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Encyclopedia > Dietary fiber

Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water and making defecation easier. Dietary fiber consists of non-starch polysaccharides such as cellulose and many other plant components such as dextrins, inulin, lignin, waxes, chitins, pectins, beta-glucans and oligosaccharides. For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... Anatomy of the anus and rectum Defecation is the act or process by which organisms eliminate solid or semisolid waste material (feces) from the digestive tract via the anus. ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8) is a complex carbohydrate which is insoluble in water; it is used by plants as a way to store excess glucose. ... Polysaccharides (sometimes called glycans) are relatively complex carbohydrates. ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... Dextrins are a group of low-molecular-weight carbohydrates produced by the hydrolysis of starch. ... Note: This article title may be easily confused with insulin. ... Lignin (sometimes lignen) is a chemical compound (complex, highly cross-linked aromatic polymer) that is most commonly derived from wood and is an integral part of the cell walls of plants, especially in tracheids, xylem fibres and sclereids. ... candle wax This page is about the substance. ... Structure of the chitin molecule, showing two of the N-Acetylglucosamine units that repeat to form long chains in beta-1,4 linkage. ... Pectin, a white to light brown powder, is a heterosaccharide derived from the cell wall of higher terrestrial plants. ... A glucan molecule is a polysaccharide of D-glucose monomers linked by glycosidic bonds. ... An oligosaccharide is a saccharide polymer containing a small number (typically three to six) of component sugars, also known as simple sugars. ...

Contents

Soluble and insoluble fibers

Sources of dietary fiber are usually divided according to whether they are water-soluble or not. Both types of fiber are present in all plant foods, with varying degrees of each according to a plant’s characteristics. Insoluble fiber possesses passive water-attracting properties that help to increase bulk, soften stool and shorten transit time through the intestinal tract. Soluble fiber undergoes metabolic processing via fermentation, yielding end-products with broad, significant health effects. For example, plums (or prunes) have a thick skin covering a juicy pulp. The plum's skin is an example of an insoluble fiber source, whereas soluble fiber sources are inside the pulp. Other sources of insoluble fiber include whole wheat, wheat and corn bran, flax seed lignans and vegetables such as celery, green beans and potato skins. The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Species See text. ... Prune refers to any of more than 125 varieties of fruit, most grown for drying. ... Pulp can refer to: Soft shapeless substances in general. ... For the 1970s rock and roll band, see Bread (band). ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Binomial name L. Corn (Zea mays L. ssp. ... // wheat bran Bran is the hard outer layer of and consists of combined aleurone and pericarp. ... Binomial name Linum usitatissimum L. Linnaeus, 17?? Common flax (also known as linseed) is a member of the Linaceae family, which includes about 150 plant species widely distributed around the world. ... A lignan is a chemical compound found in plants. ... Vegetables on a market Vegetable is a nutritional and culinary term denoting any part of a plant that is commonly consumed by humans as food, but is not regarded as a culinary fruit, nut, herb, spice, or grain. ... Binomial name L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Green common beans on the plant Green beans are the unripe fruits of any kind of bean, including the yardlong bean, the hyacinth bean, the pea, the winged bean, the carper (vellum) bean, and especially the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), whose pods are also usually called string beans in the... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ...


Fermentable fiber

The American Association of Cereal Chemists defined soluble fiber this way[1]: “the edible parts of plants or similar carbohydrates resistant to digestion and absorption in the human small intestine with complete or partial fermentation in the large intestine”.


There are several key words in that statement that invite analysis and comment for considering fermentable fiber.


edible parts of plants — indicates that all parts of a plant we eat — skin, pulp, seeds, stems, leaves, roots — contain fiber. Both insoluble and soluble sources are in those plant components.


carbohydrates — complex carbohydrates, such as long-chained sugars also called starch, oligosaccharides or polysaccharides, are excellent sources of fiber. Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8) is a complex carbohydrate which is insoluble in water; it is used by plants as a way to store excess glucose. ... The term “oligosaccharide” refers to a short chain of sugar molecules (“oligo” means “few” and “saccharide” means “sugar. ... Polysaccharides (sometimes called glycans) are relatively complex carbohydrates. ...


resistant to digestion and absorption in the human small intestine — foods providing nutrients are digested by gastric acid and digestive enzymes in the stomach and small intestine where the nutrients are released then absorbed through the intestinal wall for transport via the blood throughout the body. A food resistant to this process is undigested, as insoluble and soluble fibers are. They pass to the large intestine only affected by their absorption of water (insoluble fiber) or dissolution in water (soluble fiber). Gastric acid is, together with several enzymes and the intrinsic factor, one of the main secretions of the stomach. ... Digestive enzymes are enzymes in the alimentary tract with a purpose of breaking down components of food so that they can be taken up by the organism. ...


complete or partial fermentation in the large intestine — the large intestine comprises a segment called the colon within which additional nutrient absorption occurs through the process of fermentation. Fermentation occurs by the action of colonic bacteria on the food mass, producing gases and short-chain fatty acids. It is these short-chain fatty acids — butyric, ethanoic (acetic), propionic, and valeric acids — that might have significant health properties[2]. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Large intestine. ... Butyric acid, (from Greek βουτυρος = butter) IUPAC name n-Butanoic acid, or normal butyric acid, is a carboxylic acid with structural formula CH3CH2CH2-COOH. It is notably found in rancid butter, parmesan cheese, and vomit, and has an unpleasant odor and acrid taste, with a sweetish aftertaste (similar to ether). ... Acetic acid, also known as ethanoic acid, is an organic chemical compound with the formula CH3COOH best recognized for giving vinegar its sour taste and pungent smell. ... The chemical compound acetic acid (from the Latin word acetum, meaning vinegar), systematically called ethanoic acid, is the acid that gives vinegar its sour taste. ... Propionic acid (systematically named propanoic acid) is a naturally occurring carboxylic acid with chemical formula CH3CH2COOH. In the pure state, it is a colorless, corrosive liquid with a pungent odor. ... Valeric acid, or pentanoic acid, is a straight chain alkyl carboxylic acid with the chemical formula CH3(CH2)3COOH. Like other low molecular weight carboxylic acids, it has a very unpleasant odor. ...


Short-chain fatty acids

Short-chain fatty acids are used by the intestinal mucosa or absorbed through the colonic wall into the portal circulation (supplying the liver) that transports them into the general circulatory system. Particularly, butyric acid has extensive physiological actions that promote health effects, among which are: The mucous membranes (or mucosa) are linings of ectodermic origin, covered in epithelium, that line various body cavities and internal organs. ... Circulation of blood to the liver from the small intestine via the portal vein. ... The liver is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... Diagram of the human circulatory system. ... Butyric acid, (from Greek βουτυρος = butter) IUPAC name n-Butanoic acid, or normal butyric acid, is a carboxylic acid with structural formula CH3CH2CH2-COOH. It is notably found in rancid butter, parmesan cheese, and vomit, and has an unpleasant odor and acrid taste, with a sweetish aftertaste (similar to ether). ...

  • Stabilizes blood glucose levels by acting on pancreatic insulin release and liver control of glycogen breakdown

Summarizing these effects, fermentable fibers yield the important short-chain fatty acids that affect blood glucose and lipid levels, improve the colonic environment and regulate immune responses[3] [4]. Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Insulin (from Latin insula, island, as it is produced in the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas) is an anabolic polypeptide hormone that regulates carbohydrate metabolism. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol), a lipid found in the cell membranes of all body tissues, and is transported in the blood plasma of all animals. ... Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) refers to a class and range of lipoprotein particles, varying somewhat in their size and contents, which carry cholesterol in the blood and around the body, for use by various cells. ... Triglyceride (blue: fatty acid; red: glycerol backbone) Triglycerides are glycerides in which the glycerol is esterified with three fatty acids. ... The correct title of this article is . ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Large intestine. ... A polyp can be defined as lining of mucosa which projects out in a mushroom shape. ... Dietary minerals are chemical elements required by living organisms. ... T cells are a subset of lymphocytes that play a large role in the immune response. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... White Blood Cells is also the name of a White Stripes album. ... Cytokines are small protein molecules that are the core of communication between immune system cells, and even between immune system cells and cells belonging to other tissue types. ... In mammals including humans, the lymphatic vessels (or lymphatics) are a network of thin tubes that branch, like blood vessels, into tissues throughout the body. ... A request has been made on Wikipedia for this article to be deleted in accordance with the deletion policy. ... A bacterial group (and probiotic) that is perceived to exert health-promoting properties within humans, specifically the colon. ... Species L. acidophilus L. bulgaricus L. plantarum L.reuteri etc. ... Probiotics are dietary supplements containing potentially beneficial bacteria or yeast, with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as the most common microbes used. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of ectodermic origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ... Inflammation is the first response of the immune system to infection or irritation and may be referred to as the innate cascade. ... Dew drops adhering to a spider web Adhesion is the molecular attraction exerted between bodies in contact. ...


Regulatory guidance on fiber products

On average, North Americans consume less than 50% of the dietary fiber levels required for good health. In the preferred food choices of today's youth, this value may be as low as 20%, a factor considered by experts as contributing to the obesity crisis seen in many developed countries[5][6][7]. A developed country is a country that has achieved (currently or historically) a high degree of industrialization, and which enjoys the higher standards of living which wealth and technology make possible. ...


Recognizing the growing scientific evidence for physiological benefits of increased fiber intake, regulatory agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have given approvals to food products making health claims for fiber. hi “FDA” redirects here. ...


In clinical trials to date, these fiber sources were shown to significantly reduce blood cholesterol levels -- thus are important to general cardiovascular health[8] -- and to lower risk of onset for some types of cancer[9].


Soluble (fermentable) fiber sources gaining FDA approval are

  • Psyllium seed husk (7 grams per day)
  • Beta-glucan from oat bran, whole oats, oatrim or rolled oats (3 grams per day)
  • Beta-glucan from whole grain or dry-milled barley (3 grams per day)

Other examples of fermentable fiber sources (from plant foods or biotechnology) used in functional foods and supplements include inulin, fructans, xanthan gum, cellulose, guar gum, fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and oligo- or polysaccharides. Psyllium or Ispaghula is the common name used for several members of the plant genus Plantago whose seeds are used commercially for the production of mucilage. ... β-Glucans are natural gum polysaccharides occurring in the bran of cereal grains, most abundantly in barley and oats and to a much lesser degree in rye and wheat. ... Species References ITIS 41455 2002-09-22 Oats are the seeds of any of several cereal grains in the genus Avena. ... Binomial name Avena sativa Carolus Linnaeus (1753) The Oat (Avena sativa) is a species of cereal grain, and the seeds of this plant. ... Binomial name L. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an annual cereal grain, which serves as a major animal feed crop, with smaller amounts used for malting and in health food. ... Note: This article title may be easily confused with insulin. ... A fructan is a polymer of fructose molecules. ... Xanthan gum is a polysaccharide used as a food additive and rheology modifier. ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... Guar gum, also called guaran, is primarily the ground endosperm of guar beans. ...


Consistent intake of fermentable fiber through foods like berries and other fresh fruit, vegetables, whole grains, seeds and nuts is now known to reduce risk of some of the world’s most prevalent diseases — obesity, diabetes, high blood cholesterol, cardiovascular disease, and numerous gastrointestinal disorders. In this last category are constipation, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis, hemorrhoids, Crohn’s disease, diverticulitis, and colon cancer--all disorders of the intestinal tract where fermentable fiber can provide healthful benefits. For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... A plate of vegetables Vegetable is a culinary term which generally refers to an edible part of a plant. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol), a lipid found in the cell membranes of all body tissues, and is transported in the blood plasma of all animals. ... Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart and/or blood vessels (arteries and veins). ... For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... Constipation or irregularity, is a condition of the digestive system where a person (or animal) experiences hard feces that are difficult to egest; it may be extremely painful, and in severe cases (fecal impaction) lead to symptoms of bowel obstruction. ... In gastroenterology, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or spastic colon is a functional bowel disorder characterized by abdominal pain and changes in bowel habits which are not associated with any abnormalities seen on routine clinical testing. ... H&E section of non-caseating granuloma seen in the colon of a patient with Crohns disease. ... Diverticulitis is a common digestive disorder particularly found in the large intestine. ... Diagram of the stomach, colon, and rectum Colorectal cancer includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix. ...


Insufficient fiber in the diet can complicate defecation [10]. Low-fiber feces are dehydrated and hardened, making them difficult to evacuate -- defining constipation[11] and possibly leading to development of hemorrhoids[12]. Anatomy of the anus and rectum Defecation is the act or process by which organisms eliminate solid or semisolid waste material (feces) from the digestive tract via the anus. ... Constipation or irregularity, is a condition of the digestive system where a person (or animal) experiences hard feces that are difficult to egest; it may be extremely painful, and in severe cases (fecal impaction) lead to symptoms of bowel obstruction. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Although many researchers believe that dietary fiber intake reduces risk of colon cancer, one study, conducted by researchers at the Harvard School of Medicine of over 88,000 women, did not show a statistically significant relationship between higher fiber consumption and lower rates of colorectal cancer or adenomas.[1] Shield of Harvard Medical School Harvard Medical School (HMS) is one of the graduate schools of Harvard University. ...


Summary of definition and potential health benefits

In June 2007, the British Nutrition Foundation issued a statement to define dietary fiber more concisely and list the potential health benefits established to date[13][14].


Quoting


‘Dietary fiber’ has been used as a collective term for a complex mixture of substances with different chemical and physical properties which exert different types of physiological effects.


The use of certain analytical methods to quantify ‘dietary fiber’ by nature of its indigestibility results in many other indigestible components being isolated along with the carbohydrate components of dietary fiber. These components include resistant starches and oligosaccharides along with other substances that exist within the plant cell structure and contribute to the material that passes through the digestive tract. Such components are likely to have physiological effects. Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Resistant starch (RS) is starch that escapes digestion by enzymatic hydrolysis in the small intestine but can be fermented in the large intestine by microflora[1]. There are several health benefits associated with RS-based diets. ... The term “oligosaccharide” refers to a short chain of sugar molecules (“oligo” means “few” and “saccharide” means “sugar. ... For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and...


Yet, some differentiation has to be made between these indigestible plant components and other partially digested material, such as protein, that appears in the large bowel. Thus, it is better to classify fiber as a group of compounds with different physiological characteristics, rather than to be constrained by defining it chemically. A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... The intestine is the portion of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine. ...


Diets naturally high in fiber can be considered to bring about five main physiological consequences:

  1. improvements in gastrointestinal health
  2. improvements in glucose tolerance and the insulin response
  3. reduction of hyperlipidemia, hypertension and other coronary heart disease risk factors
  4. reduction in the risk of developing some cancers
  5. increased satiety and hence some degree of weight management

Therefore, it is not appropriate to state that fiber has a single all encompassing physiological property as these effects are dependent on the type of fiber in the diet. The beneficial effects of high fiber diets are the summation of the effects of the different types of fiber present in the diet and also other components of such diets. For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) is a pre-diabetic state of dysglycemia, that is associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of cardiovascular pathology. ... Insulin (from Latin insula, island, as it is produced in the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas) is an anabolic polypeptide hormone that regulates carbohydrate metabolism. ... Hypercholesterolemia (literally: high blood cholesterol) is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood. ... For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Cancer (disambiguation). ... Satiety, or the feeling of fullness and disappearance of appetite after a meal, is a process mediated by the ventromedial nucleus in the hypothalamus. ...


Defining fiber physiologically allows recognition of indigestible carbohydrates with structures and physiological properties similar to those of naturally occurring dietary fibers.


Guidelines on fiber intake

The American Dietetic Association (ADA) recommends a minimum of 20-35 g/day for a healthy adult depending on calorie intake (e.g., a 2000 cal/8400 kJ diet should include 25 g of fiber per day). The ADA's recommendation for children is that intake should equal age in years plus 5 g/day (e.g., a 4 year old should consume 9 g/day). No guidelines have yet been established for the elderly or very ill. Patients with current constipation, vomiting, and abdominal pain should see a physician. Certain bulking agents are not commonly recommended with the prescription of opioids because the slow transit time mixed with larger stools may lead to severe constipation, pain, or obstruction. The American Dietetic Association (ADA) is the United States largest organization of food and nutrition professionals, with nearly 65,000 members. ... Constipation or irregularity, is a condition of the digestive system where a person (or animal) experiences hard feces that are difficult to egest; it may be extremely painful, and in severe cases (fecal impaction) lead to symptoms of bowel obstruction. ... Vomiting (also throwing up or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose. ... Abdominal pain can be one of the symptoms associated with transient disorders or serious disease. ... An opioid is a chemical substance that has a morphine-like action in the body. ...


The British Nutrition Foundation has recommended a minimum fiber intake of 12-24 g/day for healthy adults. [15]


Sources of fiber

Current recommendations from the United States National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine, suggest that adults consume 20-35 grams of dietary fiber per day, but the average American's daily intake of dietary fiber is only 12-18 grams [16][17]. The American Dietetic Association recommends consuming a variety of fiber-rich foods. President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ... The Institute of Medicine, a part of the National Academy of Sciences, is an American organization whose purpose is to provide national advice on issues relating to biomedical science, medicine, and health (National Academy of Sciences, n. ... The American Dietetic Association (ADA) is the United States largest organization of food and nutrition professionals, with nearly 65,000 members. ...


Soluble fiber is found in varying quantities in all plant foods, including:

Legumes also typically contain shorter-chain carbohydrates indigestible by the human digestive tract but are metabolized by bacterial fermentation in the large intestine (colon), yielding short-chain fatty acids and gases (flatulence). Varieties of soybean seeds, a popular legume Pea pods A legume is a plant in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae), or a fruit of these plants. ... Binomial name Pisum sativum L. A pea is the small, edible round green bean which grows in a pod on the leguminous vine Pisum sativum, or in some cases to the immature pods. ... Binomial name (L.) Merr. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Legume, Pulse (legume) and Fabaceae (Discuss) Green beans Bean is a common name for large plant seeds of several genera of Fabaceae (formerly Leguminosae) used for food or feed. ... Binomial name Avena sativa Carolus Linnaeus (1753) The Oat (Avena sativa) is a species of cereal grain, and the seeds of this plant. ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... Binomial name Salvia hispanica L. Chia (Salvia hispanica) is a plant of the genus Salvia of the mint family. ... Binomial name L. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an annual cereal grain, which serves as a major animal feed crop, with smaller amounts used for malting and in health food. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Juice (disambiguation). ... Prune has several meanings: Any of more than 125 varieties of fruit, most grown for drying. ... Species See text. ... Several types of berries from the market. ... A plate of vegetables Vegetable is a culinary term which generally refers to an edible part of a plant. ... Broccoli is a plant of the Cabbage family, Brassicaceae (formerly Cruciferae). ... Binomial name L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Root vegetables are underground plant parts used as vegetables. ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... Binomial name L. “Camote” redirects here. ... For the parody newspaper, see The Onion. ... Psyllium or Ispaghula is the common name used for several members of the plant genus Plantago whose seeds are used commercially for the production of mucilage. ... Mucilage is a thick gluey substance, often produced by plants. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid (or organic acid), often with a long aliphatic tail (long chains), either saturated or unsaturated. ... Flatulence (expelled through the anus in a process commonly known as farting or emitting gas) is the presence of a mixture of gases known as flatus in the digestive tract of mammals. ...


Sources of insoluble fiber include:

The five most fiber-rich plant foods, according to the Micronutrient Center of the Linus Pauling Institute, are legumes (15-19 grams of fiber per US cup serving, including several types of beans, lentils and peas), wheat bran (17 grams per cup), prunes (12 grams), Asian pear (10 grams each) (3.6% by weight), and quinoa (9 grams)[18]. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... // wheat bran Bran is the hard outer layer of and consists of combined aleurone and pericarp. ... Hazelnuts from the Common Hazel Chestnut A nut can be either a seed or a fruit. ... This writeup is about biological seeds; for other meanings see Seed (disambiguation). ... Green common beans on the plant Green beans are the unripe fruits of any kind of bean, including the yardlong bean, the hyacinth bean, the pea, the winged bean, the carper (vellum) bean, and especially the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), whose pods are also usually called string beans in the... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Binomial name L. Zucchini (IPA: , in North American and Australian English) or courgette (IPA: , in New Zealand and British English) is a small summer squash. ... Binomial name L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Binomial name L. Synonyms Lycopersicon lycopersicum Lycopersicon esculentum Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... The Linus Pauling Institute was established at Oregon State University in August 1996 under an agreement reached between OSU and the Linus Pauling Institute of Science and Medicine (located in California from 1973 to 1996). ... Varieties of soybean seeds, a popular legume The term legume has two closely related meanings in botany, a situation encountered with many botanical common names of useful plants whereby an applied name can refer to either the plant itself, or to the edible fruit (or useful part). ... This article is on the plant. ... Binomial name Lens culinaris Medikus Red lentils Lentils (Lens culinaris, Fabaceae) are lens-shaped pulses that grow on an annual, bushlike plant. ... Binomial name Pisum sativum A pea (Pisum sativum) is the small, edible round green seed which grows in a pod on a leguminous vine, hence why it is called a legume. ... Bran is the hard outer layer of cereal grains, and consists of combined aleurone and pericarp. ... Prune has several meanings: A dried plum. ... Binomial name Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm. ... Binomial name Chenopodium quinoa Willd. ...


Remarkable among plant foods, the Amazonian palmberry, açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.), has been analyzed by two research groups reporting its content of dietary fiber is 25-44% of total mass in freeze-dried powder [19] [20] [21]. Species About 25-30 species including: Euterpe edulis Euterpe macrospadix Euterpe oleracea Açaí Palm Euterpe is a genus of 25-30 species of palms native to tropical Central and South America, from Belize south to Brazil and Peru, growing mainly in floodplains and swamps. ...


Rubus fruits such as raspberry (8 grams of fiber per serving) and blackberry (7.4 grams of fiber per serving) are exceptional sources of fiber[2]. Species See text. ... Cultivated raspberries The raspberry (plural, raspberries) is the edible fruit of a number of species of the genus Rubus. ... The BlackBerry is a wireless handheld device introduced in 1999 which supports push e-mail, mobile telephone, text messaging, internet faxing, web browsing and other wireless information services. ...


Fiber supplements

There are many types of soluble fiber supplements available to consumers for nutritional purposes, treatment of various gastrointestinal disorders, and for such possible health benefits as lowering cholesterol levels, reducing risk of colon cancer, and losing weight. For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol), a lipid found in the cell membranes of all body tissues, and is transported in the blood plasma of all animals. ... Diagram of the stomach, colon, and rectum Colorectal cancer includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix. ...


Soluble fiber supplements may be beneficial for alleviating symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome, such as diarrhea and/or constipation and abdominal discomfort[22] . Prebiotic soluble fiber products, like those containing inulin or oligosaccharides, may contribute to relief from inflammatory bowel disease[23], as in Crohn's disease[24], ulcerative colitis[25] [26], and Clostridium difficile[27], due in part to the short-chain fatty acids produced with subsequent anti-inflammatory actions upon the bowel[28] [29]. Fiber supplements may be effective in an overall dietary plan for managing irritable bowel syndrome by modification of food choices[30]. Types 5-7 on the Bristol Stool Chart are often associated with diarrhea Diarrhea (in American English) or diarrhoea (in British English) is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the Greek word διάρροια; literally meaning through-flowing). Acute infectious diarrhea is a common cause... Constipation or irregularity, is a condition of the digestive system where a person (or animal) experiences hard feces that are difficult to egest; it may be extremely painful, and in severe cases (fecal impaction) lead to symptoms of bowel obstruction. ... Prebiotics are a category of functional food, defined as: Non-digestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon, and thus improve host health. ... Note: This article title may be easily confused with insulin. ... The term “oligosaccharide” refers to a short chain of sugar molecules (“oligo” means “few” and “saccharide” means “sugar. ... In medicine, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the large intestine and, in some cases, the small intestine. ... Crohns disease (also known as regional enteritis) is a chronic, episodic, inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by transmural inflammation (affecting the entire wall of the involved bowel) and skip lesions (areas of inflammation with areas of normal lining in between). ... Binomial name Hall & OToole, 1935 Clostridium difficile or CDF/cdf (commonly mistaken  , alternatively and correctly pronounced ) (also referred to as C. diff or C-diff) is a species of bacteria of the genus Clostridium which are gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming rods (bacillus). ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid (or organic acid), often with a long aliphatic tail (long chains), either saturated or unsaturated. ... Anti-inflammatory refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation. ...


Psyllium husk

Psyllium seed husk may reduce the risk of heart disease by lowering cholesterol levels, and is known to help alleviate the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome, though it often causes uncomfortable bloating. Psyllium husk may be used as a bulk-forming laxative. Psyllium seed husks, also known as ispaghula or simply as psyllium, are portions of the seeds of the plant Plantago psyllium or Plantago ovata. ... Laxatives are foods, compounds, or drugs taken to induce bowel movements, most often taken to treat constipation. ...


The FDA allows foods containing 0.75 g of psyllium husk soluble fiber or 1.7 g of oat or barley soluble fiber as beta-glucans to claim that reduced risk of heart disease can result from regular consumption[31]. Binomial name L. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an annual cereal grain, which serves as a major animal feed crop, with smaller amounts used for malting and in health food. ... β-Glucans (or beta-glucans) are natural gum polysaccharides occurring in the bran of cereal grains, most abundantly in barley and oats and to a much lesser degree in rye and wheat. ... Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and is the leading cause of death in the United States as of 2007. ...


The FDA statement template for making this claim is: Soluble fiber from foods such as [name of soluble fiber source, and, if desired, name of food product], as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol, may reduce the risk of heart disease. A serving of [name of food product] supplies __ grams of the [necessary daily dietary intake for the benefit] soluble fiber from [name of soluble fiber source] necessary per day to have this effect[32].


In clinical studies approved by the FDA, the cholesterol-lowering benefit of soluble fiber from psyllium, when taken as directed and combined with a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet, was 4 to 6 percent for total blood cholesterol and 4 to 8 percent for LDL (bad) cholesterol vs. a low-fat diet alone[33].


Inulins

Inulins are a group of oligosaccharides occurring naturally in many plants. They belong to a class of carbohydrates known as fructans. Inulin is used increasingly in prepared foods due to its favorable nutritional characteristics. Subtly sweet, it can be used to replace sugar, fat, and flour, and is often used to improve the flow and mixing qualities of powdered nutritional supplements. Note: This article title may be easily confused with insulin. ... An oligosaccharide is a saccharide polymer containing a small number (typically three to six) of component sugars, also known as simple sugars. ... Carbohydrates (literally hydrates of carbon) are chemical compounds that act as the primary biological means of storing or consuming energy, other forms being fat and protein. ... Fructans are a monosaccharide or single-sugar composed of chains of fructose molecules. ... In the United States, a dietary supplement is defined under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 as a product taken by the mouth that contains a dietary ingredient that is intended as a supplement to the diet. ...


Inulin is advantageous because it contains 25-30% the food energy of sugar or other carbohydrates and 10-15% the food energy of fat. As a prebiotic fermentable fiber, its metabolism by colonic bacteria yields short-chain fatty acids (discussed above) which increase absorption of calcium[3] and magnesium[4] (among other potential beneficial effects) while promoting the health of intestinal bacteria. Food energy is the amount of energy in food that is available through digestion. ... The word prebiotic has two separate and disparate meanings: Before Life From the roots pre (meaning before) and biotic (referring to life), the word prebiotic can refer to the time before life appeared on the earth or any other planet with the capacity to harbor it. ... General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 40. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ...


Vegetable gums

Vegetable gum fiber supplements are relatively new to the market. Often sold as a powder, vegetable gum fibers dissolve easily with no aftertaste. They are effective for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (Parisi, 2002).[verification needed] Examples of vegetable gum fibers are guar gum (example brand Benefiber reformulated to wheat dextrin in 2006 [34]) and acacia gum. Natural gums are polysaccharides of natural origin, capable of causing a large viscosity increase in solution, even at small concentrations. ... Guar gum, also called guaran, is primarily the ground endosperm of guar beans. ... Dextrins are a group of low-molecular-weight carbohydrates produced by the hydrolysis of starch. ... Acacia senegal plant from Koehlers Medicinal-Plants 1887 Gum arabic, a natural gum also called gum acacia, is a substance that is taken from two sub-Saharan species of the acacia tree, Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal. ...


Misconceptions

Fiber does not bind to minerals and vitamins and therefore does not restrict their absorption, but rather evidence exists that fermentable fiber sources improve absorption of minerals, especially calcium[35] [36]. The food's phytate content is mainly responsible for the reduced bioavailability of certain minerals and vitamins like calcium, zinc, vitamin C and magnesium.[37] Phytic acid (known as inositol hexaphosphate, or phytate when its salt form) is the principal storage form of phosphorus in many plant tissues, especially seeds. ... General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 40. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... For other uses, see Vitamin C (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ...


See also

Prebiotics are a category of functional food, defined as: Non-digestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon, and thus improve host health. ... Escherichia coli, one of the many species of bacteria present in the human gut. ... A Low residue diet is a diet which is designed to reduce the volume of stools excreted daily. ... Resistant starch (RS) is starch that escapes digestion by enzymatic hydrolysis in the small intestine but can be fermented in the large intestine by microflora[1]. There are several health benefits associated with RS-based diets. ...

Further reading

  • Marlett JA. Dietary fiber and cardiovascular disease. In: Cho SS, Dreher ML, eds. Handbook of Dietary Fiber. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc; 2001:17-30.
  • US Food and Drug Administration. Health Claims: Soluble fiber from certain foods and risk of heart diseases. Code of Federal Regulations. 2001;21:101.81.
  • Eastwood MA, Brydon WG. Tadesse K. Effect of fiber on colon function. In: Spiller GA, Kay RM, eds. Medical Aspects of Dietary Fiber. New York, NY: Plenum Press; 1980:1-26.
  • Prynne CJ, Southgate DAT. The effects of a supplement of dietary fibre on faecal excretion by human subjects. Br J Nutr. 1979;41:495-503.

References

  1. ^ Fuchs, CS, et al. "Dietary fiber and the risk of colorectal cancer and adenoma in women." New England Journal of Medicine, 21 Jan 1999:223-4.
  2. ^ In-depth nutrient analysis. World's Healthiest Foods.
  3. ^ Abrams S, Griffin I, Hawthorne K, Liang L, Gunn S, Darlington G, Ellis K (2005). "A combination of prebiotic short- and long-chain inulin-type fructans enhances calcium absorption and bone mineralization in young adolescents.". Am J Clin Nutr 82 (2): 471-6. PMID 16087995. 
  4. ^ Coudray C, Demigné C, Rayssiguier Y (2003). "Effects of dietary fibers on magnesium absorption in animals and humans.". J Nutr 133 (1): 1-4. PMID 12514257. 

Fiber, Harvard School of Public Health, http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/fiber.html


Fiber Health Claims That Meet Significant Scientific Agreement, US Food and Drug Administration, http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/lab-ssa.html


Fiber 101: Soluble fiber vs. insoluble fiber, HealthCastle.com http://www.healthcastle.com/fiber-solubleinsoluble.shtml


Higgins JA. Resistant starch: metabolic effects and potential health benefits. Journal of AOAC International 87:761-767, 2004.


Tungland BC, Meyer D. Nondigestible oligo- and polysaccharides (dietary fiber): their physiology and role in human health and food. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 1:73-92, 2002.


Parisi, G.C., Zill, M. et al. High-fiber diet supplementation in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): A multicenter, randomized, open trial comparison between wheat bran diet and partially hydrolyzed guar gum. Digestive diseases and sciences Volume 47 number 8:1697-1704, 2002. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a scientific procedure most commonly used in testing medicines or medical procedures. ...


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Dietary fiber - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1451 words)
Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system and absorb water.
Although many researchers believe that dietary fiber intake reduces the risk of colon cancer, one study, conducted by researchers at the Harvard School of Medicine of over 88,000 women, did not show a statistically significant relationship between higher fiber consumption and lower rates of colorectal cancer or adenomas.
Prebiotic soluble fiber supplements (acacia, FOS, inulin) are a promising area of treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (Seidner, 2005) such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, and Clostridium difficile (May, 1994), due to the short-chain fatty acids they produce, and subsequent anti-inflammatory actions upon the bowel.
WHFoods: fiber, dietary (2018 words)
According to this definition, dietary fiber consists of nondigestible carbohydrates and lignin that are intrinsic and intact in plants.
The fermentation of dietary fiber in the large intestine produces a short-chain fatty acid called butyric acid, which serves as the primary fuel for the cells of the large intestine and helps maintain the health and integrity of the colon.
Dietary fiber decreases the absorption of hydralazine, digoxin, and lithium.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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