining Windows Logic users have gradually switched away to currently supported applications. Logic remains a dominant player in the Mac market, and in the music industry market itself that gravitates around the Apple platform. Logic Pro is a MIDI sequencer and Digital Audio Workstation software application that runs on the Mac OS X platform. ... Emagic was a computer software company based in Rellingen, Germany. ... Binomial name Borkh. ...


Cakewalk Sonar was one notable beneficiary of the departure of Logic from the Windows platform. Along with Steinberg's Windows-based DAWs it is one of the most popular Windows consumer applications and will reliably run on almost any audio hardware. It was differentiated from Steinberg's offerings early on in its life by its close adherence to Windows OS standards, using the Windows 2000/XP WDM driver model for its audio card support and DirectX plugins for effects and virtual instruments. However the strong market share and developer support enjoyed by Steinberg resulted in support in later versions of Sonar for Steinberg's ASIO and VST technologies, rendering these an effective de-facto standard for many PC drivers, effects plugins and softsynths. Sonar is single-platform and heavily tied to Windows OS internals, making porting to other platforms an unlikely prospect. Cakewalk Sonar is a computer program made by Cakewalk for recording, editing, mixing, mastering and outputting music and other audio. ...


Pro Tools is currently seen as the most used MTR (multitrack recorder) in the industry. Available on both PC (Windows) and Apple Macintosh platforms, it started life as a dedicated hard disk recording application requiring proprietary DSP hardware to function. As time has passed and CPUs have grown in capability, more and more of the functionality of the software has been making use of the extra computational power available and therefore, less custom hardware has been required. However, the software end of Pro Tools remains tied to Digidesign's proprietary audio hardware which requires it in order to run. Until recently, Digidesign's interfaces were the only audio hardware supported by the Pro Tools software, however a recent buyout of M-Audio by Digidesign/Avid has resulted in the release of the host-based Pro Tools M-Powered software that can be used in conjunction with a range of M-Audio sound cards and audio interfaces. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Digital Performer rounds out the last of the major professional DAW applications. A Mac-only product from MOTU it competes primarily with Logic on the Apple platform for musician/composer customers and is notably popular with many film composers. Digital Performer is a full-featured Digital Audio Workstation/Sequencer software package published by Mark of the Unicorn (MOTU) of Cambridge, Massachusetts for the Apple Macintosh platform. ...


Apple has developed an alternative to the VST plug-in standard for OS X based Macintosh systems. This new standard, the AudioUnit (AU), has become very popular for Macintosh OS X based DAWs and was designed in some respects to overcome limitations of VST.


Sony Sound Forge (acquired from Sonic Foundry) and Adobe Audition (formerly "Cool Edit Pro" and acquired from Syntrillium) are leading products primarily used for single-track editing. Both are only available for Windows. However, the Adobe Audition has the capability of doing multi-track work too. BIAS Peak fills the void on Mac, and Apple's GarageBand incorporates much of the technology of Logic to create a somewhat different take on the DAW for consumer use. Metro is a very competent Macintosh DAW that supports both VST and AU. Sonic Foundry is a computer software creator noted for its quality audio and video editing programs. ... Adobe Audition (formerly Cool Edit Pro) is a digital audio editor computer program from Adobe Systems featuring both a multitrack, non-destructive mix/edit environment and a destructive-approach waveform editing view. ... Adobe Audition (formerly Cool Edit Pro) is a digital audio editor computer program from Adobe Systems featuring both a multitrack, non-destructive mix/edit environment and a destructive-approach waveform editing view. ... Peak is a full-featured professional stereo sample editor for the Macintosh computing platform. ... GarageBand is a software application that allows users to create music or podcasts. ...


Reason is cross-platform and has a tremendous installed base. However, it cannot record or edit audio since it is a software sequencer and not a true DAW. As such, it is most popular with amateur and professional electronic music and hip hop musicians and producers who have little use for recording studio instruments. Reason is a popular music software program developed by Swedish software developers Propellerhead Software. ... Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... The word sequencer can mean: a microsequencer in a computer CPU a music sequencer in the field of electronic music a DNA sequencer or a protein sequencer in the field of biology Sequencer (album) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise... Overview A Digital Audio Workstation (DAW) is a system designed to record, edit, and play back digital audio. ... For other uses, see Electronic music (disambiguation). ... Hip hop is a cultural movement that began amongst urban African American youth in New York and has since spread around the world. ...


Though initially a beat-sequencing tool, FL Studio has a Producer edition that offers most of the DAW features of Cubase SX and it is steadily gaining credibility as a professional tool. Among it's more unique features is a built-in Edison waveform editor with an embedded Pascal language compiler, allowing users to simply create new sound filter 'plugins' easily and without external tools or an API like VST. Though the pattern-based approach to sequencing might be off-putting to traditional DAW users, FL Studio seems to strike a good balance between ease-of-use for beginning users while being a very flexible, extensible environment for advanced users. FL Studio (formerly Fruity Loops) is a digital audio workstation, developed by Didier Dambrin (also known as Gol), lead programmer of Image-Line Software. ... Wikibooks has a book on the topic of Pascal Pascal is an imperative computer programming language, developed in 1970 by Niklaus Wirth as a language particularly suitable for structured programming. ...


The high end of professional DAWs are dominated by two manufacturers; Sonic Studio, with their line of cross-platform products, and SADiE, with their Windows-only line of DAWs. Both offer both LPCM and DSD production tools and both provide much higher levels of fidelity than low cost, off-the-shelf products. Pulse-code modulation (PCM) is a digital representation of an analog signal where the magnitude of the signal is sampled regularly at uniform intervals, then quantized to a series of symbols in a digital (usually binary) code. ... Direct-Stream Digital (DSD) is an encoding technology to store audio signals on digital storage media and is used for the super audio compact disc (SACD). ...


Free and open source software

Audacity screenshot
Audacity screenshot

There are many free and open-source programs that can facilitate a DAW. These are often designed to run on a variety of operating systems and are usually developed non-commercially. The LADSPA plugin architecture, the JACK API and the ALSA soundcard driver represent the 'cutting-edge' in free and open source DAW development for professional audio production. Audacity Screenshot on Linux File links The following pages link to this file: Audacity Digital audio workstation Categories: GFDL images ... Audacity Screenshot on Linux File links The following pages link to this file: Audacity Digital audio workstation Categories: GFDL images ... This article is about free software as used in the sociopolitical free software movement; for non-free software distributed without charge, see freeware. ... Open source software is computer software whose source code is available under a license (or arrangement such as the public domain) that permits users to study, change, and improve the software, and to redistribute it in modified or unmodified form. ... // An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer. ... A plugin (plug-in, addin, add-in, addon or add-on) is a computer program that interacts with a main (or host) application (a web browser or an email program, for example) to provide a certain, usually very specific, function on demand. ... API may refer to: In computing, application programming interface In petroleum industry, American Petroleum Institute In education, Academic Performance Index This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A sound card is a computer expansion card that can input and output sound under program control. ... Cutting edge is the leading part of a cutting tool such as a tool bit or knife and is the small focused area where the work is done. ...


The development of digital audio for Linux and BSD fostered technologies such as ALSA, which drives audio hardware, and JACK or aRts. JACK allows any JACK-aware audio software to connect to any other audio software running on the system, such as connecting an ALSA or OSS driven soundcard to a mixing and editing front-end, like Audacity or Rosegarden. In this way, JACK acts as a virtual audio patch bay, and it can be configured to use a computer's resources in real time, with dedicated memory, and with various options that minimize the DAW's latency. This kind of abstraction and configuration allows DJs to use multiple programs for editing and synthesizing audio streams, or multitasking and duplexing, without the need for analogue conversion, or asynchronous saving and reloading files, and ensures a high level of audio fidelity. Linux and BSD also support the aRts platform, distributed with the K desktop environment, KDE. The aRts system is a modular software synthesizer and soundserver that handles system sounds, recording, playback, and other audio tasks within KDE. aRts modules may be assembled in custom configurations using aRts Builder and used in audio production. A comparable proprietary product is ReWire. This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... BSD redirects here; for other uses see BSD (disambiguation). ... A screenshot of alsamixer ALSA (an acronym for Advanced Linux Sound Architecture) is a Linux kernel component intended to replace the original Open Sound System for providing drivers for sound cards. ... The JACK Audio Connection Kit or JACK is a sound server or daemon that provides low latency connections between so-called jackified applications. ... The Open Sound System (OSS) is a standard interface for making and capturing sound in Unix operating systems. ... Connections on a Patch Bay A patch bay is an assembly of hardware so arranged that a number of circuits, usually of the same or similar type, appear on jacks for monitoring, interconnecting, and testing circuits in a convenient, flexible manner. ... It has been suggested that Real-time computing be merged into this article or section. ... In computer programming, the flat memory model is an approach to organizing memory address space. ... Low latency allows human-unnoticeable delays between an input being processed and the corresponding output providing real time characteristics. ... DJ or dj may stand for Disc jockey, dinner jacket The DeadJournal website, or Djibouti. ... Multitasking may refer to any of the following: Computer multitasking - the apparent simultaneous performance of two or more tasks by a computers central processing unit. ... Duplex is the having of two principal elements or parts. ... Asynchrony is the state of not being synchronized. ... High Fidelity is also the title of a book by Nick Hornby and a film directed by Stephen Frears, based upon Hornbys book. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... BSD redirects here; for other uses see BSD (disambiguation). ... The Arts is a broad subdivision of culture, comprised of many expressive disciplines. ... KDE (K Desktop Environment) (IPA: ) is a free software project which aims to be a powerful system for an easy-to-use desktop environment. ... For other uses, see Synthesizer (disambiguation). ... A Sound server is software usually running in the background on a PC or MAC to manage the use of and access to audio devices, most notably, the soundcard. ... Look up module in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... aRts Builder is an application within the ARts audio platform for building custom layouts and configurations for audio mixers, sequencers, synthesizers and other audio schemas via a user-friendly Graphical user interface aRts which stands for analog Real time syntheziser, is an application that simulates an analog synthesizer under KDE... It has been suggested that closed source be merged into this article or section. ... ReWire is a software protocol, jointly developed by Propellerhead and Steinberg, allowing remote control and data transfer among digital audio editing and related software. ...


There are several non-commercial and open-source front-end programs that can facilitate a DAW. Audacity is a free and open-source digital audio editor that can run on Mac OS X, Microsoft Windows, and Linux; it is particularly popular in the podcast community, and also has a large following among the visually-impaired due to its keyboard interface. Rosegarden is a multi-featured audio application designed for KDE that includes audio mixing plugins, a notation editor, and MIDI matrix editor. The MuSE Sequencer is a similarly featured audio application that includes an audio mixer, MIDI sequencer, and soundserver that has been developed for Linux systems not running the K Desktop Environment. Other open-source programs include virtual synthesizers and MIDI controllers, such as those provided by FluidSynth and Timidity. Both can load Soundfonts to expand the voices and instruments available for synthesis and expand the ports and channels available to synthesizers. Such virtualization allows users to expand the traditional limitations of ADC-DAC hardware. In their most general meanings, the terms front end and back end refer to the initial and the end stages of a process flow. ... This article is about the audio software. ... Mac OS X (IPA: ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... Windows redirects here. ... An orange square with waves indicates that an RSS feed is present on a web page. ... Rosegarden is a free software digital audio workstation program developed for GNU/Linux with ALSA and KDE. It acts as an audio and MIDI sequencer, scorewriter and musical composition and editing tool. ... Audio mixing is used in sound recording, audio editing and sound systems to balance the relative volume and frequency content of a number of sound sources. ... Music notation is a system of writing for music. ... Musical Instrument Digital Interface, or MIDI, is a system designed to transmit information between electronic musical instruments. ... In Greek mythology, the Muses (Greek , Mousai: perhaps from the Proto-Indo-European root *men- think[1]) are a number of goddesses or spirits who embody the arts and inspire the creation process with their graces through remembered and improvised song and stage, writing, traditional music and dance. ... BBC Local Radio Mark III radio mixing desk In professional audio, a mixing console, mixing desk (Brit. ... In the field of electronic music, a sequencer was originally any device that recorded and played back a sequence of control information for an electronic musical instrument. ... For other uses, see Synthesizer (disambiguation). ... A device, real or virtual, which generates and transmits MIDI data for operating musical devices or other devices which are electronically enabled for MIDI operation. ... We dont have an article called FluidSynth Start this article Search for FluidSynth in. ... Timidity is a MIDI and KAR to WAVE converter and player distributed under the terms of GNU general public license. ... SoundFont is a brand name that collectively refers to a file format and associated technology designed to bridge the gap between recorded and synthesized audio, especially for the purposes of computer music composition. ... Synthesis (from the ancient Greek σύν (with) and θεσις (placing), is commonly understood to be an integration of two or more pre-existing elements which results in a new creation. ...


The Linux Audio Development mailing list, LAD, is a major driving force in developing standards, such as the LADSPA plugin architecture, for free and open systems. The VST plugin standard is supported as an option by some such programs but is generally implemented as a separate plugin, not a built-in option, due to Steinberg's licensing scheme. Among others, the creators of Audacity provide an optional, somewhat minimalist, VST-to-LADSPA bridge plugin for their software, but it is a separate download. Standardization, in the context related to technologies and industries, is the process of establishing a technical standard among competing entities in a market, where this will bring benefits without hurting competition. ... LADSPA is an acronym for Linux Audio Developers Simple Plugin API. It is an LGPLed standard interface for handling filters, effects and the like in Linux-based operating systems. ... VST refers to: VLT Survey Telescope a complementary instrument to the VLT (VST external webpage) Virtual Studio Technology and may refer either directly to some versions of the Steinberg Cubase program or VST plug-ins. ... Steinberg is a German musical equipment and software company. ...


See also

Audio Restoration is an overarching term for the process of removing artifacts (such as hiss, crackle, noise, and buzz) from sound recordings. ... Multitrack recording is a method of sound recording that allows for the recording of multiple sound sources, whether simultaneously or at different times. ...

External links

  • DAW article by Intel's Richard Winterton
  • www.wikifaq.com/AW16G Wiki Faq for AW16G users
  • Introduction to DAW by Mitch Gallagher at Sweetwater.
  • "Workstation Blues", an article about DAW systems (circa 1990) by Roger Nichols

  Results from FactBites:
 
Digital audio - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1487 words)
Digital to analogue conversion (DAC) - the conversion of digital audio to a line level signal for playback or distribution.
In the early days of digital audio, the only practical storage device with sufficient bandwidth and storage space was a video recorder and these were adapted to store the digital signal, usually by interfacing said video recorder to a PCM adaptor.
Commercial digital recording of classical and jazz music began in the early 1970s, pioneered by Japanese companies such as Denon and British record label Decca (who in the mid-70s developed digital audio recorders of their own design for mastering of their albums), although experimental recordings exist from the 1960s.
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