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Encyclopedia > Dietary Reference Intake

The Dietary Reference Intake is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine of the USA National Academy (IOM). The DRI system is used by both the United States and Canada. It is intended for the general public and health professionals. Applications include: The Nutrition Facts table indicates the amounts of nutrients which experts recommend you limit or consume in adequate amounts. ... The Institute of Medicine, a part of the National Academy of Sciences, is an American organization whose purpose is to provide national advice on issues relating to biomedical science, medicine, and health (National Academy of Sciences, n. ...

  • Food labels in the United States and Canada
  • Composition of diets for schools, prisons, hospitals or nursing homes
  • Industries developing new food stuffs
  • Healthcare policy makers and public health officials

In 1997, at the suggestion of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy, the RDA became one part of a broader, more detailed set of dietary guidelines, called the Dietary Reference Intake.

Contents

History

The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) was developed during World War II by Lydia J. Roberts, Hazel K. Stiebeling and Helen S. Mitchell, all part of a committee established by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences in order to investigate issues of nutrition that might "affect national defense" (Nestle, 35). The committee was renamed the Food and Nutrition Board in 1941, after which they began to deliberate on a set of recommendations of a standard daily allowance for each type of nutrient. The standards would be used for nutrition recommendations for the armed forces, for civilians, and for overseas population who might need food relief. Roberts, Stiebeling, and Mitchell surveyed all available data, created a tentative set of allowances for "energy and eight nutrients", and submitted them to experts for review (Nestle, 35). The final set of guidelines, called RDAs for Recommended Dietary Allowances, were accepted in 1941. The allowances were meant to provide superior nutrition for civilians and military personnel, so they included a "margin of safety." Because of food rationing during the war, the food guides created by government agencies to direct citizens' nutritional intake also took food availability into account. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ...


The Food and Nutrition Board subsequently revised the RDAs every five to ten years. In the early 1950s, USDA nutritionists made a new set of guidelines that also included the number of servings of each food group in order to make it easier for people to receive their RDAs of each nutrient.


Current recommendations

The current Dietary Reference Intake recommendation is composed of:

  • Estimated Average Requirements (EAR), expected to satisfy the needs of 50% of the people in that age group.
  • Reference Daily Intake (RDI), the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group.
  • Adequate Intake (AI), where no RDI has been established, but the amount established is somewhat less firmly believed to be adequate for everyone in the demographic group.
  • Tolerable upper intake levels (UL), to caution against excessive intake of nutrients (like vitamin D) that can be harmful in large amounts.

The RDI is used to determine the Recommended Daily Value (RDV) which is printed on food labels in the U.S. and Canada.


Vitamins and minerals

RDI/AIs and ULs for a 25-year old male are shown below. ULs shown as "ND" could not be determined, and it is recommended that intake from these nutrients be from food only, to prevent adverse effects. Amounts and "ND" status for other age and gender groups, pregnant women, lactating women, and breastfeeding infants are different.[1]

Nutrient RDI/AI UL units per day
Vitamin A 1000000 15000 IU
Vitamin C 90 2000 mg
Vitamin D 200 2000 IU
Vitamin K 120 ND µg
Vitamin B6 1.3 100 mg
α-tocopherol (E) 15 1000 IU
Biotin 30 ND µg
Boron - 20 mg
Calcium 1000 2500 mg
Chloride 2300 3600 mg
Chromium 35 ND µg
Choline 550 3500 mg
Copper 900 10000 µg
Cyanocobalamin (B12) 2.4 ND µg
Fluoride 4 10 mg
Folate (B9) 400 1000 µg
Iodine 150 1100 µg
Iron 8 45 mg
Magnesium 420 350a mg
Manganese 7.1 11 mg
Molybdenum 45 2000 µg
Niacin (B3) 16 35 mg
Nickel - 1.0 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5) 5 ND mg
Phosphorus 700 4000 mg
Potassium 4700 ND mg
Thiamin (B1) 1.2 ND mg
Riboflavin (B2) 1.3 ND mg
Selenium 55 400 µg
Sodium 1500 2300 mg
Sulfate - ND -
Zinc 4 40 mg

a From pill only, not including food and water intake. The structure of retinol, the most common dietary form of vitamin A Vitamin A is an essential human nutrient. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone). ... Pyridoxine Pyridoxal phosphate Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin. ... Tocopherol, or vitamin E, is a fat-soluble vitamin in eight forms that is an important antioxidant. ... Vitamin H redirects here. ... General Name, Symbol, Number boron, B, 5 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 13, 2, p Appearance black/brown Standard atomic weight 10. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides. ... REDIRECT [[ Insert text]]EWWWWWWWWWWWWW YO General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... Choline is an organic compound, classified as an essential nutrient and usually grouped within the Vitamin B complex. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Cyanocobalamin is a compound that is metabolized to a vitamin in the B complex commonly known as vitamin B12 (or B12 for short). ... Fluoride is the ionic form of fluorine. ... Folic acid (the anion form is called folate) is a B-complex vitamin (once called vitamin M) that is important in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) in the developing human fetus. ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH, NAD, NAD+, and NADP play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell and DNA repair. ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5 (a B vitamin), is a water-soluble vitamin required to sustain life (essential nutrient). ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... Thiamine mononitrate Thiamine or thiamin, also known as vitamin B1, is a colorless compound with chemical formula C12H17ClN4OS. It is soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol. ... Riboflavin (E101), also known as vitamin B2, is an easily absorbed micronutrient with a key role in maintaining health in animals. ... For other uses, see Selenium (disambiguation). ... For sodium in the diet, see Edible salt. ... The sulfate anion, SO42− The structure and bonding of the sulfate ion In inorganic chemistry, a sulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; also sulphate in British English) is a salt of sulfuric acid. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ...


It is also recommended that the following substances not be added to food or dietary supplements. Research has been conducted into adverse effects, but was not conclusive in many cases:

Substance RDI/AI UL units per day
Arsenic - ND -
Silicon - ND -
Vanadium - 1.8 mg

General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... General Name, symbol, number vanadium, V, 23 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 5, 4, d Appearance silver-grey metal Standard atomic weight 50. ...

Macronutrients

RDI/AI is shown below for males aged 19-30 years.[2]

Waterb 3.7 L/day
Carbohydrates 130 g/day
Fiber 38 g/day
Fat 20–35% of calories
Linoleic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid (polyunsaturated) 17 g/day
alpha-Linolenic acid, an omega-3 fatty acid (polyunsaturated) 1.6 g/day
Proteinc 56 g/day
Cholesterol As low as possible
Trans fatty acids As low as possible
Saturated fatty acids As low as possible
Added sugar No more than 25% of calories
bIncludes water from food, beverages, and drinking water.
cBased on 0.8 g/kg of body weight

Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Carbohydrates (literally hydrates of carbon) are chemical compounds that act as the primary biological means of storing or consuming energy, other forms being fat and protein. ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water and making defecation easier. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Linoleic acid (LA) is an unsaturated omega-6 fatty acid. ... Omega-6 fatty acids are fatty acids where the term omega-6 signifies that the first double bond in the carbon backbone of the fatty acid, counting from the end opposite the acid group, occurs in the sixth carbon-carbon bond. ... A polyunsaturated organic compound is one in which more than one double bond exists within the representative molecule. ... Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is a polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid. ... Omega-3 fatty acids are a family of polyunsaturated fatty acids which have in common a carbon-carbon double bond in the ω-3 position. ... A polyunsaturated organic compound is one in which more than one double bond exists within the representative molecule. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ... Trans fat is the common name for a type of unsaturated fat with trans isomer fatty acid(s). ... Saturated fat is fat that consists of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acids. ...

See also

Maintaining a healthy diet is the practice of making choices about what to eat with the intent of improving or maintaining good health. ... Acceptable Daily Intake or ADI is a measure of a specific substance (usually a food additive) in food or drinking water that can be ingested over a lifetime without an appreciable health risk. ... Vitamin poisoning, or hypervitaminosis, refers to a condition of high storage levels of vitamins, which can lead to toxic symptoms. ... Canadas Food Guide is a diet planning tool produced by Health Canada. ... This 1992 food pyramid diagram can still be found on much of the food packaging in the United States The improved American food guide pyramid, informally known as the food pyramid, was a nutrition guide created by the USDA. Released in 1992, the food pyramid suggested how much of each... mccall is cooool Dietary minerals are the chemical elements required by living organisms, other than the four elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen which are present in common organic molecules. ... An essential amino acid or indispensable amino acid is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized de novo by the organism (usually referring to humans), and therefore must be supplied in the diet. ... Essential fatty acids, or EFAs, are fatty acids that cannot be constructed within an organism from other components (generally all references are to humans) by any known chemical pathways; and therefore must be obtained from the diet. ... An essential nutrient is a nutrient required for normal body functioning that cannot be synthesized by the body. ... A nutrient is either a chemical element or compound used in an organisms metabolism or physiology. ... Retinol (Vitamin A) For the record label, see Vitamin Records A vitamin is an organic compound required in tiny amounts for essential metabolic reactions in a living organism. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.iom.edu/Object.File/Master/21/372/0.pdf
  2. ^ http://www.iom.edu/Object.File/Master/21/372/0.pdf

External links

PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ...

References

Nestle, Marion. "Food Politics." Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.


  Results from FactBites:
 
Dietary Reference Intakes: Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate - Institute of Medicine (556 words)
Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc
Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids
Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline
Dietary Reference Intake - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (185 words)
Dietary Reference Intake is a set of guidelines set up in 1997 to give more detailed guidance than the RDA system which preceded it.
The DRIs are a set of four reference values: Estimated Average Requirements (EAR), Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA), Adequate Intakes (AI), and Tolerable Upper Intake Levels, (UL) that have replaced the 1989 Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs).
The name RDA was dropped in favour of Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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