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Encyclopedia > Digital audio player
Apple iPod nano (third-generation), a best-selling flash-based player
Apple iPod nano (third-generation), a best-selling flash-based player
An embedded hard drive-based player (Creative ZEN Vision:M)
An embedded hard drive-based player (Creative ZEN Vision:M)
An MP3 CD player (Philips Expanium)
An MP3 CD player (Philips Expanium)

More commonly referred to as an MP3 player, a digital audio player ("DAP") is a portable consumer electronics device that stores, organizes and plays audio files. Some DAPs are also referred as portable media players as they have image-viewing and/or video-playing support. Most DAPs are powered by rechargeable batteries, some of which are not user replaceable. Listening to music stored on DAPs is typically through earphones connected with a 3.5 mm jack. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2832 × 1888 pixel, file size: 701 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Apple iPod Nano, 3rd Generation, 8GB black model. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2832 × 1888 pixel, file size: 701 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Apple iPod Nano, 3rd Generation, 8GB black model. ... Apple Inc. ... The iPod nano is a mid-range iPod portable media player designed and marketed by Apple Inc. ... The iPod nano is a mid-range iPod portable media player designed and marketed by Apple Inc. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Zenvmlandscape. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Zenvmlandscape. ... The Creative ZEN (formerly known as Creative NOMAD Jukebox Zen) is a range of digital audio players (DAPs) and portable media players (PMPs) made by Creative Technology. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1036x777, 93 KB) Summary CD mp3 player (Philips Expanium) Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Digital audio player Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1036x777, 93 KB) Summary CD mp3 player (Philips Expanium) Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Digital audio player Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize... Philips HQ in Amsterdam Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.), usually known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is one of the largest electronics companies in the world, founded and headquartered in the Netherlands. ... Consumer electronics is a term used to describe the category of electronic equipment intended for everyday use by people, the consumers. ... An audio file format is a container format for storing audio data on a computer system. ... An idle PMP compared with a coin A portable multimedia player (PMP) - sometimes referred to as a portable video player (PVP) - is an electronic device that is capable of storing and playing digital media. ... Rechargeable batteries are batteries that can be restored to full charge by the application of electrical energy. ... Earbuds Headphones (also known as earphones, stereophones, headsets, or the slang term cans) are a pair of transducers that receive an electrical signal from a media player or receiver and use speakers placed in close proximity to the ears (hence the name earphone) to convert the signal into audible sound...


Digital audio players are generally categorized by storage media:

  • Flash-based Players – These are non mechanical solid state devices that hold digital audio files on internal flash memory or removable flash media called memory cards. Due to technological advancements in flash memory, these originally low-storage devices are now available commercially ranging up to 32 GB.[1] Because they are solid state and do not have moving parts they require less battery power and may be more resilient to hazards such as dropping or fragmentation than hard disk-based players. Basic MP3 player functions are commonly integrated into USB flash drives.
  • Hard drive-based Players or Digital Jukeboxes – Devices that read digital audio files from a hard disk drive (HDD). These players have higher capacities currently ranging up to 250 GB.[2] At typical encoding rates, this means that thousands of songs – perhaps an entire music collection – can be stored on one player.
  • MP3 CD Players – Portable CD players that can decode and play MP3 audio files stored on CDs.

Contents

A USB flash drive. ... Four major types of memory cards (from left to right: CompactFlash, Memory Stick, Secure Digital, and xD. A memory card or flash memory card is a solid-state electronic flash memory data storage device used with digital cameras, handheld and Mobile computers, telephones, music players, video game consoles, and other... JumpDrive redirects here. ... A hard disk drive (HDD), commonly referred to as a hard drive, hard disk or fixed disk drive,[1] is a non-volatile storage device which stores digitally encoded data on rapidly rotating platters with magnetic surfaces. ... An MP3 CD is a term used to refer to compact discs (CD-R or CD-RW) that contain MP3 files. ... CD redirects here. ...

History

The predecessors to digital audio players are portable CD and MiniDisc players, which are commonly known as "Portable Audio Devices". Although the data is digitally stored on discs, neither one is able to support digital file formats. CD, DVD and SACD player A Compact Disc player (often written as compact disc player), or CD player, is an electronic device which plays audio Compact Discs. ... See also IBMs VM operating system family, where minidisk refers to a logical unit of storage. ...


The first mass-produced DAP was created in 1997 by SaeHan Information Systems, which domestically sold its “MPMan” player in the middle of 1998.[3] The South Korean company then licensed the players to Eiger Labs which distributed them - now branded as Eiger Labs MPMan F10 - to the North American market during the summer of 1998.[4] The flash-based players were available in 32 MB storage capacity. EIkeke, notaw gristi MP3 londaw, eta fimie 1998. ...


The Rio PMP300 from Diamond Multimedia was introduced in September 1998, a few months after the MPMan. It was a success during the holiday season, with sales exceeding expectations.[5] Interest and investment in digital music were subsequently spurred from it.[6] The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) soon filed a lawsuit,[7] alleging that the device encouraged copying music illegally, but Diamond won a legal victory on the shoulders of the Sony Corp. v. Universal City Studios case and DAPs were legally ruled as electronic devices.[8] Because of the player's notoriety as the target of a major lawsuit, the Rio is erroneously assumed to be the first DAP.[9] The Rio PMP-300 portable mp3 player The top view shows the face of the player. ... Diamond Multimedia is a company that specializes in many forms of multimedia technology. ... RIAA redirects here. ... Holding Manufacturers of home video recording machines could not be liable for contributory copyright infringement for the potential uses by its purchasers, because the devices were sold for legitimate purposes and had substantial non-infringing uses. ...


In 1998, Compaq made the first hard drive based DAP using a 2.5" laptop drive. It was licensed to HanGo Electronics (now known as Remote Solution), which first sold the PJB-100 (Personal Jukebox) in 1999. The player had an initial capacity of 4.8 GB, which was advertised to be able to hold 1200 songs.[10] Compaq Computer Corporation is an American personal computer company founded in 1982, and now a brand name of Hewlett-Packard. ... A hard disk drive (HDD), commonly referred to as a hard drive, hard disk or fixed disk drive,[1] is a non-volatile storage device which stores digitally encoded data on rapidly rotating platters with magnetic surfaces. ... Remote Solution Co. ... Two versions of the Personal Jukebox: Black (Music) Compressor (rebranded, by HyTek) respectively Titanium PJB-100 (original, by HanGo) The Personal Jukebox (also known as PJB-100 and, to some extent Music Compressor) was the first ever hard disk MP3-Player to hit the market in late 1999, which makes...


In October 2001, Apple Computer (now known as Apple Inc.) unveiled the first generation iPod, the 5 GB hard drive based DAP with a 1.8" Toshiba drive. Having focused on developing an intuitive user interface, the smaller form factor and industrial design made the player notable within users of the Macintosh community. In July 2002, Apple introduced the second generation update to the iPod. It was compatible with Windows computers through Musicmatch Jukebox (now known as Y!Music Musicmatch Jukebox). The iPod series, which grew to include microdrive and flash-based players, has become the market leader in DAPs. 2001 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December Events: October 2 - Bankruptcy of Swissair. ... Apple Inc. ... The iPod classic is the flagship iPod digital audio player designed and marketed by Apple Inc. ... iPod is a brand of portable media players designed and marketed by Apple and launched in October 2001. ... Toshiba Corporations headquarters (Center) in Hamamatsucho, Tokyo Toshiba Corporation sales by division for year ending March 31, 2005 Toshiba Corporation ) (TYO: 6502 ) is a Japanese multinational conglomerate manufacturing company, headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. ... The user interface is the part of a system exposed to users. ... Industrial design is an applied art whereby the aesthetics and usability of products may be improved for marketability and production. ... For other uses, see Macintosh (disambiguation) and Mac. ... Windows redirects here. ... Y!Music Musicmatch Jukebox, made by Yahoo! Musicmatch, Inc, is an audio player that manages a digital audio library. ... For other uses, see Microdrive (disambiguation). ...


In 2002, Archos released the first official PMP, the Archos Jukebox Multimedia.[11] Manufacturers have since implemented abilities to view images and play videos into their devices. It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... A series of Archos portable audio players from 2000 through 2002. ...


Although online music services such as RealNetworksRhapsody offered legal downloads through a subscription plan, the launch of the iTunes Store in 2003 established the model of selling individual songs for purchase. The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Rhapsody is an online music service run by RealNetworks. ... The iTunes Store is an online business run by Apple Inc. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Audio acquisition

All commercially available digital audio players can play music that has been ripped from Compact Discs via computer. In addition to ripped CD tracks, many digital audio players can accept downloaded music from online music stores. However, such stores often use proprietary formats and DRM, which means that the tracks can only be played on suitably licensed and restricted devices. For example, purchased songs from iTunes might not work on any DAP other than an Apple iPod. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... For the process of sawing wood along the grain, see Rip saw. ... This article is about the machine. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Digital rights management (DRM) is an umbrella term that refers to access control technologies used by publishers and copyright holders to limit usage of digital media or devices. ... This article is about the iTunes application. ...


There are also music online communities such as GarageBand.com where music is available at no cost under Creative Commons licenses. GarageBand. ... The Creative Commons (CC) is a non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative work available for others legally to build upon and share. ...


Another way of getting audio files is to rip the songs from radio broadcasts. Many players have the ability to record songs played on the built-in FM tuner. Recently, a Swedish company called PopCatcher has developed a technology to save songs from Internet radio and can distinguish between songs, DJ talks, and commercials for convenience. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with ripping. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy the notability guideline for Companies. ... Internet radio (aka e-Radio) is an audio broadcasting service transmitted via the Internet. ...


Common formats supported

MP3 is the dominant format, and is nearly universally supported.[12] The main alternative formats are AAC, supported on players from Apple, ATRAC, on players from Sony, and WMA, on players from Microsoft and partners. Unlike MP3, these formats support DRM restrictions, which are often added to files from paid download services. Open source formats which are completely patent-free are available but less widely supported – examples include Ogg Vorbis, FLAC, Speex, and Module file formats. For other uses, see MP3 (disambiguation). ... Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) is a standardized, lossy compression and encoding scheme for digital audio. ... Apple Inc. ... ATRAC (Adaptive TRansform Acoustic Coding) is a family of proprietary audio compression algorithms used to store information on MiniDiscs and other Sony-branded audio players. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... Windows Media Audio (WMA) is an audio data compression technology developed by Microsoft. ... Digital rights management (DRM) is an umbrella term that refers to access control technologies used by publishers and copyright holders to limit usage of digital media or devices. ... Open source refers to projects that are open to the public and which draw on other projects that are freely available to the general public. ... Vorbis is an open source, lossy audio codec project headed by the Xiph. ... Free Lossless Audio Codec (FLAC) is a popular file format for audio data compression. ... Speex is a free software speech codec that may be used on VoIP applications and podcasts. ... For other uses, see Module. ...


Ancillery data benefits

While MP3 players and iPods are primarily tailored for music (and some for video as well), they can also serve as backup media and can be an alternative to buying stand-alone flash drives with them. However some models don't use file systems, and notable examples of them would be iPod Touch although other iPods have hidden song data on their file systems, and others use the Media Transfer Protocol which doesn't allow direct copy of ancillery data, however than can be circumvented by renaming files of other extentions (such as *.zip) to *.MP3 to allow ancillery data to be copied on them. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... A USB drive, shown with a 24 mm US quarter coin for scale. ... The Media Transfer Protocol is a set of custom extensions to the Picture Transfer Protocol (PTP) devised by Microsoft, to allow the protocol to be used for devices other than digital cameras, for example digital audio players such as MP3 players, and other portable media devices, for example portable video...


Controversy

Further information: iTunes Store, and Digital Rights Management

Although these issues aren't usually controversial within digital audio players, they are matters of continuing controversy and litigation, including but not limited to content distribution and protection, and digital rights management (DRM). The iTunes Store is an online business run by Apple Inc. ... Digital rights management (DRM) is an umbrella term that refers to access control technologies used by publishers and copyright holders to limit usage of digital media or devices. ... Digital rights management (DRM) is an umbrella term that refers to access control technologies used by publishers and copyright holders to limit usage of digital media or devices. ...


See also

// ^ Archos Introduces Its First Flash-Based Portable Media Player With The Archos 405. ... An Internet radio device is a hardware device that receives and plays audio from Internet radio stations or, optionally, a users PC. The devices which are currently on the market mainly support MP3 (MPEG1 Audio Layer 3) streaming, Windows Media Audio (WMA) and ASF , they all generally with sample... A podcast is a digital media file, or a series of such files, that is distributed over the Internet using syndication feeds for playback on portable media players and personal computers. ... An idle PMP compared with a coin A portable multimedia player (PMP) - sometimes referred to as a portable video player (PVP) - is an electronic device that is capable of storing and playing digital media. ... The Media Transfer Protocol is a set of custom extensions to the Picture Transfer Protocol (PTP) devised by Microsoft, to allow the protocol to be used for devices other than digital cameras, for example digital audio players such as MP3 players, and other portable media devices, for example portable video... The USB mass storage device class is a set of computing communications protocols defined by the USB Implementers Forum that run on the Universal Serial Bus. ...

References

  1. ^ Creative (2007-12-03). "Creative Introduces the World's First 32GB Flash Memory-based Portable Media Player with the Latest Credit-Card sized ZEN™". Press release. Retrieved on 2007-12-04.
  2. ^ Wolverine ESP 250 GB. Wolverine Data. Retrieved on 2008-01-02.
  3. ^ Van Buskirk, Eliot. Introducing the world's first MP3 player. CNET.
  4. ^ MP3 Players - The Basics and History.
  5. ^ Menta, Richard. Collecting MP3 Portables -- Part 1. Antique Radio Classified.
  6. ^ Harmony Central (1998-09-14). "Diamond Multimedia Announces Rio PMP300 Portable MP3 Music Player". Press release. Retrieved on 2007-12-05.
  7. ^ RIAA v. Diamond, official documentation. (9h Cir. 1999-06-15).
  8. ^ Gross, Robin D. Court Gives "Go-Ahead" to Digital Music Revolution. Virtual Recordings. Retrieved on 2007-12-05.
  9. ^ "Bragging rights to the world's first MP3 player".  - CNet.com article on the first manufactured DAPs.
  10. ^ Yoshida, Junko; Margaret Quan. "OEMs ready to roll on jukeboxes for Net audio", EE Times, 2000-08-18, pp. 1. Retrieved on 2007-12-05. 
  11. ^ Archos (2007-09-12). "ARCHOS Generation 5 Available Worldwide". Press release. Retrieved on 2007-12-05.
  12. ^ Bell, Donald (2004-10-25). Sony Network Walkman NW-HD1 (20GB) Review. CNET. Retrieved on 2007-12-12.

Creative Technology Limited (SGX: C76, NASDAQ: CREAF) is a listed manufacturer of computer multimedia products based in Singapore where the firm was initially founded by Sim Wong Hoo (born 1957) on July 1, 1981. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... CNET Networks, Inc. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts: District of Alaska District of Arizona Central District of California Eastern District of California Northern District of California Southern District of California District of Hawaii... This article is about the year. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... CNET Networks, Inc. ... EE Times is an electronics industry newspaper with several decades of history. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... CNET Networks, Inc. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Columnist, Technology Business Analyst - An MBA from Rutgers University, Menta is noted as the editor-in-chief of MP3 Newswire, where his influential commentaries fostered debate on the burgeoning digital music scene. ...

 
 

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