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Encyclopedia > Diet of Japan
National Diet of Japan
国会
Kokkai

There are many views as to what defines Japanese cuisine, as the everyday food of the Japanese people has diversified immensely over the past century or so. ... The Diet is a 1963 animated short from King Features Syndicate that stars Beetle Bailey. ... Image File history File links The_Diet. ...

Type Bicameral
Houses House of Councillors
House of Representatives
President Satsuki Eda, DPJ
since August 7, 2007
Speaker Yohei Kono, LDP
since September 11, 2005
Members 722
Political groups DPJ
LDP
NKP
JCP
SDP
PNP
NPN
Last elections July 29, 2007
Meeting place National Diet Building, Tokyo
Japan

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Japan
In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... The House of Councillors ) is the upper house of the Diet of Japan. ... The House of Representatives ) is the lower house of the Diet of Japan. ... Satsuki Eda (江田五月, born May 22, 1941[1]) is the first Opposition member to serve of the President of the House of Councillors in Japan. ... The Democratic Party of Japan ) is a liberal party in Japan. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Yohei Kono (河野洋平, Kōno Yōhei, born January 15, 1937) is a Japanese politician. ... This section needs to be updated. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Democratic Party of Japan ) is a liberal party in Japan. ... This section needs to be updated. ... The New Komeito ), New Komeito Party , or NKP is a political party in Japan founded by Daisaku Ikeda, leader of the Buddhist organization Soka Gakkai. ... The Japanese Communist Party or Japan Communist Party (JCP) (in Japanese 日本共産党, Nihon Kyōsan-tō) is a political party in Japan. ... The Social Democratic Party (社会民主党 Shakai Minshu-tō, often abbreviated to 社民党 Shamin-tō; also abbreviated as SDP in English) is a political party of Japan. ... The Peoples New Party (国民新党 Kokumin Shintō) is a Japanese political party formed on August 17, 2005 in the aftermath of the defeat of Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumis Japan Post privatisation bills which led to a snap election. ... The New Party Nippon (新党「日本」 Shintō Nippon) is a Japanese political party formed on August 21, 2005. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Exterior view. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Imperial_Seal_of_Japan. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article Japan#Government and politics. ...









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The National Diet of Japan (国会 Kokkai?) is Japan's bicameral legislature. It is composed of a lower house, called the House of Representatives, and an upper house, called the House of Councillors. Both houses of the Diet are directly elected under a parallel voting system. As well as passing laws, the Diet is formally responsible for selecting the Prime Minister. The Diet was first convened as the Imperial Diet in 1889 as a result of adopting the Meiji constitution. The Diet took its current form in 1947 upon the adoption of the postwar constitution and is considered by the Constitution to be the highest organ of state power. The National Diet Building is located in Nagatachō, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo. The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article Japan#Government and politics. ... The Emperor , literally heavenly sovereign,[1] formerly often called the Mikado) of Japan is the countrys monarch. ... The following is a traditional list of Emperors of Japan. ... For Prince Komatsu, see Prince Komatsu Akihito. ... Imperial Household Agency building on the grounds of the Imperial Palace in Tokyo The Imperial Household Agency ) is a government agency of Japan in charge of the state matters concerning Japans imperial family and also keeping the Privy Seal and the State Seal. ... Emblem of the Office of Prime Minister of Japan Kantei, Official residence of PM The Prime Minister of Japan ) is the usual English-language term used for the head of government of Japan, although the literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Prime Minister of the Cabinet. ... This is a historical list of individuals who have served as Prime Minister of Japan. ... Yasuo Fukuda , born July 16, 1936) is the 91st Prime Minister of Japan and the president of the Liberal Democratic Party of Japan. ... The Cabinet ) is the executive branch of the government of Japan. ... The most influential part of the executive of the Japanese government are the ministries. ... The House of Councillors ) is the upper house of the Diet of Japan. ... The House of Representatives ) is the lower house of the Diet of Japan. ... In the judicial system of Japan, the postwar constitution guarantees that all judges shall be independent in the exercise of their conscience and shall be bound only by this constitution and the Laws (Article 76). ... The Japanese political system has three types of elections: general elections to the House of Representatives held every four years (unless the lower house is dissolved earlier), elections to the House of Councillors held every three years to choose one-half of its members, and local elections held every four... Japan held a nationwide election to the House of Representatives, the more powerful lower house of the National Diet, on February 18, 1990. ... Japan held a nationwide election to the House of Representatives, the more powerful lower house of the National Diet, on July 18, 1993. ... A general election took place in Japan on October 20, 1996. ... Elections to the Shugi-In (House of Representatives) of the Japanese Diet were held on 25 June 2000. ... Incumbent Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi A general election took place in Japan on November 9, 2003. ... Elections to the House of Councillors, the upper house of the legislature of Japan, were held on July 11, 2004. ... For a breakdown of the results by block district with maps, see Results of Japan general election, 2005 Japan held a nationwide election to the House of Representatives, the more powerful lower house of the National Diet, on 11 September 2005, about two years before the end of the term... Elections to the House of Councillors, the upper house of the legislature of Japan, were held on July 29, 2007. ... Political parties in Japan lists political parties in Japan. ... This section needs to be updated. ... The Democratic Party of Japan ) is a liberal party in Japan. ... The New Komeito ), New Komeito Party , or NKP is a political party in Japan founded by Daisaku Ikeda, leader of the Buddhist organization Soka Gakkai. ... The Japanese Communist Party or Japan Communist Party (JCP) (in Japanese 日本共産党, Nihon Kyōsan-tō) is a political party in Japan. ... The Social Democratic Party (社会民主党 Shakai Minshu-tō, often abbreviated to 社民党 Shamin-tō; also abbreviated as SDP in English) is a political party of Japan. ... } While Japans political mainstream can be described as a one and a half party system, with the LDP being the dominant force, there is room for political extremism to the left and the right. ... The prefectures of Japan are the countrys 47 sub-national jurisdictions: one metropolis (都 to), Tokyo; one circuit (道 dō), Hokkaidō; two urban prefectures (府 fu), Osaka and Kyoto; and 43 other prefectures (県 ken). ... Monetary policy pertains to the regulation, availability, and cost of credit, while fiscal policy deals with government expenditures, taxes, and debt. ... The primary responsibility for the Japanese foreign policy, as determined by the 1947 constitution, is exercised by the cabinet and subject to the overall supervision of the National Diet. ... Since the surrender after World War II and the return to the international community by the Treaty of San Francisco, Japanese diplomatic policy have been based on close partnership with the United States and the emphasis on the international cooperation such as the United Nations. ... Japan is a liberal democracy. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... A Legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to create, amend and ratify laws. ... A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. ... The House of Representatives ) is the lower house of the Diet of Japan. ... For the demesne in The Keys to the Kingdom series, see The House An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house. ... The House of Councillors ) is the upper house of the Diet of Japan. ... In politics, a diet is a formal deliberative assembly. ... Parallel voting describes a mixed voting system where voters in effect participate in two separate elections using different systems, and where the results in one election have little or no impact on the results of the other. ... Emblem of the Office of Prime Minister of Japan Kantei, Official residence of PM The Prime Minister of Japan ) is the usual English-language term used for the head of government of Japan, although the literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Prime Minister of the Cabinet. ... refers to either the historic institution of the Reichstag in Germany, or Diet of Japan. ... Jōyu (上諭) - The Emperors words (1) The Constitution of the Empire of Japan ), more commonly known as the Imperial or Meiji Constitution, was the fundamental law of the Empire of Japan from 29 November 1889 until 2 May 1947. ... The Constitution of Japan ) has been the founding legal document of Japan since 1946. ... Exterior view. ... National Diet Building Nagatachō ) is a district of Tokyo, Japan, located in Chiyoda Ward. ... National Diet Building, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo Yasukuni Shrine, Kudan Kita 3-1-1, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo Otemon, the Great Gate of Edo Castle (Kokyo) Chiyoda (千代田区; -ku) is a special ward in central Tokyo, Japan. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Composition

See also: Elections in Japan and List of members of the Diet of Japan

The houses of the Diet are elected under a parallel voting system. This means that the seats to be filled in any given election are divided into two groups, each elected by a different method; the main difference between the houses is in the sizes of the two groups and how they are elected. Voters are also asked to cast two votes: one for an individual candidate in a constituency, and one for a party list. Any citizen of Japan at least twenty years of age (the age of majority in Japan) may vote in these elections.[1] Japan's parallel voting system is not to be confused with the Additional Member System used in many other nations. The Japanese political system has three types of elections: general elections to the House of Representatives held every four years (unless the lower house is dissolved earlier), elections to the House of Councillors held every three years to choose one-half of its members, and local elections held every four... // House of Councillors Liberal Democratic Party (115 members) Masatoshi Abe Jiro Aichi Issei Anan Mikio Aoki Shogo Arai Akito Arima Haruko Arimura Yukio Dammoto Chuichi Date Motoyuki Fujii Kimitaka Fujino Keishiro Fukushima Hiroko Goto Seiko Hashimoto Minao Hattori Yoshimasa Hayashi Eisuke Hinode Sanzo Hosaka Ichiro Ichikawa Hajimu Irisawa Kuniomi Iwai... The age of majority is the threshold of adulthood as it is conceptualized in law. ... The Additional Member System (AMS) is a voting system in which some representatives are elected from geographic constituencies and others are elected under proportional representation from party lists. ...

  • House of Representatives: Of 480 members, 300 are elected from single seat constituencies under the Single Member Plurality ('First-past-the-post') system, and 180 are elected from eleven separate electoral blocs under the party list system of proportional representation (PR).
  • House of Councillors: Of 242 members, 146 are elected from 47 prefectural constituencies by means of the Single Non-Transferable Vote. The remaining 96 are elected by party list PR from a single national list.

The Constitution of Japan does not specify the number of members of each house of the Diet, the voting system, or the necessary qualifications of those who may vote or be returned in parliamentary elections, thus allowing all of these things to be determined by law. However it does guarantee universal adult suffrage and a secret ballot. It also insists that the electoral law must not discriminate in terms of "race, creed, sex, social status, family origin, education, property or income".[2] The plurality voting system, also known as first past the post, is a voting system used to elect a single winner in a given election. ... Party-list proportional representation systems are a family of voting systems used in multiple-winner elections (e. ... Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ... The Single Non-Transferable Vote or SNTV is an electoral system used in multi-member constituency elections. ... The Constitution of Japan ) has been the founding legal document of Japan since 1946. ... The Japanese political system has three types of elections: general elections to the House of Representatives held every four years (unless the lower house is dissolved earlier), elections to the House of Councillors held every three years to choose one-half of its members, and local elections held every four...


Generally, the election of Diet members is controlled by statutes passed by the Diet. Because the Liberal Democratic Party has controlled Japan for most of its postwar history, and gains much of its support from rural areas, rural areas generally have more representation in the Diet than do urban areas.[3] The Supreme Court of Japan began exercising judicial review of apportionment laws following the Kurokawa decision of 1976, invalidating an election in which one district in Hyōgo Prefecture received five times the representation of another district in Osaka Prefecture. The Supreme Court has since indicated that the highest electoral imbalance permissible under Japanese law is 3:1, and that any greater imbalance between any two districts is a violation of Article 14 of the Constitution.[4] The Supreme Court of Japan (最高裁判所 Saikō-Saibansho; called 最高裁 Saikō-Sai for short), located in Chiyoda, Tokyo is the highest court in Japan. ... Judicial review is the power of a court to review the actions of public sector bodies in terms of their legality or constitutionality. ... Hyōgo Prefecture (兵庫県 Hyōgo-ken) is located in the Kinki region on Honshu island, Japan. ... Osaka Prefecture (大阪府 ÅŒsaka-fu) is part of the Kinki region on Honshu island, Japan. ...


Powers

Article 41 of the Constitution describes the National Diet as "the highest organ of state power" and "the sole law-making organ of the State". This statement is in forceful contrast to the Meiji Constitution, which described the emperor as the one who exercised legislative power with the consent of the Diet. The Diet's responsibilities include not only the making of laws but also the approval of the annual national budget that the government submits and the ratification of treaties. It can also initiate draft constitutional amendments, which, if approved, must be presented to the people in a referendum. The Diet may conduct "investigations in relation to government" (Article 62). The prime minister must be designated by Diet resolution, establishing the principle of legislative supremacy over executive government agencies (Article 67). The government can also be dissolved by the Diet if it passes a motion of no confidence introduced by fifty members of the House of Representatives. Government officials, including the prime minister and cabinet members, are required to appear before Diet investigative committees and answer inquiries. The Diet also has the power to impeach judges convicted of criminal or irregular conduct.[2] Jōyu (上諭) - The Emperors words (1) The Constitution of the Empire of Japan ), more commonly known as the Imperial or Meiji Constitution, was the fundamental law of the Empire of Japan from 29 November 1889 until 2 May 1947. ... The Emperor , literally heavenly sovereign,[1] formerly often called the Mikado) of Japan is the countrys monarch. ... Emblem of the Office of Prime Minister of Japan Kantei, Official residence of PM The Prime Minister of Japan ) is the usual English-language term used for the head of government of Japan, although the literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Prime Minister of the Cabinet. ... The Cabinet ) is the executive branch of the government of Japan. ...

In most circumstances, in order to become law a bill must be first be passed by both houses of the Diet and then promulgated by the Emperor. This role of the Emperor is similar to the Royal Assent in some other nations, however the Emperor cannot refuse to promulgate a law and therefore his legislative role is merely a formality.[5] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 594 pixelsFull resolution (2532 × 1881 pixel, file size: 815 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Copyrighted by っ Also CC-by-2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 594 pixelsFull resolution (2532 × 1881 pixel, file size: 815 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Copyrighted by っ Also CC-by-2. ... Exterior view. ... The Emperor , literally heavenly sovereign,[1] formerly often called the Mikado) of Japan is the countrys monarch. ... // The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which a constitutional monarch completes the legislative process of lawmaking by formally assenting to an Act of Parliament. ...


The House of Representatives is the more powerful chamber of the Diet.[6] While the House of Representatives cannot usually overrule the House of Councillors on a bill, the House of Councillors can only delay the adoption of a budget or a treaty that has been approved by the House of Representatives, and the House of Councillors has almost no power at all to prevent the lower house from selecting any Prime Minister it wishes. Furthermore, once appointed it is the confidence of the House of Representatives alone that the Prime Minister must enjoy in order to continue in office. The House of Representatives can overrule the upper house in the following circumstances:

  • If a bill is adopted by the House of Representatives and then either rejected, amended or not approved within 60 days by the House of Councillors, then the bill will become law if again adopted by the House of Representatives by a majority of at least two-thirds of members present.[7]
  • If both houses cannot agree on a budget or a treaty, even through the appointment of a joint committee of the Diet, or if the House of Councillors fails to take final action on a proposed budget or treaty within 30 days of its approval by the House of Representatives, then the decision of the lower house is deemed to be that of the Diet.[7]
  • If both houses cannot agree on a candidate for Prime Minister, even through a joint committee, or if the House of Councillors fails to designate a candidate within 10 days of House of Representatives' decision, then the nominee of the lower house is deemed to be that of the Diet.

Activities

Joint session of the Diet of Japan
Joint session of the Diet of Japan

Under the constitution at least one session of the Diet must be convened each year. Technically only the House of Representatives is dissolved before an election but while the lower house is in dissolution the House of Councillors is usually 'closed'. The Emperor both convokes the Diet and dissolves the House of Representatives but in doing must act on the advice of the Cabinet. In an emergency the Cabinet can convoke the Diet for an extraordinary session, and an extraordinary session may be requested by one quarter of the members of either house.[8] At the beginning of each parliamentary session the Emperor reads a special speech outlining the government's plans for the coming year from his throne in the chamber of the House of Councillors.[9] Image File history File links The_Diet. ... Image File history File links The_Diet. ... The Cabinet ) is the executive branch of the government of Japan. ... Queen Elizabeth II reads Canadas Speech from the Throne in 1977 The Speech from the Throne (or Throne Speech) is an event in certain monarchies in which the monarch (or a representative) reads a prepared speech to a complete session of parliament, outlining the governments agenda for the...


The presence of one third of the membership of either house constitutes a quorum[8] and deliberations are in public unless at least two-thirds of those present agree otherwise. Each house elects its own presiding officer who exercises the casting vote in the event of a tie. Members of each house have certain protections against arrest while the Diet is in session and words spoken and votes cast in the Diet enjoy parliamentary privilege. Each house of the Diet determines its own standing orders and has responsibility for disciplining its own members. A member may be expelled, but only by a two-thirds majority vote. Every member of the Cabinet has the right to appear in either house of the Diet for the purpose of speaking on bills, and each house has the right to compel the appearance of Cabinet members. Look up quorum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Parliamentary privilege, also known as absolute privilege, is a legal mechanism employed within the legislative bodies of countries whose constitutions are based on the Westminster system. ...


History

Further information: Political funding in Japan

Japan's first modern legislature was the Imperial Diet (帝國議会; Teikoku Gikai) established by the Meiji constitution in force from 1889 to 1947. The Meiji Constitution was adopted on February 11, 1889 and the Imperial Diet first met on November 29, 1890 when the document entered into operation. The Diet consisted of a House of Representatives and a House of Peers (貴族院; Kizokuin). The House of Representatives was directly elected, if on a limited franchise; universal adult male suffrage was introduced in 1925. The House of Peers, much like the British House of Lords, consisted of high ranking nobles.[10] In Japan, the problem of political funding was intensely debated during the late 1980s and early 1990s, partly as a result of revelations following the Recruit scandal of 1988-89. ... Jōyu (上諭) - The Emperors words (1) The Constitution of the Empire of Japan ), more commonly known as the Imperial or Meiji Constitution, was the fundamental law of the Empire of Japan from 29 November 1889 until 2 May 1947. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... The House of Peers (貴族院 Kizokuin) was the upper house of the Imperial Diet under the Constitution of the Empire of Japan (in effect from 11 February 1889 to 3 May 1947). ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ...


The word diet derives from Latin and was a common name for an assembly in medieval Germany. The Meiji constitution was largely based on the form of constitutional monarchy found in nineteenth century Prussia and the new Diet was modeled partly on the German Reichstag and partly on the British Westminster system. Unlike Japan's modern constitution, the Meiji constitution granted a real political role to the Emperor, although in practice the Emperor's powers were largely directed by a group of oligarchs called the genrō.[11] In politics, a diet is a formal deliberative assembly. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ... The Houses of Parliament, also known as the Palace of Westminster, in London. ... The Genrō (元老) were retired elder Japanese statesmen, who served as informal advisors to the emperor, during the Meiji and Taisho periods in Japanese history. ...


To become law or bill, a constitutional amendment had to have the assent of both the Diet and the Emperor. This meant that while the Emperor could no longer legislate by decree he still had a veto over the Diet. The Emperor also had complete freedom in choosing the Prime Minister and the Cabinet, and so, under the Meiji constitution, Prime Ministers often were not chosen from and did not enjoy the confidence of the Diet.[10] The Imperial Diet was also limited in its control over the budget. While the Diet could veto the annual budget, if no budget was approved the budget of the previous year continued in force.


The postwar Constitution of Japan, adopted in 1947, created a more democratic system and renamed the legislature the National Diet. Under the document the franchise was extended to women for the first time and the House of Peers was abolished and replaced with the directly elected House of Councillors. The Emperor was reduced to his current, purely ceremonial role, and the Diet declared the "highest organ of the state power" (Article 41). All Diet elections occurred under the single non-transferable vote system. The Constitution of Japan ) has been the founding legal document of Japan since 1946. ... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation) and Democratic Party. ... The Single Non-Transferable Vote or SNTV is an electoral system used in multi-member constituency elections. ...


The proportional representation system for the House of Councillors, introduced in 1982, was the first major electoral reform under the postwar constitution. Instead of choosing national constituency candidates as individuals, as had previously been the case, voters cast ballots for parties. Individual councillors, listed officially by the parties before the election, are selected on the basis of the parties' proportions of the total national constituency vote.[12] The system was introduced to reduce the excessive money spent by candidates for the national constituencies. Critics charged, however, that this new system benefited the two largest parties, the LDP and the Japan Socialist Party, which in fact had sponsored the reform.[13] The Japan Socialist Party (日本社会党) (in Japanese Nihon Shakai-to) was a former Japanese political party with a socialist, left-wing ideology, which functioned between 1945 and 1996. ...


See also

The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article Japan#Government and politics. ... Japanese history includes alternating periods of long isolation and radical, often revolutionary influences from the outside world. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... This article is about bicameralism in government. ... Established in 1948 for the purpose of assisting members of the Diet of Japan/National Diet of Japan (国会: Kokkai) in researching matters of public policy, the National Diet Library (国立国会図書館; Kokuritsu Kokkai Toshokan) is the only national library in Japan. ...

References

  1. ^ Japan Guide Coming of Age (seijin no hi) Retrieved June 08, 2007.
  2. ^ a b National Diet Library. Constitution of Japan. Published 1947. Retrieved July 15, 2007.
  3. ^ U.S. Library of Congress Country Studies Japan - Electoral System. Retrieved June 08, 2007.
  4. ^ Goodman, Carl. Japan's changing view toward civil litigation. Published Summer of 2001. Retrieved June 08, 2007.
  5. ^ House of Councillors. Legislative Procedure. Published 2001. Retrieved July 15, 2007.
  6. ^ Asia Times Online Japan: A political tsunami approaches. By Hisane Masaki. Published July 6, 2007. Retrieved July 15, 2007.
  7. ^ a b House of Representatives of Japan Disagreement between the Two Houses. Retrieved July 14, 2007.
  8. ^ a b House of Representatives of Japan Sessions of the Diet. Retrieved July 14, 2007.
  9. ^ House of Representatives of Japan Opening Ceremony and Speeches on Government Policy. Retrieved July 14, 2007.
  10. ^ a b House of Representatives of Japan From Imperial Diet to National Diet. Retrieved July 15, 2007.
  11. ^ Henkin, Louis and Albert J. Rosenthal Constitutionalism and Rights: : the Influence of the United States Constitution Abroad. Page 424. Published 1990. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231065701
  12. ^ Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communication. Chapter 27 - Government Employees and Elections. Published 2003. Retrieved June 08, 2007.
  13. ^ Library of Congress County Data. Japan - The Legislature. Retrieved June 08, 2007.

External links

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