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Encyclopedia > Diesel particulate filter
A diesel particulate filter (top left) in a Peugeot
A diesel particulate filter (top left) in a Peugeot

A diesel particulate filter, sometimes called a DPF, is device designed to remove diesel particulate matter or soot from the exhaust gas of a diesel engine, most of which are rated at 85% efficiency, but often attaining efficiencies of over 90%. A diesel-powered vehicle with a filter installed will emit no visible smoke from its exhaust pipe. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1650x1541, 357 KB) Diesel Particulate Filter (FAP Peugeot) Own Picture Category:Automobile parts File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Diesel Particulate Filter ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1650x1541, 357 KB) Diesel Particulate Filter (FAP Peugeot) Own Picture Category:Automobile parts File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Diesel Particulate Filter ... Diesel particulate matter (DPM) refers to the particulate components of diesel exhaust, which include diesel soot and aerosols such as ash particulates, metallic abrasion particles, sulfates, and silicates. ... Soot, also called lampblack, Pigment Black 7, carbon black or black carbon, is a dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, usually composed mainly of amorphous carbon, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke—especially from the combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in the... Exhaust gas is gas which occurs as a result of combustion of fuel such as gasoline/petrol, diesel or coal. ... A Diesel engine built by MAN AG in 1906 Rudolf Diesels 1893 patent on his engine design The diesel engine is a type of internal combustion engine. ... Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel (1858-1913), inventor of the Diesel engine. ... The Trikke is a Human Powered Vehicle (HPV) This article is about the means of transport. ...


In addition to collecting the particulate, a method must be designed to get rid of it. Some filters are single use (disposable), while others are designed to burn off the accumulated particulate, either through the use of a catalyst (passive), or through an active technology, such as a fuel burner which heats the filter to soot combustion temperatures, or through engine modifications (the engine is set to run a certain specific way when the filter load reaches a pre-determined level, either to heat the exhaust gases, or to produce high amounts of NO2, which will oxidize the particulates at relatively low temperatures). This procedure is known as "filter regeneration." Fuel sulfur interferes with many "regeneration" strategies, so almost all jurisdictions that are interested in the reduction of particulate emissions, are also passing regulations governing fuel sulfur levels. The term nitrogen oxide is a general term and can be used to refer to any of these oxides (oxygen compounds) of nitrogen, or to a mixture of them: Nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen(II) oxide Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) Dinitrogen monoxide (N2O) (Nitrous oxide) Dinitrogen trioxide (N2O3) Dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) Dinitrogen... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Atomic mass 32. ...

Contents

History

Particulate filters have been in use on non-road machines since 1980, and in automobiles since 1996. Diesel engines during combustion of the fuel/air mix produce a variety of particles generically classified as diesel particulate matter due to incomplete combustion. The composition of the particles varies widely dependent upon engine type, age, and the emissions specification that the engine was designed to meet. two-stroke diesel engines produce more particulate per horsepower output than do four-stroke diesel engines, as they burn the fuel-air mix less completely. The two-stroke cycle of an internal combustion engine differs from the more common four-stroke cycle by having only two strokes (linear movements of the piston) instead of four, although the same four operations (intake, compression, power, exhaust) still occur. ... The four-stroke cycle of an internal combustion engine is the cycle most commonly used for automotive and industrial purposes today (cars and trucks, generators, etc). ...


Historically diesel engine emissions were not regulated until 1987 when the first California Heavy Truck rule was introduced capping particulate emissions at 0.60 g/BHP Hour. Since then progressively tighter standards have been introduced for both On-Road and Non-Road diesel engines.


While particulate emissions from diesel engines was first regulated in the United States, similar regulations have also been adopted by the European Union, most Asian countries, and the rest of North and South America World List of Standards. World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


While no jurisdiction has made filters mandatory, the increasingly stringent emissions regulations that engine manufactures must meet mean that eventually all on-road diesel engines will be fitted with them. Neither the American 2007 heavy truck engine emissions regulations or the European Union 2007 automobile regulations can be met without filters. PSA Peugeot was the first company to make them standard fit on passenger cars, in anticipation of the future Euro V regulations. Peugeot is a major French car brand, part of PSA Peugeot Citroën. ... EURO V is a European emission standard for vehicles that will be introduced in the EU in 2008. ...


It is expected that non-road diesel engines will be regulated in a similar manner.


As of July 2006 the California Air Resources Board is looking at introducing regulations that will require retrofit of all diesel engines operating in the state by the year 2013. Other jurisdictions may also do this. A variety of retrofit programs have been done: California Air Resources Board (CARB) is the clean air agency of the state of California in the United States. ... 2013 (MMXIII) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • 2002 - In Japan the Prefecture of Tokyo passed a law banning trucks without filters from entering the city limits.
  • 2003 - Mexico City started a program to retrofit trucks
  • 2001 - Hong Kong retrofit program
  • 2004 - New York City retrofit program (non-road)

Nickname: La Ciudad de los Palacios Country Mexico State Federal District Founded (as Tenochtitlan) 1325 Head of Government Marcelo Ebrard Area    - City 1,479 1 km² Elevation 2,240 m Population    - City (2005) 8,720,916  - Density 5,741/km² Time zone Central Time zone (UTC-6) 1 Area of... Nickname: Big Apple, City that never Sleeps, Gotham Location in the state of New York Coordinates: Country United States State New York Boroughs The Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens Staten Island Settled 1613 Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R) Area    - City 1,214. ...

Variants of DPFs

Unlike a catalytic converter which is a flow-through device, a DPF cleans exhaust gas by forcing the gas to flow through the filter. There are a variety of diesel particulate filter technologies on the market. Each is designed around similar requirements: Catalytic converter on a Saab 9-5. ...

  1. Fine filtration
  2. Minimum pressure drop
  3. Low cost
  4. Mass production suitability
  5. Product durability

Pressure drop is a term used to describe the change in pressure across a system. ...

Cordierite wall flow filters

The most common filter is made of cordierite (a ceramic material that is also used as catalytic converter supports (= cores)). Cordierite filters provide excellent filtration efficiency, are (relatively) inexpensive, and have thermal properties that make packaging them for installation in the vehicle simple. The major drawback is that cordierite has a relatively low melting point (about 1200°C) and cordierite substrates have been known to melt down during filter regeneration. This is mostly an issue if the filter has become loaded more heavily than usual, and is more of an issue with passive systems than with active systems, unless there is a system break down. Cordierite is a magnesium iron aluminum cyclosilicate with associated water. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The degree Celsius (°C) is a unit of temperature named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701–1744), who first proposed a similar system in 1742. ...


Cordierite filter cores look like catalytic converter cores that have had alternate channels plugged - the plugs force the exhaust gas flow through the wall and the particulate collects on the inlet face.


Silicon carbide wall flow filters

The second most popular filter material is silicon carbide, or SiC. It has a higher (1700°C) melting point than cordierite, however it is not as stable thermally, making packaging an issue. Small SiC cores are made of single pieces, while larger cores are made in segments, which are separated by a special cement so that heat expansion of the core will be taken up by the cement, and not the package. SiC cores are usually more expensive than cordierite cores, however they are manufactured in similar sizes, and one can often be used to replace the other. Silicon carbide (SiC) is a ceramic compound of silicon and carbon. ... Sic is a Latin word meaning thus or so. In writing, it is italicized and placed within square brackets — [sic] — to indicate that an incorrect or unusual spelling, phrase, or other preceding quoted material is a verbatim reproduction of the quoted original and is not a transcription error. ... The degree Celsius (°C) is a unit of temperature named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701–1744), who first proposed a similar system in 1742. ...


Silicon carbide filter cores also look like catalytic converter cores that have had alternate channels plugged - again the plugs force the exhaust gas flow through the wall and the particulate collects on the inlet face.


Metal fiber flow through filters

Some cores are made from metal fibers - generally the fibers are "woven" into a monolith. Such cores have the advantage that a current can be passed through the monolith to heat the core for regeneration purposes. Metal fiber cores tend to be more expensive than cordierite or silcon carbide cores, and generally not interchangeable with them.


Paper

Disposable paper cores are used in certain specialty applications, without a regeneration strategy. Coal Mines are common users - the exhaust gas is usually first passed through a water trap to cool it, and then through the filter. Paper filters are also used when a diesel machine must be used indoors for short periods of time, such as on a forklift being used to install equipment inside of a store.


Partial filters

There are a variety of devices that produce over 50% particulate matter filtration, but less than 85%. Partial filters come in a variety of materials. The only commonality between them is that they produce more back pressure than a catalytic converter, and less than a diesel particulate filter. Partial filter technology is popular for retrofit.


Filter usage

A properly designed filter will have little effect on fuel usage, however improper installation can be catastrophic, which is why automobile and truck engine manufacturers have avoided the use of filter technology until now. It was first offered as standard by the French manufacturer PSA Peugeot Citroën in early 2000, and has been a huge success. Slow adoption by the German car industry sparked local protests in March 2005. PSA Peugeot Citroën (PSA) is a vehicle company that owns the marques Peugeot and Citroën. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... ← - 2005 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → Deaths in March • 31 – Terri Schiavo • 30 – Mitch Hedberg • 29 – Johnnie Cochran • 27 – Wilfred Bigelow • 26 – Paul Hester • 26 – James Callaghan • 21 – Jeff Weise • 21 – Bobby Short • 19 – John De Lorean • 18 – Gary Bertini • 17 – George F...


Maintenance

Filters require more maintenance than catalytic converters. Engine oil ash builds up on the surface of the inlet face of the filter, and will eventually clog the pores. This increases the pressure drop over the filter, which when it reachs 100 inches of water or higher is capable of causing engine damage. Regular filter maintenance is a necessity.


Regeneration

Regeneration is the process of removing the accumulated soot from the filter. This is done either passively (by adding a catalyst to the filter) or actively. On-board active filter management can use a variety of strategies: Look up regeneration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

  • 1) Engine management to increase exhaust temperature
  • 2) A fuel burner to increase the exhaust temperature
  • 3) A catalytic oxidizer to increase the exhaust temperature
  • 4) Resistive heating coils to increase the exhaust temperature
  • 5) Microwave energy to increase the exhaust temperature

All on-board active systems use extra fuel, whether through burning to heat the DPF, or providing extra power to the DPF's electrical system. Typically a computer monitors one or more sensors that measure back pressure and/or temperature, and based on pre-programmed set points the computer makes decisions on when to activate the regeneration cycle. The additional fuel can be supplied by a metering pump. Running the cycle too often while keeping the back pressure in the exhaust system low will use extra fuel. The reverse runs risk of engine damage and/or uncontrolled regeneration and possible DPF failure. Quality regeneration software is a necessity for longevity of the active DPF system. Microwave Slang for small waves, like at a beach, often used by surfers. ... A Metering pump is a pump used to pump liquids at adjustable flow rates which are precise when averaged over time. ...


Diesel particulate matter combusts at when temperaures above 600 degrees celsius are attained. The start of combustion causes a further increase in temperature. In some cases the combustion of the particulate matter can raise temperatures above the structural integrity threshold of the filter material, which can cause catastophic failure of the substrate. Various strategies have been developed to limit this possibility. Note that unlike a spark-ignited engine, which typically has less that 0.5% oxygen in the exhaust gas stream before the emission control device(s), many diesel engines run above 15% oxygen pre-filter. While the amount of available oxygen makes fast regeneration of a filter possible, it also contributes to runaway regeneration problems.


Some applications use off-board regeneration. Off-board regeneration requires operator intervention (i.e. the machine is either plugged into a wall/floor mounted regeneration station, or the filter is removed from the machine and placed in the regeneration station). Off-board regeneration is not useable for on-road vehicles, except in situations where the vehicles are parked in a central depot when not in use. Off-board regenration is mainly used in industrial and mining applications. Coal mines (with the attendant explosion risk from coal damp) use off-board regeneration if non-disposable filters are installed, with the regeneration stations sited in an area where non-permissible machinery is allowed. Many forklift makes also use off-board regeneration - typically mining machinery and other machinery that spend their operational lives in one location, which makes having a stationary regeneration station practical. In situations where the filter is physically removed from the machine for regeneration there is also the advantage of being able to inspect the filter core on a daily basis (DPF cores for non-road applications are typically sized to be useable for one shift - so regeneration is a daily occurrence [1]. US airman operates forklift at a truck A forklift is a powered industrial truck used to hoist and transport materials by means of steel forks inserted under the load. ...


Notes

Skoda UK have a problem with DPF in their 140BHP 2.0 Litre Diesel Engine fitted to the Superb. Due to design problems with the old A5 Platform, the DFP will not get hot enough to re-energize itself and therefore need replacing at apprx 80,000 miles, however examples of the DPF clogging up have been seen on vehicles with less than 1000 miles on the clock

  1. ^ Bruce R. Conrad, "Diesel Emissions Evaluation Program - INCO" Diesel Emissions Evaluation Program Website (May 2006)

See also

[1]Skoda Superb Emission standards are requirements that set specific limits to the amount of pollutants that can be released into the environment. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Diesel Particulate Filter - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1552 words)
A Diesel Particulate Filter, sometimes called a DPF, is device designed to remove Diesel Particulate Matter or soot from the exhaust gas of a Diesel engine, most of which are rated at 85% efficiency, but often attaining efficiencies of over 90%.
Diesel engines during combustion of the fuel/air mix produce a variety of particles generically classified as Diesel Particulate Matter due to incomplete combustion.
Unlike a catalytic converter which is a flow-through device, a DPF cleans exhaust gas by forcing the gas to flow through the filter.
Diesel particulate filter element and filter - Patent 5298046 (4426 words)
The filtering element is useful as a filtering element in a diesel particulate filter.
A diesel particulate filter as defined in claim 3 wherein said casing is cylindrical and has an inside diameter in the range from about 7 to about 20 cm, and wherein each layer of open mesh material has a thickness in the range from about 2 to about 10 mm.
A diesel particulate filter as defined in claim 3 wherein said stuffer strip is about equal in width to the difference between the axial dimension of said layer of open mesh material and said layer of said filter material.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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