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Encyclopedia > Dieting
Measuring body weight on a scale

Dieting is the practice of ingesting food in a regulated fashion to achieve a particular objective. In many cases the goal is weight loss, but some athletes aspire to gain weight (usually in the form of muscle) and diets can also be used to maintain a stable body weight. Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Feet on a scale http://geekphilosopher. ... Feet on a scale http://geekphilosopher. ... Digital kitchen scales. ... // For eat or EAT as an abbreviation or acronym, see EAT. In general terms, eating (formally, ingestion) is the process of consuming nutrition, i. ... Weight loss, in the context of medicine or health or physical fitness, is a reduction of the total body weight, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue and/or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon and other connective tissue. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Skeletal muscle is a type of striated muscle, usually attached to the skeleton. ...

Contents

Types of dieting

There are several kinds of diets:

  • Weight-loss diets restrict the intake of specific foods, or food in general, to reduce body weight. What works to reduce body weight for one person will not necessarily work for another, due to metabolic differences and lifestyle factors. Also, for a variety of reasons, most people find it very difficult to maintain significant weight loss over time. There is some thought that losing weight quickly may actually make it more difficult to maintain the loss over time. It is also possible that cutting calorie intake too low slows or prevents weight loss.[citation needed]
  • Many professional athletes impose weight-gain diets on themselves. American football players may try to "bulk up" through weight-gain diets in order to gain an advantage on the field with a higher mass.
  • Individuals who are underweight, such as those recovering from anorexia nervosa or from starvation, may undergo weight-gain diets which, unlike those of athletes, has the goal of restoring normal levels of body fat, muscle, and stores of essential nutrients.

Many people in the acting industry may choose to lose or gain weight depending on the role they're given. For other uses, see Anorexia. ... This article is about extreme malnutrition. ...


As more cultures scrutinize their diets, many parents consider putting their children on restricted diets that actually do more harm than good. This is extremely deleterious to a young child's health because a full and balanced diet (fats, carbohydrates, protein, vitamins, minerals, fiber, etc.) is needed for growth. A doctor should be consulted before putting any child on a specialized diet.


Research also shows that putting children on diet foods can be harmful. The brain is unable to learn how to correlate taste with nutritional value, which is why such children may consistently overeat later in life despite adequate nutritional intake. [1]


In children and young adults

Receiving adequate nutrition through a well-balanced diet is critical during childhood and adolescence. Unless a doctor says otherwise, low-carb, low-fat, or other specialty diets for children who are not heavily obese are unhealthy because they deprive the body of the building blocks of cells (namely energy and lipids in the above examples). Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...


Thermoregulation

According to the principles of thermoregulation, humans are endotherms. We expend energy to maintain our blood temperature at body temperature, which is about 37 °C (98.6 °F). This is accomplished by metabolism and blood circulation, by shivering to stay warm, and by sweating to stay cool.[2] Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when temperature surrounding is very different. ... Warm-blooded is an archaic term used to describe an animal that keeps its core body temperature at a nearly constant level regardless of the temperature of the surrounding environment (that is, to maintain thermal homeostasis). ... Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when temperature surrounding is very different. ...


In addition to thermoregulation, humans expend energy keeping the vital organs (especially the lungs, heart and brain) functioning. Except when sleeping, our skeletal muscles are working, typically to maintain upright posture. The average work done just to stay alive is the basal metabolic rate, which (for humans) is about 1 watt per kilogram of body mass (0.45 W/lb). Thus, an average man of 75 kilograms (165 lb) who just rests (or only walks a few steps) burns about 75 watts (continuously), or about 6,500 kilojoules (1,440 calories) per day or 1 calorie each minute. Structure of a skeletal muscle Skeletal muscle is a type of striated muscle, attached to the skeleton. ... While not moving, a human can be in one of the following main positions. ... Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the amount of energy expended while at rest in a neutrally temperate environment, in the post-absorptive state (meaning that the digestive system is inactive, which requires about twelve hours of fasting in humans). ... The joule (IPA: or ) (symbol: J) is the SI unit of energy. ... Etymology: French calorie, from Latin calor (heat), from calere (to be warm). ...


Physical exercise

Physical exercise is an important complement to dieting in securing weight loss. Aerobic exercise is also an important part of maintaining normal good health, especially the muscular strength of the heart. To be useful, aerobic exercise requires maintaining a target heart rate of above 50 percent of one's resting heart rate for 30 minutes, at least 3 times a week. Brisk walking can accomplish this. The term Exercise can refer to: Physical exercise such as running or strength training Exercise (options), the financial term for enacting and terminating a contract Category: ... Aerobic exercise refers to exercise that is of moderate intensity, undertaken for a long duration. ... For other uses, see Health (disambiguation). ... Physical strength is the ability of a person or animal to exert force on physical objects using muscles. ... Heart rate is a term used to describe the frequency of the cardiac cycle. ... Heart rate is a term used to describe the frequency of the cardiac cycle. ...


The ability of a few hours a week of exercise to contribute to weight loss can be somewhat overestimated. To illustrate, consider a 100-kilogram (220 lb) man who wants to lose 10 kilograms (22 lb) and assume that he eats just enough to maintain his weight (at rest), so that weight loss can only come from exercise. Those 10 kilograms (22 lb) converted to work are equivalent to about 350 megajoules (84,000 calories). (We use an approximation of the standard 37 kilojoules or 9 calories per gram of fat.) Now assume that his chosen exercise is stairclimbing and that he is 20 percent efficient at converting chemical energy into mechanical work (this is within measured ranges). To lose the weight, he must ascend 70 kilometers. A man of normal fitness (like him) will be tired after 500 meters of climbing (about 150 flights of stairs), so he needs to exercise every day for 140 days (to reach his target). However, exercise (both aerobic and anaerobic) would increase the Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) for some time after the workout. This ensures more calorific loss than otherwise estimated.


The minimum safe dietary energy intake (without medical supervision) is 75 percent of that needed to maintain basal metabolism. For our hypothetical 100-kilogram man, that minimum is about 5,700 kilojoules (1,300 calories) per day. By combining daily aerobic exercise with a weight-loss diet, he would be able to lose 10 kilograms in half the time (70 days). Of course, the described regime is more rigorous than would be desirable or advisable for many persons. Therefore, under an effective but more manageable weight-loss program, losing 10 kilograms (about 20 pounds) may take as long as 6 months.


There are also some easy ways for people to exercise, such as walking rather than driving, climbing stairs instead of taking elevators, doing more housework with fewer power tools, or parking their cars farther and walking to school or the office.


Fat loss versus muscle loss

It is important to understand the difference between weight loss and fat loss. Weight loss typically involves the loss of fat, water and muscle. A dieter can lose weight without losing much fat. Ideally, overweight people should seek to lose fat and preserve muscle, since muscle burns more calories than fat. Generally, the more muscle mass one has, the higher one's metabolism is, resulting in more calories being burned, even at rest. Since muscles are more dense than fat, muscle loss results in little loss of physical bulk compared with fat loss. To determine whether weight loss is due to fat, various methods of measuring body fat percentage have been developed. // Total body fat percentage consists of essential fat and storage fat. ...


Muscle loss during weight loss can be restricted by regularly lifting weights (or doing push-ups and other strength-oriented calisthenics) and by maintaining sufficient protein intake. According to the National Academy of Sciences, the Dietary Reference Intake for protein is "0.8 grams per kilogram of body weight for adults." A press up (North American English: push up) is a common strength training exercise performed while lying horizontal and face down, raising and lowering using the arms. ... Female internees practicing calisthenics in Manzanar. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ... The Dietary Reference Intake is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine of the USA National Academy (IOM). ...


Those on low-carbohydrate diets, and those doing particularly strenuous exercise, may wish to increase their protein intake which is necessary. However, there may be risks involved. According to the American Heart Association, excessive protein intake may cause liver and kidney problems and may be a risk factor for heart disease.[3] There is no conclusive evidence that moderately high protein diets in healthy individuals are dangerous, however; it has only been shown that these diets are dangerous in individuals who already have kidney and liver problems. The American Heart Association (AHA) is a non-profit organization in the United States that fosters appropriate cardiac care in an effort to reduce disability and deaths caused by cardiovascular disease and stroke American Stroke Association Web site. ... A risk factor is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection but risk factors are not necessarily causal. ... Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and as of 2007 it is the leading cause of death in the United States,[1] and England and Wales. ...


Energy obtained from food

The energy humans get from food is limited by the efficiency of digestion and the efficiency of utilization. The efficiency of digestion is largely dependent on the type of food being eaten. Poorly chewed seeds are poorly digested. Refined sugars and fats are absorbed almost completely. Chewing does not compensate for the calorie content of a food that is eaten; even celery, which is primarily indigestible cellulose, contains enough sugars to easily compensate for the cost of chewing it. Binomial name L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely traded commodity. ...


Proper nutrition

Food provides nutrients from six broad classes: proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, dietary minerals, and water. Carbohydrates are metabolized to provide energy. Proteins provide amino acids, which are required for cell, especially muscle, construction. Essential fatty acids are required for brain and cell membrane construction. Vitamins and trace minerals help maintain proper electrolyte balance and are required for many metabolic processes. A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Retinol (Vitamin A) For the record label, see Vitamin Records A vitamin is an organic compound required in tiny amounts for essential metabolic reactions in a living organism. ... mccall is cooool Dietary minerals are the chemical elements required by living organisms, other than the four elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen which are present in common organic molecules. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ...


Any diet that fails to meet minimum nutritional requirements can threaten general health (and physical fitness in particular). If a person is not well enough to be active, weight loss and good quality of life will be unlikely.


The National Academy of Sciences and the World Health Organization publish guidelines for dietary intakes of all known essential nutrients. President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ... WHO redirects here. ...


Sometimes dieters will ingest excessive amounts of vitamin and mineral supplements. While this is usually harmless, some nutrients are dangerous. Men (and women who don't menstruate) need to be wary of iron poisoning. Retinol (oil-soluble vitamin A) is toxic in large doses. As a general rule, most people can get the nutrition they need from foods (there are specific exceptions; vegans often need to supplement vitamin B12). In any event, a multivitamin taken once a day will suffice for the majority of the population. Not to be confused with Mensuration. ... Iron poisoning is caused by an excess of iron in the blood. ...


A sensible weight-loss diet is a normal balanced diet; it just comes with smaller portions and perhaps some substitutions (e.g. low-fat milk, or less salad dressing). Extreme diets may lead to malnutrition, and are less likely to be effective at long-term weight loss in any event.


How the body gets rid of fat

All body processes require energy to run properly. When the body is expending more energy than it is taking in (e.g. when exercising), the body's cells rely on internally stored energy sources, like complex carbohydrates and fats, for energy. The first source the body turns to is glycogen, which is a complex carbohydrate created by the body. When that source is nearly depleted, the body begins lipolysis, the metabolism of fat for energy. In this process, fats, obtained from fat cells, are broken down into glycerol and fatty acids, which can be used to make energy. The primary by-products of metabolism are carbon dioxide and water; carbon dioxide is expelled through the respiratory system. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Lipolysis is the breakdown of fat stored in fat cells. ... Types of connective tissue Adipose tissue is an anatomical term for loose connective tissue composed of adipocytes. ... Glycerine, Glycerin redirects here. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid (or organic acid), often with a long aliphatic tail (long chains), either saturated or unsaturated. ...


Fats are also secreted by the sebaceous glands (in the skin). Schematic view of a hair follicle with sebaceous gland. ...


Psychological aspects of weight-loss dieting

Diets affect the "energy in" component of the energy balance by limiting or altering the distribution of foods. Techniques that affect the appetite can limit energy intake by affecting the desire to overeat. The appetite is the desire to eat food, felt as hunger. ...


Consumption of low-energy, fiber-rich foods, such as non-starchy vegetables, is effective in obtaining satiation (the feeling of "fullness"). Exercise is also useful in controlling appetite as is drinking water and sleeping. (Extreme physical fatigue, such as experienced by soldiers and mountain climbers, can make eating a difficult chore.)


The use of drugs to control appetite is also common. Stimulants are often taken as a means to suppress (normal, healthy) hunger by people who are dieting. Ephedrine (through facilitating the release of adrenaline and noradrenaline) stimulates the alpha(1)-adrenoreceptor subtype, which is known to act as an anorectic. L-Phenylalanine, an amino acid found in whey protein powders also has the ability to suppress appetite by increasing the hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) which sends a satiety signal to the brain. Anorectics, anorexigenics or appetite suppressants are drugs that reduce the desire to eat (anorectic, from the Greek an- = not and oreg- = extend, reach). (Anorectic is also a term for an anorexic person, a person suffering from Anorexia nervosa. ... Phe redirects here. ... Cholecystokinin (from Greek chole, bile; cysto, sac; kinin, move; hence, move the bile-sac (gall bladder)) is a peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal system responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein. ...


Weight loss groups

There exist both profit-oriented and non-profit weight loss organizations who assist people in their weight loss efforts. An example of the former is Weight Watchers ; examples of the latter include Overeaters Anonymous, as well as a multitude of non-branded support groups run by local churches, hospitals, and like-minded individuals. Weight Watchers NYSE: WTW, founded in the 1960s by Jean Nidetch, is a company offering various dieting products and services to assist weight loss and maintenance. ... Overeaters Anonymous (OA) is a Twelve Step program for people identifying themselves as powerless over food including, but not limited to, compulsive overeaters, those with binge eating disorder, bulimics and anorexics. ...


These organizations' customs and practices differ widely. Some groups are modelled on twelve-step programs, while others are quite informal. Some groups advocate certain prepared foods or special menus, while others train dieters to make healthy choices from restaurant menus and while grocery-shopping and cooking. // A twelve-step program is a set of guiding principles for recovery from addictive, compulsive, or other behavioral problems, originally developed by the fellowship of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) for recovery from alcoholism. ...


Most groups leverage the power of group meetings to provide counseling, emotional support, problem-solving, and useful information.


Dangers

Extreme calorie restriction, medication or unusual patterns of eating (i.e. restricting food consumption to a single fruit or meal) can be dangerous.


Medications

Certain medications can be prescribed to assist in weight loss. Some, like amphetamines, are dangerous now banned for casual weight loss. Others, including those containing vitamins and minerals, are not effective for losing weight. Amphetamine or Amfetamine(Alpha-Methyl-PHenEThylAMINE), also known as beta-phenyl-isopropylamine and benzedrine, is a prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. ... Retinol (Vitamin A) Vitamins are nutrients required in very small amounts for essential metabolic reactions in the body [1]. The term vitamin does not encompass other essential nutrients such as dietary minerals, essential fatty acids, or essential amino acids. ... Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. ...


Diuretics

Diuretics induce weight loss through the excretion of water. These medication or herbs will reduce the amount that a body weighs, but will have no effect on an individual's body fat. Diuretics can thicken the blood, cause cramping, kidney and liver damage. For other uses, see Herb (disambiguation). ... In biochemistry, fat is a generic term for a class of lipids. ...


Stimulants

Stimulants such as ephedrine (now illegal in the United States due to an FDA ban) or synephrine work to increase the basal metabolic rate and reduce appetite. Stimulants can cause kidney and liver damage, sudden heart attacks, addiction, and ischemic strokes. [dubious ] A stimulant is a drug which increases the activity of the sympathetic nervous system and produces a sense of euphoria or awakeness. ... Ephedrine (EPH) is a sympathomimetic amine similar in structure to the synthetic derivatives amphetamine and methamphetamine. ... “FDA” redirects here. ... Synephrine Synephrine is a dietary supplement aimed at encouraging fat loss. ... Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the amount of energy expended while at rest in a neutrally temperate environment, in the post-absorptive state (meaning that the digestive system is inactive, which requires about twelve hours of fasting in humans). ... Heroin bottle An addiction is a recurring compulsion by an individual to engage in some specific activity, despite harmful consequences to the individuals health, mental state or social life. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ...


In June 2006, the European Union approved the sale of the diet drug rimonabant, marketed under the trade name Acomplia. This new class of diet pills shows some promise in assisting physician-prescribed diets.[citation needed] Rimonabant (SR141716) is an anorectic anti-obesity drug. ...


Dangers of fasting

Main article: Fasting

Lengthy fasting can be dangerous due to the risk of malnutrition and should be carried out under medical supervision. During fasting, low-carbohydrate or very low calorie diets a lack of blood glucose, the preferred energy source of the brain, causes the body to metabolize sugars from protein, which can lead to muscle wasting. Fasting is primarily the act of willingly abstaining from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time. ... Fasting is primarily the act of willingly abstaining from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time. ... Percentage of population affected by malnutrition by country, according to United Nations statistics. ... Very low calorie diet (VLCD) is a diet with very or extremely low calorie consumption per day. ... The human brain In animals, the brain (enkephalos) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ...


Side effects

Dieting, especially extreme food-intake reduction and rapid weight loss, can have the following side effects:

Hunger is a feeling experienced when the glycogen level of the liver falls below a threshold, usually followed by a desire to eat. ... In everyday language depression refers to any downturn in mood, which may be relatively transitory and perhaps due to something trivial. ... For other uses, see Libido (disambiguation). ... Exhaustion redirects here. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... It has been suggested that Central Ischaemic Response be merged into this article or section. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Post-nasal drip (PND) occurs when excessive mucus is produced by the sinuses. ... // Clinical settings of atrophy There are many diseases and conditions which cause a decrease in muscle mass, known as atrophy. ... A rash is a change in skin which affects its color, appearance, or texture. ... For acidosis referring to acidity of the urine, see renal tubular acidosis. ... Conjunctivitis (commonly called pinkeye) is an inflammation of the conjunctiva (the outermost layer of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelids), often due to infection. ... The gallbladder (or cholecyst, sometimes gall bladder) is a pear-shaped organ that stores about 50 ml of bile (or gall) until the body needs it for digestion. ... This article is about the medical condition. ... Percentage of population affected by malnutrition by country, according to United Nations statistics. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation), Dead (disambiguation), or Death (band). ...

See also

Body image is a term which may refer to our perceptions of our own physical appearance, or our internal sense of having a body which is constructed by the brain. ... For the band, see Crashdïet. ... A dietitian (sometimes spelled dietician) is an expert in food and nutrition. ... Food faddism and fad diet refer to idiosyncratic diets and eating patterns. ... Maintaining a healthy diet is the practice of making choices about what to eat with the intent of improving or maintaining good health. ... Well-known nutritional diets: Abs Diet Atkins diet Banta Diet Best Bet Diet Blood Type diet Body for Life Breatharian diet Buddhist diet Cabbage soup diet Calorie restriction The Cambridge Diet Candida control diet Diabetic diet Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension or the DASH Diet Dr. Hay diet Detox diet... The National Weight Control Registry is a United States register of people (18 years or older) who have lost at least 14 kg (30 lb) of weight and kept it off for at least one year. ... Nutritional rating systems are methods of ranking or rating food products or food categories to communicate the nutritional value of food in a simplified manner to a target audience. ... Nutrition scales are generally weighing instruments that output precise nutritional information for foods or liquids placed upon them. ... The term underweight refers to a human who is considered to be under a healthy weight. ...

References

  1. ^ Diet food 'may fuel obesity risk in young
  2. ^ Thermoregulation
  3. ^ High-Protein Diets. American Heart Association. Retrieved on 2007-05-24.
  • American Dietetic Association. 2003. Position paper on vegetarian diets. J Am Diet Assoc. 103:748-765.
  • Dansinger, M.L., Gleason, J. L., Griffith, J.L., et al., "One Year Effectiveness of the Atkins, Ornish, Weight Watchers, and Zone Diets in Decreasing Body Weight and Heart Disease Risk", Presented at the American Heart Association Scientific Sessions November 12, 2003 in Orlando, Florida.)
  • Davis, B. and Melina, V. 2000. Becoming Vegan. pg. 22.
  • Wansink, B. Mindless Eating: Why We Eat More Than We Think, New York: Bantam Dell (2006).

The American Heart Association (AHA) is a non-profit organization in the United States that fosters appropriate cardiac care in an effort to reduce disability and deaths caused by cardiovascular disease and stroke American Stroke Association Web site. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Brian Wansink Brian Wansink (born 1960, Sioux City, Iowa) is an American professor in the fields of marketing and nutritional science. ...

External links


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