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Encyclopedia > Diesel engine
Diesel engines in a museum
Diesel engines in a museum
Diesel generator on an oil tanker
Diesel generator on an oil tanker

A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle. Invented in 1892 by German engineer Rudolf Diesel, it was based on the hot bulb engine design and patented on February 23, 1893. Image File history File links Wikitext. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... A colorized automobile engine The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... The Diesel cycle is the combustion process of a type of reciprocating internal combustion engine, in which the fuel is ignited by the heat generated in first compressing air in the combustion chamber, into which is then injected the fuel, as opposed to it being ignited by a spark plug... Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel (pronounced ; March 18, 1858 – September 30, 1913) was a German inventor and mechanical engineer, famous for the invention of the diesel engine. ... 1939 Lanz Bulldog tractor with hot bulb engine. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Diesel engines use compression ignition, a process by which fuel is injected after the air is compressed in the combustion chamber causing the fuel to self ignite. By contrast, a gasoline engine utilizes the Otto cycle, in which fuel and air are mixed before ignition is initiated by a spark plug. Most diesel engines have large pistons, therefore drawing more air and fuel which results in a bigger and more powerful combustion. This is effective in large vehicles such as trucks, diesel locomotives and SUV's. Self-ignition can refer either to Spontaneous combustion or the ability of Diesel fuel to ignite under high compression and the use of that phenomenon in Diesel engines Category: ... Gasoline engine (also referred to as petrol engine or Otto engine) invented at the end of the 19th century by German engineer Nikolaus Otto is a type of internal combustion engine which is often used for automobiles, aircraft, small mobile vehicles such as lawnmowers or motorcycles, and outboard motors for... The four-stroke cycle of an internal combustion engine is the cycle most commonly used for automotive and industrial purposes today ( cars and trucks, generators, etc). ... This article or section should include material from Spark gap A spark plug is an electrical device that fits into the cylinder head of some internal combustion engines and ignites compressed aerosol gasoline by means of an electric spark. ...

Contents

Patent controversy

Like many other inventions, the credit for the invention of the diesel engine is in dispute. While Rudolf Diesel is the patent holder and popularly recognized inventor of his namesake engine, Herbert Akroyd Stuart and Charles Richard Binney had previously patented a compression ignition engine designed to run on coal dust. The credit for the invention thus hinges on whether compression ignition or oil fuel is considered the defining property. Diesel's patent (No. 7241) was filed in 1892.[1] However, Herbert Akroyd Stuart and Charles Richard Binney had already obtained a patent (No. 7146) in 1890 entitled: "Improvements in Engines Operated by the Explosion of Mixtures of Combustible Vapour or Gas and Air" which described the world's first compression-ignition engine.[2] Akroyd-Stuart constructed the first compression-ignition oil engine in Bletchley, England in 1891 and leased the rights to Richard Hornsby & Sons, who by July 1892, five years before Diesel's prototype, had a diesel engine working for Newport Sanitary Authority. By 1896, diesel tractors and locomotives were being built in some quantity in Grantham. Importantly, Diesel's airblast injection system did not become part of subsequent "diesel" engines. From around 1910, manufacturers building diesel engines under patent from MAN began building engines with 'solid' injection systems, where fuel is delivered to the cylinder by a high pressure jerk-pump rather than compressed air. This system was invented by Herbert Akroyd Stuart and used on Ruston-built oil engines. MAN continued to build engines to Diesel's original design into the 1920s. By this time Robert Bosch had developed the spring-loaded fuel injector, which provided greater accuracy than the simple nozzle of earlier systems. All mechanical-injection diesel engines built from the 1920s onwards used some form of jerk-pump and spring-nozzle injection. No engine has been built to Diesel's original design since the 1930s. Herbert Akroyd-Stuart (January 28, 1864, Halifax Yorkshire, England - February 19, 1927) Inventor of the hot bulb oil engine. ... Coal dust is a fine powdered form of coal. ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Herbert Akroyd-Stuart (January 28, 1864, Halifax Yorkshire, England - February 19, 1927) Inventor of the hot bulb oil engine. ... Bletchley is a town in what is now Milton Keynes new city. ... The company bearing the name of Richard Hornsby (1790-1864), the agricultural engineer, was founded when Richard opened a blacksmithy in Grantham, Lincolnshire in 1815. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... Grantham is a medium sized market town in Lincolnshire, England with about 35,000 inhabitants (40,000 including Great Gonerby), situated on the River Witham. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... MAN AG (German: Maschinenfabrik Augsburg-Nürnberg AG, ISIN: DE0005937007) is a German transportation company. ... Herbert Akroyd-Stuart (January 28, 1864, Halifax Yorkshire, England - February 19, 1927) Inventor of the hot bulb oil engine. ... Robert Bosch at the age of 27 Robert Bosch (September 23, 1861 - March 12, 1942), German industrialist and philanthropist, born in Albeck near Ulm as the 11th child of Servatius and Margarete Bosch, themselves children of wealthy farmers. ... Fuel injection is a technology used in internal combustion engines to mix the fuel with air prior to combustion. ... The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the [[. In East Asia, the rise of militarism occurred. ...


Early history timeline

A diesel engine built by MAN AG in 1906
A diesel engine built by MAN AG in 1906
Rudolf Diesel's 1893 patent on his engine design
Rudolf Diesel's 1893 patent on his engine design
  • 1862: Nicholas Immel develops his coal gas engine, similar to a modern gasoline engine.
  • 1891: Herbert Akroyd Stuart,Wally Godfrey was the brains of the diesel engines Bletchley perfects his oil engine, and leases rights to Hornsby of England to build engines. They build the first cold start, compression ignition engines.
  • 1892: Hornsby engine No. 101 is built and installed in a waterworks. It was in the MAN truck museum in Stockport, and is now in the Anson Engine Museum in Poynton. T.H. Barton at Hornsbys builds an experimental version where the vaporiser was replaced with a cylinder head and the pressure increased. Automatic ignition was achieved through compression alone (the first time this had happened), and the engine ran for six hours. Diesel would achieve much the same thing five years later, claiming the achievement for himself.
  • 1892: John Froelich builds his first oil engine powered farm tractor.
  • 1893: August 10th — Diesel builds a working version of his ideas.
  • 1894: Witte, Reid, and Fairbanks start building oil engines with a variety of ignition systems.
  • 1896: Hornsby builds diesel tractors and railway engines.
  • 1897: Winton produces and drives the first US built gas automobile; he later builds diesel plants. On February 17th, Diesel builds his first working prototype, which narrowly avoids a catastrophic explosion in Augsburg. The engine was not really ready for market until 1908, thanks to other people's improvements.
  • 1897: Mirrlees, Watson & Yaryan build the first British diesel engine under license from Rudolf Diesel. This is now displayed in the Anson Engine Museum at Poynton, Cheshire, UK.
  • 1898: Busch installs a Rudolf Diesel type engine in his brewery in St. Louis. It is the first in the United States. Rudolf Diesel perfects his compression start engine, patents, and licences it. This engine, pictured above, is in a German museum. Burmeister & Wain (B & W) of Copenhagen, Denmark buy rights to build diesel engines.
  • 1899: Diesel licences his engine to builders Krupp and Sulzer, who become famous builders.
  • 1902: F. Rundlof invents the two-stroke crankcase, scavenged hot bulb engine.
  • 1902: A company named Forest City started manufacturing diesel generators.
  • 1904: French build the first diesel submarine, the Z.
  • 1908: Bolinder-Munktell starts building two stroke hot-bulb engines.
  • 1912: First diesel ship MS Selandia is built. SS Fram, polar explorer Amundsen’s flagship, is converted to an AB Atlas diesel.
  • 1913: Fairbanks Morse starts building its Y model semi-diesel engine. US Navy submarines use NELSECO units. Rudolf Diesel died mysteriously when he took a ship (SS Dresden) to cross the English Channel.
  • 1914: German U-Boats are powered by MAN diesels. War service proves engine's reliability.
  • 1920s: Fishing fleets convert to oil engines. Atlas-Imperial of Oakland, Union, and Lister diesels appear.
  • 1922: Mack Boring & Parts Company is established.
  • 1924: First diesel trucks appear.
  • 1930: Edward McGovern Sr., founder of Mack Boring & Parts Company, opens the first diesel-only engine institute in North America.
  • 1930s: Caterpillar starts building diesels for their tractors.
  • 1933: Citroën introduced the Rosalie, a passenger car with the world’s first commercially available diesel engine developed with Harry Ricardo.
  • 1934: General Motors starts a GM diesel research facility. It builds diesel railroad engines—The Pioneer Zephyr—and goes on to found the General Motors Electro-Motive Division, which becomes important building engines for landing craft and tanks in the Second World War. GM then applies this knowledge to market control with its famous Green Leakers for buses and railroad engines.
  • 1934-35: Junkers Motorenwerke in Germany starts production of the Jumo aviation diesel engine "family", the most famous of these being the Jumo 205, of which over 900 examples are produced into the outbreak of World War II.
  • 1936: Airship Hindenburg is powered by diesel engines.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1338x1905, 605 KB) Summary de: DM 12 - Stationärer Einzylinder-Dieselmotor (MAN, Augsburg, 1906, 12 PS) der ersten Generation. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1338x1905, 605 KB) Summary de: DM 12 - Stationärer Einzylinder-Dieselmotor (MAN, Augsburg, 1906, 12 PS) der ersten Generation. ... MAN AG (German: Maschinenfabrik Augsburg-Nürnberg AG, ISIN: DE0005937007) is a German transportation company. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1398x2118, 603 KB) The original patent Rudolf Diesel got for the Diesel-engine. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1398x2118, 603 KB) The original patent Rudolf Diesel got for the Diesel-engine. ... Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel (pronounced ; March 18, 1858 – September 30, 1913) was a German inventor and mechanical engineer, famous for the invention of the diesel engine. ... Herbert Akroyd-Stuart (January 28, 1864, Halifax Yorkshire, England - February 19, 1927) Inventor of the hot bulb oil engine. ... Bletchley is a town in what is now Milton Keynes new city. ... The company bearing the name of Richard Hornsby (1790-1864), the agricultural engineer, was founded when Richard opened a blacksmithy in Grantham, Lincolnshire in 1815. ... Stockport is a large town in the north west of England. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... , Poynton is a village in the civil parish of Poynton with Worth, located in the Borough of Macclesfield, in Cheshire. ... The cylinder head from a GMC van. ... Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel (pronounced ; March 18, 1858 – September 30, 1913) was a German inventor and mechanical engineer, famous for the invention of the diesel engine. ... A Carnot heat engine is a hypothetical engine that operates on the reversible Carnot cycle. ... Carl Paul Gottfried von Linde (born 11 June 1842 in Berndorf (Oberfranken); died 16 November 1934 in Munich) was a German engineer who developed the basics of modern refrigeration technology. ... MAN AG (German: Maschinenfabrik Augsburg-Nürnberg AG, ISIN: DE0005937007) is a German transportation company. ... Sulzer Ltd. ... John Froelich (1849 – 1933) was an inventor who lived in the U.S. state of Iowa, and invented the first practical gasoline powered farm tractor. ... 1908 Winton touring car The Winton Motor Carriage Company of Cleveland, Ohio was a pioneer United States automobile manufacturer. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... , Poynton is a village in the civil parish of Poynton with Worth, located in the Borough of Macclesfield, in Cheshire. ... Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel (pronounced ; March 18, 1858 – September 30, 1913) was a German inventor and mechanical engineer, famous for the invention of the diesel engine. ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... The three rings were the symbol for Krupp, based on the radreifen - the seamless railway wheels patented by Alfred Krupp. ... Sulzer is a Swiss engineering firm which produces large motors. ... Scavenging consists of pushing the exhausted gas-charge out of the cylinder, and drawing in a fresh draught of air ready for the next cycle. ... Gjøa was the first vessel to transit the Northwest Passage. ... For other uses, see Northwest Passage (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... 1950s BM tractor AB Bolinder-Munktell (BM) was a tractor and machines manufactorer founded in Eskilstuna, Sweden in 1932 through the merger of the mechanical companies Bolinder and Munktell. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Fram (Forward) was a ship used in expeditions in the Arctic and Antarctic regions by the Norwegian explorers Fridtjof Nansen, Otto Sverdrup, Oscar Wisting, and Roald Amundsen between 1893 and 1912. ... Roald Engelbregt Gravning Amundsen (July 16, 1872 – c. ... An April, 1950 print advertisement for Fairbanks-Morse opposed piston engines. ... USN redirects here. ... Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel (pronounced ; March 18, 1858 – September 30, 1913) was a German inventor and mechanical engineer, famous for the invention of the diesel engine. ... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ... Atlas-Imperial was an American Diesel engine builder beginning in 1916. ... Lister is a surname, and may refer to Alton Lister, retired American professional basketball player Anne Lister, (1791–1840), Yorkshire landowner Aynsley Lister, English blues guitarist Charles J. Lister, (1820-1912), a central figure in the Restoration Movement in 19th century Canada Dave Lister, fictional television character in the BBC... The Canadian National Railway (CN; AAR reporting marks CN, CNA, CNIS) is a Canadian Class I railway operated by the Canadian National Railway Company headquartered in Montreal, Quebec. ... A modern US switcher, an EMD SW1500. ... Clessie Lyle Cummins was the founder of the Cummins Engine Co. ... 1931 Duesenberg J Duesenberg was a United States-based luxury automobile company active in various forms from 1913 to 1937, most famous for their extremely high-quality, record-breakingly fast roadsters. ... Daytona International Speedway is a superspeedway in Daytona Beach, Florida. ... Caterpillar Inc. ... Citroën is a French automobile manufacturer, founded in 1919 by André Citroën. ... ira ira irsa ir air ira ira irs ira ira ira ira ira irea ira ira ira ira ira ira ira ira irs rias irsa k5tan ir4aq ira ira iora ira rika ira 9ria ira iras oira ir ri aria ria ria ira ira ira eia iea ieaiea iramieaneianieaie aieanimsnkwjijair... General Motors Corporation, also known as GM, is a multinational corporation headquartered in the United States and has been the worlds largest and most dominant automaker since 1931 till the second half of 2007, surpassed by Toyota; as well as the global industry sales leader for 77 years. ... The Pioneer Zephyr as it appeared in 1934. ... Electro-Motive Diesel, Inc. ... Junkers & Co was a major German aircraft manufacturer. ... The Junkers Jumo 205 aircraft engine was the most famous of a series of diesel engines that were the first, and for more than half a century, the only successful diesel aircraft engines. ... This page is about the Mercedes-Benz brand of automobiles and trucks from the DaimlerChrysler automobile manufacturer. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway (AAR reporting marks ATSF), often abbreviated as Santa Fe, was one of the largest railroads in the United States. ... This article is about the DC Comics character, for the Major League Baseball pitcher nicknamed Superchief see Allie Reynolds Super-Chief is a fictional superhero in the DC Comics universe. ... LZ 129 Hindenburg was a German zeppelin. ...

How diesel engines work

model, leftside
model, leftside
model, rightside
model, rightside

In mechanical terms, the internal construction of a diesel engine is similar to its gasoline counterpart—components such as pistons, connecting rods and a crankshaft are present in both. Like a gasoline engine, a diesel engine may operate on a four-stroke cycle (similar to the gasoline unit's Otto cycle), or a two-stroke cycle, albeit with significant dissimilarity to the gasoline equivalent. In both cases, the principal differences lie in the handling of air and fuel, and the method of ignition. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 550 pixel Image in higher resolution (2800 × 1924 pixel, file size: 4. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 550 pixel Image in higher resolution (2800 × 1924 pixel, file size: 4. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 566 pixel Image in higher resolution (2816 × 1994 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 566 pixel Image in higher resolution (2816 × 1994 pixel, file size: 3. ... Gasoline engine (also referred to as petrol engine or Otto engine) invented at the end of the 19th century by German engineer Nikolaus Otto is a type of internal combustion engine which is often used for automobiles, aircraft, small mobile vehicles such as lawnmowers or motorcycles, and outboard motors for... For the American composer, see Walter Piston. ... piston (top) and connecting rod from typical automotive engine (scale is in centimetres) Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ... Crankshaft (red), pistons (gray) in their cylinders (blue), and flywheel (black) Continental engine marine crankshafts, 1942 Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ... The four-stroke cycle of an internal combustion engine is the cycle most commonly used for automotive and industrial purposes today ( cars and trucks, generators, etc). ... Look up air in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Fuel (disambiguation). ... Ignition occurs when the heat produced by a reaction becomes sufficient to sustain the reaction, whether it be a fire, an explosion, or nuclear fusion. ...


A diesel engine relies upon compression ignition to burn its fuel, instead of the spark plug used in a gasoline engine. If air is compressed to a high degree, its temperature will increase to a point where fuel will burn upon contact. This principle is used in both four-stroke and two-stroke diesel engines to produce power. A gas compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume. ... The ideal gas law or equation is the equation of state of an ideal gas. ... For other uses, see Fuel (disambiguation). ...


Unlike a gasoline engine, which draws an air/fuel mixture into the cylinder during the intake stroke, the diesel aspirates air alone. Following intake, the cylinder is sealed and the air charge is highly compressed to heat it to the temperature required for ignition. Whereas a gasoline engine's compression ratio is rarely greater than 11:1 to avoid damaging preignition, a diesel's compression ratio is usually between 16:1 and 25:1. This extremely high level of compression causes the air temperature to increase to 700 to 900 degrees Celsius (1300 to 1650 degrees Fahrenheit). Cylinder with piston in a steam engine A cylinder in the central working part of a reciprocating engine, the space in which a piston travels. ... The intake stroke (A.K.A the induction stroke) in relation to an internal combustion engine is the downward stroke of the piston creating a partial vacuum that draws a fuel/air mixture into the combustion chamber. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bold text The compression ratio is a single number that can be used to predict the performance of any engine (such as an internal-combustion engine or a Stirling Engine). ... Knocking (also called pinking or pinging)— colloquially detonation—in internal combustion engines occurs when air/fuel mixture in the cylinder detonates or ignites prior to the timed pre-set conditions in the engines cylinder(s). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ...


As the piston approaches top dead centre (TDC), fuel oil is injected into the cylinder at high pressure, causing the fuel charge to be nebulized. Owing to the high air temperature in the cylinder, ignition instantly occurs, causing a rapid and considerable increase in cylinder temperature and pressure (generating the characteristic Diesel "knock"). The piston is driven downward with great force, pushing on the connecting rod and turning the crankshaft. For the lathing tool, see lathe center. ... An oil tanker taking on bunker fuel. ... // Fuel injection is a system of fuel delivery for mixture with air in an internal combustion engine. ... A nebulizer with an attached inhaling apparatus In medicine, a nebulizer is a device used to administer medication to people in forms of a liquid mist to the airways. ...


When the piston nears bottom dead centre the spent combustion gases are expelled from the cylinder to prepare for the next cycle. In many cases, the exhaust gases will be used to drive a turbocharger, which will increase the volume of the intake air charge, resulting in cleaner combustion and greater efficiency. For the lathing tool, see lathe center. ... Turbo redirects here. ...


The above sequence generally describes how a diesel operates. However, there are striking differences between the four-stroke and two-stroke versions:

Four-Stroke
The cycle starts with the intake stroke, which begins when the piston is near top dead centre. The intake valve is opened, creating a passage from the exterior of the engine (generally through an air filter assembly), through the intake port in the cylinder head and into the cylinder itself. As the piston moves toward bottom dead centre, a partial vacuum develops, causing air to enter the cylinder. In the case of a turbocharged engine, the air is rammed into the cylinder at higher than atmospheric pressure. As the piston passes through bottom dead centre, the intake valve closes, sealing the cylinder.
The compression stroke begins as the piston passes through bottom dead centre and starts upward. Compression will continue until the piston approaches top dead centre. The energy required for the compression stroke comes from the momentum of a flywheel on the crankshaft as well as (in multi-cylinder engines) other pistons in their power stroke.
The power stroke occurs as the piston reaches top dead centre at the end of the compression stroke. At this time, fuel injection occurs, resulting in combustion and the production of useful work.
The final stroke is the exhaust stroke, which begins as the piston approaches bottom dead centre following ignition. The exhaust valve in the cylinder head is opened and as the piston starts upward, the spent combustion gases are forced out of the cylinder. Near top dead centre the intake valve will start to open before the exhaust valve is fully closed, a condition referred to as valve overlap. Overlap produces a flow of cooling intake air over the exhaust valve, prolonging its life. Following the completion of the exhaust stroke the cycle will begin anew.
Two-Stroke
Intake begins when the piston is near bottom dead centre. Air is admitted to the cylinder through ports in the cylinder wall (there are no intake valves). Since the piston is near bottom dead centre, aspiration due to atmospheric pressure isn't possible. Therefore a mechanical blower or hybrid turbocharger (a turbocharger that is mechanically driven from the crankshaft at low engine speeds) is employed to charge the cylinder with air. In the early phase of intake, the air charge is also used to force out any remaining combustion gases from the previous power stroke, a process referred to as scavenging. As the piston passes through bottom dead centre, the exhaust valve(s) will be closed and, owing to the pressure generated by the blower or turbocharger, the cylinder will be filled with air. Once the piston starts upward, the air intake ports in the cylinder walls will be covered, sealing the cylinder. At this point, compression will commence. Note that exhaust and intake actually occur in one stroke, the period during which the piston is near the bottom of the cylinder.
As the piston rises, compression takes place and near top dead centre, fuel injection will occur, resulting in combustion, driving the piston downward. As the piston moves downward in the cylinder it will reach a point where the exhaust valves will be opened to expel the combustion gases. Continued movement of the piston will expose the air intake ports in the cylinder wall, and the cycle will start anew. Note that the cylinder will fire on each revolution, as opposed to the four-stroke engine, in which the cylinder fires on every other revolution.

The intake stroke (A.K.A the induction stroke) in relation to an internal combustion engine is the downward stroke of the piston creating a partial vacuum that draws a fuel/air mixture into the combustion chamber. ... A poppet valve is a valve consisting of a hole, usually round or oval, and a tapered plug, usually a disk shape on the end of a shaft also called a valve stem. ... Air filter in an Opel Astra car, top side=clean side Air filter in an Opel Astra car, bottom side=dust side Automotive air filter clogged with dust and debris. ... The cylinder head from a GMC van. ... The article on the vacuum cleaner is located elsewhere. ... Atmospheric pressure is the pressure at any given point in the Earths atmosphere. ... The compression stroke is the second of four stages in an internal combustion engine. ... A power stroke is, in general, the stroke of a cyclic motor which generates force. ... The exhasut stroke is the fourth of four stages in an internal combustion engine cycle. ... A Roots Blower refers to a specific design of positive displacement vacuum pump”. // General description The term derives from the Roots brothers who invented the rotary lobe pump more than a century ago. ... Turbo redirects here. ... Crankshaft (red), pistons (gray) in their cylinders (blue), and flywheel (black) Continental engine marine crankshafts, 1942 Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ... Scavenging consists of pushing the exhausted gas-charge out of the cylinder, and drawing in a fresh draught of air ready for the next cycle. ...

Cold weather and diesels

In cold weather, diesel engines can be difficult to start because the mass of the cylinder block and cylinder head absorb the heat of compression, thus preventing ignition. Spark ignition engines undergo the same problem, though they have the added benefit of a spark plug to help cause ignition. The main reason diesel engines take a long time to warm up in cold weather is the lack of a throttle. Spark ignition engines are throttled, so only the right amount of air comes in at a time. This is less efficient, but spark plugs only work near the stoichiometric, or the proper ratio of air to fuel for complete and most efficient combustion, mixture of fuel and air. Diesel engines accept a cylinder full of air and measure in the right amount of fuel. So each time the intake valve on a diesel opens, a full charge of cold air enters the cylinder. This cools the cylinder back down. The heat gained from each combustion process therefore can only cause a gain in temperature that is much, much smaller than it would be in a spark ignition engine. The cylinder block of a Ford I4 DOHC engine The cylinder block or engine block is a machined casting (or sometimes an assembly of modules) containing cylindrically bored holes for the pistons of a multi-cylinder reciprocating internal combustion engine, or for a similarly constructed device such as a pump. ... In an engine, the throttle is the mechanism by which the engines power is increased or decreased. ... Stoichiometry (sometimes called reaction stoichiometry to distinguish it from composition stoichiometry) is the calculation of quantitative (measurable) relationships of the reactants and products in chemical reactions (chemical equations). ...


Some engines use small electric heaters called glow plugs inside the cylinder to help ignite fuel when starting. Some even use resistive grid heaters in the intake manifold to warm the inlet air until the engine reaches operating temperature. Engine block heaters (electric resistive heaters in the engine block) connected to the utility grid are often used when an engine is turned off for extended periods (more than an hour) in cold weather to reduce startup time and engine wear. In the past, a wider variety of cold-start methods were used. Some engines, such as Detroit Diesels and Lister-Petter engines, used a system to introduce small amounts of ether into the inlet manifold to start combustion. Sabb marine engines and Field Marshall tractors (amongst others) used slow-burning solid-fuel 'cigarettes' which were fitted into the cylinder head as a primitive glow plug. Lucas developed the 'Thermostart', where an electrical heating element was combined with a small fuel valve. Diesel fuel slowly dripped from the valve onto the hot element and ignited. The flame heated the inlet manifold and when the engine was turned over the flame was drawn into the combustion chamber to start combustion. The most extreme cold-starting system was probably that developed by International Harvester for their WD-40 tractor of the 1930s. This had a 7-litre 4-cylinder engine which ran as a diesel, but was started as a petrol engine. The cylinder head had valves which opened for a portion of the compression stroke to reduce the effective compression ratio, and a magneto produced the spark. An automatic ratchet system automatically disengaged the ignition system and closed the valves once the engine had run for 30 seconds. The operator then switched off the petrol fuel system and opened the throttle on the diesel injection system. Used glow plug from an Vauxhall/Opel Astra turbo diesel engine Glow plugs are used to heat the combustion chambers of some diesel engines in cold conditions to help ignition at coldstart. ... This article is about a general class of chemical compounds. ... Note: This article is about the military usage of the word marshal. For other usages, see the end of this article. ... Lucas Industries plc was a famous manufacturer of components for the motor industry and aerospace industry. ... For the song by Craig Morgan, see International Harvester (song). ... The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the [[. In East Asia, the rise of militarism occurred. ... This article is about the engine component. ...


Such systems fell out of favour when electrical glow plug systems proved to be the simplest to operate and produce. Direct-injection systems advanced to the extent that cold-starting systems were not needed and then electronic fuel injection systems rendered most cold-start system unnecessary. Used glow plug from an Vauxhall/Opel Astra turbo diesel engine Glow plugs are used to heat the combustion chambers of some diesel engines in cold conditions to help ignition at coldstart. ...


Diesel fuel is also prone to "waxing" or "gelling" in cold weather, terms for the solidification of diesel oil into a partially crystalline state. The crystals build up in the fuel (especially in fuel filters), eventually starving the engine of fuel and causing it to stop running. Low-output electric heaters in fuel tanks and around fuel lines are used to solve this problem. Also, most engines have a "spill return" system, by which any excess fuel from the injector pump and injectors is returned to the fuel tank. Once the engine has warmed, returning warm fuel prevents waxing in the tank. Fuel technology has improved so that with special additives waxing rarely occurs in all but the coldest weather.


A vital component of all diesel engines is a mechanical or electronic governor, which limits the speed of the engine by controlling the rate of fuel delivery. Unlike Otto-cycle engines, incoming air is not throttled and a diesel engine without a governor can easily overspeed, resulting in its destruction. Mechanically governed fuel injection systems are driven by the engine's gear train. These systems use a combination of springs and weights to control fuel delivery relative to both load and speed. Modern, electronically controlled diesel engines control fuel delivery and limit the maximum rpm by use of an electronic control module (ECM) or electronic control unit (ECU). The ECM/ECU receives an engine speed signal, as well as other operating parameters such as intake manifold pressure and fuel temperature, from a sensor and controls the amount of fuel and start of injection timing through electric or hydraulic actuators to maximize power and efficiency and minimize emissions. A governor is a device used to measure and regulate the speed of a machine, such as an engine. ... For other uses, see Revolutions per minute (disambiguation). ...


Controlling the timing of the start of injection of fuel into the cylinder is a key to minimizing emissions, and maximizing fuel economy (efficiency), of the engine. The timing is usually measured in units of crank angle of the piston before top dead centre. For example, if the ECM/ECU initiates fuel injection when the piston is 10 degrees before TDC, the start of injection, or timing, is said to be 10° BTDC. Optimal timing will depend on the engine design as well as its speed and load.


Advancing the start of injection (injecting before the piston reaches TDC) results in higher in-cylinder pressure and temperature, and higher efficiency, but also results in elevated engine noise and increased oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions due to higher combustion temperatures. On the other hand, delayed start of injection causes incomplete combustion, reduced fuel efficiency and an increase in black exhaust smoke, containing a considerable amount of particulate matter (PM) and unburned hydrocarbons (HC). The term nitrogen oxide is imprecise and can be used to refer to any of these oxides (oxygen compounds) of nitrogen, or to a mixture of them: Nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen(II) oxide Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) Dinitrogen monoxide (N2O) (Nitrous oxide) Dinitrogen trioxide (N2O3) Dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) Dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5...


Early fuel injection systems

The modern diesel engine is a combination of two inventors' creations. In all major aspects, it holds true to Rudolf Diesel's original design, that of igniting fuel by compression at an extremely high pressure within the cylinder. However, nearly all present-day diesel engines use the so-called solid injection system invented by Herbert Akroyd Stuart for his hot bulb engine (a compression-ignition engine that precedes the diesel engine and operates slightly differently). Solid injection raises the fuel to extreme pressures by mechanical pumps and delivers it to the combustion chamber by pressure-activated injectors in an almost solid-state jet. Diesel's original engine injected fuel with the assistance of compressed air, which atomized the fuel and forced it into the engine through a nozzle (a similar principle to an aerosol spray). This is called an air-blast injection. The size of the gas compressor needed to power such a system made early diesel engines very heavy and large for their power outputs, and the need to drive a compressor lowered power output even more. Early marine diesels often had smaller auxiliary engines whose sole purpose was to drive the compressors to supply air to the main engine's injector system. Such a system was too bulky and inefficient to be used for road-going automotive vehicles. Herbert Akroyd-Stuart (January 28, 1864, Halifax Yorkshire, England - February 19, 1927) Inventor of the hot bulb oil engine. ... 1939 Lanz Bulldog tractor with hot bulb engine. ... Aerosol spray can Aerosol spray is a type of canister that sprays an aerosol when its button is pressed or held down. ...


Solid injection systems are lighter, simpler, and allow for much higher speed, and so are universally used for automotive diesel engines. Air-blast systems provide very efficient combustion under low-speed, high-load conditions, especially when running on poor-quality fuels, so some large marine engines use this injection method. Air-blast injection also raises the fuel temperature during the injection process, so is sometimes known as hot-fuel injection. In contrast, solid injection is sometimes called cold-fuel injection.


The vast majority of diesel engines in service today use solid injection and the information below relates to that system. In the diesel engine, only air is introduced into the combustion chamber. The air is then compressed to about 600 pounds per square inch (psi), compared to about 200 psi in the gasoline engine. This high compression heats the air to about 1,000 °F (538 °C). At this moment, fuel is injected directly into the compressed air. The fuel is ignited by the heat, causing a rapid expansion of gases that drive the piston downward, supplying power to the crankshaft. In Diesel's manuals, he described the supply of compressed gas into the cylinder to promote the final burn. It is now possible to fumigate the air intake with a small quantity of LPG/CNG. The now air-gas mixture is compressed as above, and when the diesel ignites, the small quantity of gas ignites as well, causing a more rapid and more complete burn of the diesel. Most diesel engines waste between 30 and 15% of the diesel fuel, so by burning the near total amount of diesel consumed on each stroke, the mechanical effect is to improve the torque curve by as much as 28%. The net outcome of applying gas into diesel is improved fuel economy via better torque at the driving wheels resulting in fewer gear changes, and greatly reduced exhaust emissions. Psi has multiple meanings: Psi (letter) (Ψ, ψ) of the Greek alphabet Psi (Cyrillic) (Ñ°, ѱ), letter of the early Cyrillic alphabet, adopted from Greek Psi (parapsychology) Psi (instant messaging client), a popular Jabber client program J/ψ particle, a subatomic particle Wavefunction in Quantum Mechanics, ψ In mathematics, Ψ is used to denote the angle between... 45 kg LPG cylinders Spherical Gas Container typically found in Refineries. ... Typical North America vehicles carry this diamond shape symbol, meaning it is running on compressed natural gas fuel. ... For other senses of this word, see torque (disambiguation). ...


Advantages of the diesel engine are numerous. It burns considerably less fuel than a gasoline engine performing the same work. It has no ignition system to attend to. It can deliver much more of its rated horsepower on a continuous basis than can a gasoline engine. The life of a diesel engine is generally longer than a gasoline engine. Although diesel fuel will burn in open air, it will not explode unless compressed. This article is about a unit of measurement. ...


Some disadvantages to diesel engines are that they are very heavy for the horsepower they produce due to the required heavy design, and their initial cost is much higher than a comparable gasoline engine.


Mechanical and electronic injection

Older engines make use of a mechanical fuel pump and valve assembly that is driven by the engine crankshaft, usually from the timing belt or chain. These engines use simple injectors that are basically very precise spring-loaded valves that open and close at a specific fuel pressure. The pump assembly consists of a pump that pressurizes the fuel and a disc-shaped valve that rotates at half crankshaft speed. The valve has a single aperture to the pressurized fuel on one side, and one aperture for each injector on the other. As the engine turns, the valve discs will line up and deliver a burst of pressurized fuel to the injector at the cylinder about to enter its power stroke. The injector valve is forced open by the fuel pressure, and the diesel is injected until the valve rotates out of alignment and the fuel pressure to that injector is cut off. Engine speed is controlled by a third disc, which rotates only a few degrees and is controlled by the throttle lever. This disc alters the width of the aperture through which the fuel passes, and therefore how long the injectors are held open before the fuel supply is cut, which controls the amount of fuel injected. mechanical fuel pump, fitted to cylinder head Electric fuel pump Petro-Canada Fuel Pump used to transfer fuel at a gas station. ...


This contrasts with the more modern method of having a separate fuel pump which supplies fuel constantly at high pressure to each injector. Each injector has a solenoid, is operated by an electronic control unit, which enables more accurate control of injector opening times that depend on other control conditions, such as engine speed and loading, resulting in better engine performance and fuel economy. This design is also mechanically simpler than the combined pump and valve design, making it generally more reliable, and less noisy, than its mechanical counterpart.


Both mechanical and electronic injection systems can be used in either direct or indirect injection configurations.


Older diesel engines with mechanical injection pumps could be inadvertently run in reverse, albeit very inefficiently, as witnessed by massive amounts of soot being ejected from the air intake. This was often a consequence of push starting a vehicle using the wrong gear.


Indirect injection

Main article: Indirect injection

An indirect injection diesel engine delivers fuel into a chamber off the combustion chamber, called a prechamber or ante-chamber, where combustion begins and then spreads into the main combustion chamber, assisted by turbulence created in the chamber. This system allows for a smoother, quieter running engine, and because combustion is assisted by turbulence, injector pressures can be lower, which in the days of mechanical injection systems allowed high-speed running suitable for road vehicles (typically up to speeds of around 4,000 rpm). The prechamber had the disadvantage of increasing heat loss to the engine's cooling system, introducing pumping losses in the narrow throat connecting it to the main cylinder, and restricting the combustion burn, which reduced the efficiency by between 5% – 10% in comparison to a direct injection engine, and nearly all require some form of cold start device such as glow plugs. Indirect injection engines were used widely in small-capacity, high-speed diesel engines in automotive, marine and construction uses from the 1950s, until direct injection technology advanced in the 1980s. Indirect injection engines are cheaper to build and it is easier to produce smooth, quiet-running vehicles with a simple mechanical system, so such engines are still often used in applications that carry less stringent emissions controls than highway vehicles, such as small marine engines, generators, tractors, and pumps. With electronic injection systems, indirect injection engines are still used in some road-going vehicles, but most prefer the greater efficiency of direct injection. In an internal combustion engine, the term indirect injection refers to a fuel injection where fuel is not directly injected into the combustion chamber. ... For other uses, see Revolutions per minute (disambiguation). ... The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989, also called The Eighties. The decade saw social, economic and general upheaval as wealth, production and western culture migrated to new industrializing economies. ...


Direct injection

Modern diesel engines make use of one of the following direct injection methods: // Fuel injection is a system of fuel delivery for mixture with air in an internal combustion engine. ...


Distributor and Inline pump direct injection

The first incarnations[citation needed] of direct injection diesels used a rotary pump much like indirect injection diesels; however the injectors were mounted in the top of the combustion chamber rather than in a separate pre-combustion chamber. Examples are vehicles such as the Ford Transit and the Austin Rover Maestro and Montego with their Perkins Prima engine. The problem with these vehicles was the harsh noise that they made and particulate (smoke) emissions. This is the main reason that this type of engine was limited to commercial vehicles, the notable exceptions being the Maestro, Montego and Fiat Croma passenger cars. Fuel consumption was about fifteen to twenty percent lower than indirect injection diesels, which for some buyers was enough to compensate for the extra noise.


One of the first small-capacity, mass produced direct injection engines that could be called refined was developed by the Rover Group.[citation needed] The 200Tdi 2.5-litre four-cylinder turbodiesel was used by Land Rover in their vehicles from 1989, and the engine used an aluminum cylinder head, Bosch two-stage injection and multi-phase glow plugs to produce a smooth-running and economical engine while still using mechanical fuel injection. Rover Group plc was the name that was given by the British government, in 1986, to the state-owned vehicle manufacturer British Leyland or BL. After divesting of its commercial vehicle and bus manufacturing divisions the company by then consisting of the car manufacturing arm Austin Rover Group and the... Land Rover was the name of one of the first British civilian all-terrain utility vehicles, first produced by Rover in 1947. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...


This type of engine was transformed by electronic control of the injection pump, pioneered by the Volkswagen Group with the Audi 100 TDI introduced in 1989. The injection pressure was still only around 300 bar, but the injection timing, fuel quantity, EGR and turbo boost were all electronically controlled. This gave much more precise control of these parameters which made refinement much more acceptable and emissions acceptably low. Fairly quickly the technology trickled down to more mass market vehicles such as the Mark 3 Golf TDI where it proved to be very popular. These cars were both more economical and more powerful than indirect injection competitors of their day. Volkswagen Group (ISIN: DE0007664005, TYO: 7659 ) is a German automobile manufacturer and one of the largest automotive companies worldwide. ... Turbo Direct Injection - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a NOx (nitrogen oxide and nitrogen dioxide) reduction technique used in most gasoline and diesel engines. ... The Volkswagen Golf (Mk1 and Mk5 badged as Volkswagen Rabbit in the United States and Canada, Mk1 badged as Volkswagen Caribe in Mexico) is a compact car/small family car manufactured by Volkswagen. ...


Unit direct injection

Main article: Unit Injector

Unit direct injection also injects fuel directly into the cylinder of the engine. However, in this system the injector and the pump are combined into one unit positioned over each cylinder. Each cylinder thus has its own pump, feeding its own injector, which prevents pressure fluctuations and allows more consistent injection to be achieved. This type of injection system, also developed by Bosch, is used by Volkswagen AG in cars (where it is called a Pumpe-Düse-System — literally "pump-nozzle system") and by Mercedes Benz ("PLD") and most major diesel engine manufacturers in large commercial engines (CAT, Cummins, Detroit Diesel, Volvo). With recent advancements, the pump pressure has been raised to 2,050 bar (205 MPa), allowing injection parameters similar to common rail systems. VW redirects here. ... Caterpillar Inc. ... This article is about the diesel engine manufacturer. ... Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC), headquartered in Detroit, Michigan, USA, is part of the Freightliner - Trucks NAFTA Business Unit, and is a subsidiary of DaimlerChrysler AG. The company produces on-highway medium and heavy-duty Diesel engines for the commercial truck market, and for other commercial and automobile use. ... Volvo Cars is the luxury car maker using the Volvo Trademark. ... The bar (symbol bar), decibar (symbol dbar) and the millibar (symbol mbar, also mb) are units of pressure. ... The megapascal, symbol MPa is an SI unit of pressure. ...


Common rail direct injection

Main article: Common rail

In older diesel engines, a distributor-type injection pump, regulated by the engine, supplies bursts of fuel to injectors which are simply nozzles through which the diesel is sprayed into the engine's combustion chamber. CRD redirects here. ...


In common rail systems, the distributor injection pump is eliminated. Instead, a high-pressure pump pressurises fuel at up to 2,000 bar (200 MPa, 30,000 psi)[3], in a "common rail". The common rail is a tube that branches off to computer-controlled injector valves, each of which contains a precision-machined nozzle and a plunger driven by a solenoid or piezoelectric actuators. (For example, Mercedes uses piezoelectric actuators in their high power output 3.0L V6 common rail diesel). The megapascal, symbol MPa is an SI unit of pressure. ... A pressure gauge reading in PSI (red scale) and kPa (black scale) The pound-force per square inch (symbol: lbf/in²) is a non-SI unit of pressure based on avoirdupois units. ... For other uses, see Solenoid (disambiguation). ... Piezoelectricity is the ability of some materials (notably crystals and certain ceramics) to generate an electric potential[1] in response to applied mechanical stress. ...


Most European automakers have common rail diesels in their model lineups, even for commercial vehicles. Some Japanese manufacturers, such as Toyota, Nissan and recently Honda, have also developed common rail diesel engines. Some Indian companies have also successfully implemented this technology. Toyota Motor Corporation ) is a multinational corporation headquartered in Japan, and currently is the worlds largest automaker. ... Nissan Motor Co. ... This article is about the Japanese motor corporation. ...


Different car makers refer to their common rail engines by different names, e.g., DaimlerChrysler's CDI, Ford Motor Company's TDCi (most of these engines are manufactured by PSA), Fiat Group's (Fiat, Alfa Romeo and Lancia) JTD, Renault's dCi, GM/Opel's CDTi (most of these engines are manufactured by Fiat, other by Isuzu), Hyundai's CRDi, Mitsubishi's DI-D, PSA Peugeot Citroën's HDi (engines for commercial diesel vehicles are made by Ford Motor Company), Toyota's D-4D, and so on. In India, Mahindra & Mahindra produce their 'Scorpio-CRDe' and Tata Motors their 'Safari-DICOR'. Fiat S.p. ... For other uses, see Fiat (disambiguation). ... Alfa Romeo is an Italian automobile manufacturing company, founded as Darracq Italiana by Cavaliere Ugo Stella, an aristocrat from Milan in partnership with the French automobile firm of Alexandre Darracq. ... Lancia (pronounced Lan-cha) is an Italian automobile manufacturer founded in 1906 by Vincenzo Lancia and which became part of the Fiat Group in 1969. ... JTD is Fiats term for its turbocharged diesel engines. ... For the author, see Mary Renault. ... This article is about the European car manufacturer. ... This article is about a truck manufacturer. ... South Korean business tycoon Chung Ju-yung, founder and honorary chairman of Hyundai Group, 1998 Hyundai refers to a group of companies founded by Chung Ju-yung in South Korea, and related organizations. ... For information on Mitsubishi brand computer monitors, see NEC-Mitsubishi Electronics Display of America Inc. ... Toyota Motor Corporation ) is a multinational corporation headquartered in Japan, and currently is the worlds largest automaker. ... 1970s domestic market FC-160 Mahindra & Mahindra Limited (M&M) is a major automaker in India. ... Tata Motors Limited (Hindi: ), formerly known as TELCO (TATA Engineering and Locomotive Company), is a multinational corporation headquartered in Mumbai, India. ...


Types of diesel engines

Early diesel engines

Rudolf Diesel intended his engine to replace the steam engine as the primary power source for industry. As such, diesel engines in the late 19th and early 20th centuries used the same basic layout and form as industrial steam engines, with long-bore cylinders, external valve gear, cross-head bearings and an open crankshaft connected to a large flywheel. Smaller engines would be built with vertical cylinders, while most medium- and large-sized industrial engines were built with horizontal cylinders, just as steam engines had been. Engines could be built with more than one cylinder in both cases. The largest early diesels resembled the triple-expansion reciprocating engine steam engine, being tens of feet high with vertical cylinders arranged in-line. These early engines ran at very slow speeds — partly due to the limitations of their air-blast injector equipment and partly so they would be compatible with the majority of industrial equipment designed for steam engines; maximum speeds of between 100 and 300 rpm were common. Engines were usually started by allowing compressed air into the cylinders to turn the engine, although smaller engines could be started by hand. // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ... Spoked flywheel Flywheel from stationary engine. ... For other uses, see Revolutions per minute (disambiguation). ...


In the early decades of the 20th century, when large diesel engines were first being used, the engines took a form similar to the compound steam engines common at the time, with the piston being connected to the connecting rod via a crosshead bearing. Following steam engine practice, double-acting four-stroke diesel engines were constructed to increase power output, with combustion taking place on both sides of the piston, with two sets of valve gear and fuel injection. This system also meant that the engine's direction of rotation could be reversed by altering the injector timing, so the engine could be coupled directly to the propeller without the need for a gearbox. While it produced large amounts of power and was very efficient, the double-acting diesel engine's main problem was producing a good seal where the piston rod passed through the bottom of the lower combustion chamber to the crosshead bearing. By the 1930s it was found easier and more reliable to fit turbochargers to the engines, although crosshead bearings are still used to reduce the stress on the crankshaft bearings, and the wear on the cylinders, in large long-stroke main engines. A crosshead bearing (or simply crosshead) is used in large reciprocating engines, whether internal combustion engines or steam engines. ... The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the [[. In East Asia, the rise of militarism occurred. ...


Modern diesel engines

As with gasoline engines, there are two classes of diesel engines in current use: two-stroke and four-stroke. The four-stroke type is the "classic" version, tracing its lineage back to Rudolf Diesel's prototype. It is also the most commonly used form, being the preferred power source for many motor vehicles, especially buses and trucks. Much larger engines, such as used for railroad locomotion and marine propulsion, are often two-stroke units, offering a more favorable horsepower-to-weight ratio, as well as better fuel economy. The most powerful engines in the world are two-cycle diesels of mammoth proportions. These so-called low speed diesels are able to achieve thermal efficiencies approaching fifty percent. For other uses, see Prototype (disambiguation). ... A modern Diesel locomotive. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Two-stroke diesel operation is similar to that of gasoline counterparts, except that fuel is not mixed with air prior to induction, and the crankcase does not take an active role in the cycle. The traditional two-stroke design relies upon a mechanically driven positive displacement blower to charge the cylinders with air prior to compression and ignition. The charging process also assists in expelling (scavenging) combustion gases remaining from the previous power stroke. The archetype of the modern form of the two stroke Diesel is the Detroit Diesel engine, in which the blower pressurizes a chamber in the engine block that is often referred to as the "air box." The (much larger) Electromotive prime mover utilized in EMD Diesel-electric locomotives is built to the same principle. A Roots Blower refers to a specific design of positive displacement vacuum pump”. // General description The term derives from the Roots brothers who invented the rotary lobe pump more than a century ago. ... Scavenging consists of pushing the exhausted gas-charge out of the cylinder, and drawing in a fresh draught of air ready for the next cycle. ... This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... For other uses, see Archetype (disambiguation). ... Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC), headquartered in Detroit, Michigan, USA, is part of the Freightliner - Trucks NAFTA Business Unit, and is a subsidiary of DaimlerChrysler AG. The company produces on-highway medium and heavy-duty Diesel engines for the commercial truck market, and for other commercial and automobile use. ... Electro-Motive Diesel, Inc. ... For the philosophical/theological concept of a prime mover (that is, a self-existent being that is the ultimate cause or mover of all things), see cosmological argument. ... Great Western Railway No. ...


In a two-stroke diesel engine, as the cylinder's piston approaches bottom dead center a passage between the air box and the cylinder is opened, permitting air flow into the cylinder. During this time, the exhaust valves are opened and some of the air flow forces the remaining combustion gasses from the cylinder—this is the scavenging process. As the piston passes through bottom center and starts upward, the passage is closed and compression commences, culminating in fuel injection and ignition. Refer to two-stroke Diesel engines for more discussion concerning aspiration issues with a two-stroke engine. Look up cylinder in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the American composer, see Walter Piston. ... The two-stroke cycle of an internal combustion engine differs from the more common four-stroke cycle by having only two strokes (linear movements of the piston) instead of four, although the same four operations (intake, compression, power, exhaust) still occur. ...


Normally, the number of cylinders are used in multiples of two, although any number of cylinders can be used as long as the load on the crankshaft is counterbalanced to prevent excessive vibration. The inline-six cylinder design is the most prolific in light to medium-duty engines, though small V8 and larger inline-four displacement engines are also common. Small-capacity engines (generally considered to be those below five litres in capacity) are generally four or six cylinder types, with the four cylinder being the most common type found in automotive uses. Five cylinder diesel engines have also been produced, being a compromise between the smooth running of the six cylinder and the space-efficient dimensions of the four cylinder. Diesel engines for smaller plant machinery, boats, tractors, generators and pumps may be four, three or two cylinder types, with the single cylinder diesel engine remaining for light stationary work. Oscillation is the variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more different states. ...


The desire to improve the diesel engine's power-to-weight ratio produced several novel cylinder arrangements to extract more power from a given capacity. The Napier Deltic engine, with three cylinders arranged in a triangular formation, each containing two opposed-action pistons, the whole engine having three crankshafts, is one of the better known. The Commer van company of the United Kingdom used a similar design for road vehicles, designed by Tillings-Stevens, member of the Rootes Group, the TS3. The Commer TS3 engine had 3 horizontal in-line cylinders, each with two opposed action pistons that worked through rocker arms, to connecting rods and had one crankshaft. While both these designs succeeded in producing greater power for a given capacity, they were complex and expensive to produce and operate, and when turbocharger technology improved in the 1960s, this was found to be a much more reliable and simple way of extracting more power. Power-to-weight ratio is a measure commonly used when comparing various vehicles (or engines), including automobiles, motorcycles, aircraft, and armoured fighting vehicles. ... Napier Deltic powered British Rail Class 55 Alycidon, at the National Railway Museum, York, UK The term Deltic (meaning in the form of the Greek letter Delta) is used to refer to both the opposed piston high speed diesel engine designed and produced by Napier & Son, and the locomotives produced... Front of an old Commer bus Comma was an Atlantan manufacturer of illigal vehicles which existed from 1637 until 2458B.C. The company was formed in Georgia, and began by barfing on military vehicles for the Georgian House in the First Cold World War. ... The Rootes Group is a now-defunct British automobile manufacturer. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969. ...


As a footnote, prior to 1950, Sulzer started experimenting with two-stroke engines with boost pressures as high as 6 atmospheres, in which all of the output power was taken from an exhaust turbine. The two-stroke pistons directly drove air compressor pistons to make a positive displacement gas generator. Opposed pistons were connected by linkages instead of crankshafts. Several of these units could be connected together to provide power gas to one large output turbine. The overall thermal efficiency was roughly twice that of a simple gas turbine. ([4]) Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sulzer Ltd. ... Standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure. ...


Carbureted compression ignition model engines

Simple compression ignition engines are made for model propulsion. This is quite similar to the typical glow-plug engine that runs on a mixture of methanol (methyl alcohol) and lubricant (typically castor oil) (and occasionally nitromethane to improve performance) with a hot wire filament to provide ignition. Rather than containing a glow plug, the head has an adjustable contra piston above the piston, forming the upper surface of the combustion chamber. This contra piston is restrained by an adjusting screw controlled by an external lever (or sometimes by a removable hex key). The fuel used contains Diethyl ether, which is highly volatile and has an extremely low flash point, combined with kerosene and a lubricant plus a very small proportion (typically 2%) of ignition improver such as Amyl nitrate or preferably Isopropyl nitrate nowadays. Used glow plug from an Vauxhall/Opel Astra turbo diesel engine Glow plugs are used to heat the combustion chambers of some diesel engines in cold conditions to help ignition at coldstart. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH (often abbreviated MeOH). ... Flash point 35 °C R/S statement R: S: RTECS number PA9800000 Related compounds Related nitro compounds nitroethane Related compounds methyl nitrite methyl nitrate Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Nitromethane is an organic... This article is about the chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Flash point (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Kerosene (disambiguation). ... Amyl nitrate is used medically to treat psyhcos, and is sometimes used postoperatively in urologic procedures to rapidly abort unwanted erections (especially in the cases of Nesbitt procedures and complex urethroplasty). ... Isopropyl nitrate (IPN, 2-propyl nitrate) is a coloreless liquid monopropellant. ...


The engine is started by reducing the compression and setting the spray bar mixture rich with the adjustable needle valve, gradually increasing the compression while cranking the engine. The compression is increased until the engine starts running. The mixture can then be leaned out and the compression increased. Compared to glow plug engines, model diesel engines exhibit much higher fuel economy, thus increasing endurance for the amount of fuel carried. They also exhibit higher torque, enabling the turning of a larger or higher pitched propeller at slower speed. Since the combustion occurs well before the exhaust port is uncovered, these engines are also considerably quieter (when unmuffled) than glow-plug engines of similar displacement. Compared to glow plug engines, model diesels are more difficult to throttle over a wide range of powers, making them less suitable for radio control models than either two or four stroke glow-plug engines although this difference is claimed to be less noticeable with the use of modern schneurle-ported engines. A needle valve is a type of valve usually used in flow metering applications. ... One complete cycle of a four cylinder, four stroke engine. ... Schneurle porting is a system to improve efficiency on a two-stroke engine. ...


Advantages and disadvantages versus spark-ignition engines

Power and fuel economy

Diesel engines are more efficient than gasoline (petrol) engines of the same power, resulting in lower fuel consumption. A common margin is 40% more miles per gallon for an efficient turbodiesel. For example, the current model Škoda Octavia, using Volkswagen Group engines, has a combined Euro rating of 38 miles per US gallon (6.2 L/100 km) for the 102 bhp (76 kW) petrol engine and 54 mpg (4.4 L/100 km) for the 105 bhp (78 kW) diesel engine. However, such a comparison doesn't take into account that diesel fuel is denser and contains about 15% more energy by volume. Although the calorific value of the fuel is slightly lower at 45.3 MJ/kg (megajoules per kilogram) than gasoline at 45.8 MJ/kg, liquid diesel fuel is significantly denser than liquid gasoline. When this is taken into account, diesel fuel has a higher energy density than petrol; this volumetric measure is the main concern of many people,[who?] as diesel fuel is sold by volume, not weight, and must be transported and stored in tanks of fixed size. Miles per gallon (MPG, or mpg) is a measure of fuel efficiency - the number of miles the car can run on one gallon of fuel. ... Turbodiesel refers to any diesel engine with a turbocharger. ... The Å koda Octavia is a medium family car introduced in 1996 by the car manufacturer Å koda. ... Volkswagen Group (ISIN: DE0007664005, TYO: 7659 ) is a German automobile manufacturer and one of the largest automotive companies worldwide. ... The horsepower (hp) is the name of several non-metric units of power. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Heating value. ... The joule (IPA: or ) (symbol: J) is the SI unit of energy. ... Kg redirects here. ...


Adjusting the numbers to account for the energy density of diesel fuel, one finds the overall energy efficiency of the aforementioned paragraph is still about 20% greater for the diesel version, despite the weight penalty of the diesel engine. When comparing engines of relatively low power for the vehicle's weight (such as the 75 hp VW Golf), the diesel's overall energy efficiency advantage is reduced further but still between 10 and 15 percent.


While higher compression ratio is helpful in raising efficiency, diesel engines are much more economical than gasoline (petrol) engines when at low power and at engine idle. Unlike the petrol engine, diesels lack a butterfly valve (throttle) in the inlet system, which closes at idle. This creates parasitic drag on the incoming air, reducing the efficiency of petrol/gasoline engines at idle. Due to their lower heat losses, diesel engines have a lower risk of gradually overheating if left idling for long periods of time. In many applications, such as marine, agriculture, and railways, diesels are left idling unattended for many hours or sometimes days. These advantages are especially attractive in locomotives (see dieselisation). Dieselisation or Dieselization (see spelling differences) is generally used for the nowadays increasingly common use of diesel fuel in diesel engines in vehicles, as opposed to gasoline in petrol engines in road transport; and as opposed to steam engines in steam locomotives and rail transport. ...


Where weight is an issue, diesel engines can be more massive than gasoline engines of similar output. A larger displacement diesel engine is required to produce the same power as a gasoline engine. This is essentially because the diesel must operate at lower engine speeds.[5] Diesel fuel is injected just before ignition, leaving the fuel little time to reach all the oxygen in the cylinder. In the gasoline engine, air and fuel are mixed for the entire compression stroke, ensuring complete mixing even at higher engine speeds. Gasoline engine (also referred to as petrol engine or Otto engine) invented at the end of the 19th century by German engineer Nikolaus Otto is a type of internal combustion engine which is often used for automobiles, aircraft, small mobile vehicles such as lawnmowers or motorcycles, and outboard motors for...


The second reason for the greater weight of a diesel engine is it must be stronger to withstand the higher combustion pressures needed for ignition, and the shock loading from the detonation of the ignition mixture. As a result, the reciprocating mass (the piston and connecting rod), and the resultant forces to accelerate and to decelerate these masses, are substantially higher the heavier, the bigger and the stronger the part, and the laws of diminishing returns of component strength, mass of component and inertia — all come into play to create a balance of offsets, of optimal mean power output, weight and durability.


Yet it is this same build quality that has allowed some enthusiasts to acquire significant power increases with turbocharged engines through fairly simple and inexpensive modifications. A gasoline engine of similar size cannot put out a comparable power increase without extensive alterations because the stock components would not be able to withstand the higher stresses placed upon them. Since a diesel engine is already built to withstand higher levels of stress, it makes an ideal candidate for performance tuning with little expense. However, it should be said that any modification that raises the amount of fuel and air put through a diesel engine will increase its operating temperature which will reduce its life and increase service requirements. These are issues with newer, lighter, high performance diesel engines which are not "overbuilt" to the degree of older engines and are being pushed to provide greater power in smaller engines. Turbo redirects here. ... For other uses, see tuning. ...


The addition of a turbocharger or supercharger to the engine greatly assists in increasing fuel economy and power output, mitigating the fuel-air intake speed limit mentioned above for a given engine displacement. Boost pressures can be higher on diesels than gasoline engines, due to the latter's susceptibility to knock, and the higher compression ratio allows a diesel engine to be more efficient than a comparable spark ignition engine. Because the burned gases are expanded further in a diesel engine cylinder, the exhaust gas is cooler, meaning turbochargers require less cooling, and can be more reliable, than on spark-ignition engines. Turbo redirects here. ... A supercharger (also known as a blower) is an air compressor used to force more air (and hence more oxygen) into the combustion chamber(s) of an internal combustion engine than can be achieved at ambient atmospheric pressure (natural aspiration). ... Fuel efficiency, sometimes also referred to as fuel economy and commonly gas mileage in the United States, is a numeric measure often used to describe the amount of fuel consumed with regard to the distance travelled in a transportation vehicle, such as an automobile. ... Bold text The compression ratio is a single number that can be used to predict the performance of any engine (such as an internal-combustion engine or a Stirling Engine). ...


The increased fuel economy of the diesel engine over the gasoline engine means that the diesel produces less carbon dioxide (CO2) per unit distance. Recently, advances in production and changes in the political climate have increased the availability and awareness of biodiesel, an alternative to petroleum-derived diesel fuel with a much lower net-sum emission of CO2, due to the absorption of CO2 by plants used to produce the fuel. Although concerns are now being raised as to the negative effect this is having on the world food supply, as the growing of crops specifically for biofuels takes up land that could be used for food crops and uses water that could be used by both humans and animals. Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... This article is about transesterified lipids. ... Biofuel is any fuel that derives from biomass _ recently living organisms or their metabolic byproducts, such as manure from cows. ...


The two main factors that held diesel engine back in private vehicles until quite recently were their low power outputs and high noise levels, characterised by knock or clatter, especially at low speeds and when cold. This noise is caused by "piston slap", the sudden ignition of the diesel fuel when injected into the combustion chamber slamming the cold-contracted piston into the cylinder wall. The tolerances between the piston and cylinder wall are greater at cold temperatures to allow expansion at higher temperatures. A combination of improved mechanical technology (such as two-stage injectors which fire a short "pilot charge" of fuel into the cylinder to warm the combustion chamber before delivering the main fuel charge) and electronic control (which can adjust the timing and length of the injection process to optimise it for all speeds and temperatures) have partially mitigated these problems in the latest generation of common-rail designs. Poor power and narrow torque bands have been helped by the use of turbochargers and intercoolers. An intercooler, or charge air cooler, is an air-to-air or air-to-liquid heat exchange device used on turbocharged and supercharged internal combustion engines to improve their volumetric efficiency by increasing intake air charge density through isochoric cooling. ...


Emissions

Diesel engines produce very little carbon monoxide as they burn the fuel in excess air even at full load, at which point the quantity of fuel injected per cycle is still about 50% lean of stoichiometric. However, they can produce black soot (or more specifically diesel particulate matter) from their exhaust, which consists of unburned carbon compounds. This is caused by local low temperatures where the fuel is not fully atomized. These local low temperatures occur at the cylinder walls and at the outside of big droplets of fuel. At these areas where it is relatively cold, the mixture is rich (contrary to the overall mixture which is lean). The rich mixture has less air to burn and some of the fuel turns into a carbon deposit. Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... Stoichiometry (sometimes called reaction stoichiometry to distinguish it from composition stoichiometry) is the calculation of quantitative (measurable) relationships of the reactants and products in chemical reactions (chemical equations). ... Soot, also called lampblack, Pigment Black 7, carbon black or black carbon, is a dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, usually composed mainly of amorphous carbon, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke—especially from the combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in the... Diesel particulate matter (DPM) refers to the particulate components of diesel exhaust, which include diesel soot and aerosols such as ash particulates, metallic abrasion particles, sulfates, and silicates. ...


The full load limit of a diesel engine in normal service is defined by the "black smoke limit", beyond which point the fuel cannot be completely combusted; as the "black smoke limit" is still considerably lean of stoichiometric it is possible to obtain more power by exceeding it, but the resultant inefficient combustion means that the extra power comes at the price of reduced combustion efficiency, high fuel consumption and dense clouds of smoke, so this is only done in specialised applications (such as tractor pulling competitions) where these disadvantages are of little concern. Race-tractor with 4 V8-engines Allis Chalmers Diesel Pulling Tractor Sled Tractor pulling, also known as power pulling, is a competition using tractors to pull a heavy sled along a track and is very popular in rural areas. ...


Likewise, when starting from cold, the engine's combustion efficiency is reduced because the cold engine block draws heat out of the cylinder in the compression stroke. The result is that fuel is not combusted fully, resulting in blue/white smoke and lower power outputs until the engine has warmed through. This is especially the case with indirect injection engines, which are less thermally efficient. With electronic injection, the timing and length of the injection sequence can be altered to compensate for this. Older engines with mechanical injection can have manual control to alter the timing, or multi-phase electronically-controlled glow plugs, that stay on for a period after start-up to ensure clean combustion—the plugs are automatically switched to a lower power to prevent them burning out. Used glow plug from an Vauxhall/Opel Astra turbo diesel engine Glow plugs are used to heat the combustion chambers of some diesel engines in cold conditions to help ignition at coldstart. ...


Particles of the size normally called PM10 (particles of 10 micrometres or smaller) have been implicated in health problems, especially in cities. Some modern diesel engines feature diesel particulate filters, which catch the black soot and when saturated are automatically regenerated by burning the particles. Other problems associated with the exhaust gases (nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides) can be mitigated with further investment and equipment; some diesel cars now have catalytic converters in the exhaust. A micrometre (American spelling: micrometer, symbol µm) is an SI unit of length equal to one millionth of a metre, or about a tenth of the diameter of a droplet of mist or fog. ... A diesel particulate filter (top left) in a Peugeot A diesel particulate filter, sometimes called a DPF, is device designed to remove diesel particulate matter or soot from the exhaust gas of a diesel engine, most of which are rated at 85% efficiency, but often attaining efficiencies of over 90...


Power and torque

For commercial uses requiring towing, load carrying and other tractive tasks, diesel engines tend to have better torque characteristics. Diesel engines tend to have their torque peak quite low in their speed range (usually between 1600 – 2000 rpm for a small-capacity unit, lower for a larger engine used in a truck). This provides smoother control over heavy loads when starting from rest, and, crucially, allows the diesel engine to be given higher loads at low speeds than a petrol engine, making them much more economical for these applications. This characteristic is not so desirable in private cars, so most modern diesels used in such vehicles use electronic control, variable geometry turbochargers and shorter piston strokes to achieve a wider spread of torque over the engine's speed range, typically peaking at around 2500 – 3000 rpm. For other senses of this word, see torque (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Revolutions per minute (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Truck (disambiguation). ... The Variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) exists in several forms, usually designed to allow the effective A/R ratio of the turbo to be altered as the conditions change. ...


Reliability

The lack of an electrical ignition system greatly improves the reliability. The high durability of a diesel engine is also due to its overbuilt nature (see above) as well as the diesel's combustion cycle, which creates less-violent changes in pressure when compared to a spark-ignition engine, a benefit that is magnified by the lower rotating speeds in diesels. Diesel fuel is a better lubricant than gasoline so is less harmful to the oil film on piston rings and cylinder bores; it is routine for diesel engines to cover 250,000 miles (400 000 km) or more without a rebuild. The ignition system of an internal-combustion engine is an important part of the overall engine system that provides for the timely burning of the fuel mixture within the engine. ... Spring-loaded piston rings. ... Cylinder with piston in a steam engine A cylinder in the central working part of a reciprocating engine, the space in which a piston travels. ...


Unfortunately, due to the greater compression force required and the increased weight of the stronger components, starting a diesel engine is a harder task. More torque is required to push the engine through compression. For other senses of this word, see torque (disambiguation). ...


Either an electrical starter or an air start system is used to start the engine turning. On large engines, pre-lubrication and slow turning of an engine, as well as heating, are required to minimize the amount of engine damage during initial start-up and running. Some smaller military diesels can be started with an explosive cartridge, called a Coffman starter, which provides the extra power required to get the machine turning. In the past, Caterpillar and John Deere used a small gasoline pony motor in their tractors to start the primary diesel motor. The pony motor heated the diesel to aid in ignition and utilized a small clutch and transmission to actually spin up the diesel engine. Even more unusual was an International Harvester design in which the diesel motor had its own carburetor and ignition system, and started on gasoline. Once warmed up, the operator moved two levers to switch the motor to diesel operation, and work could begin. These engines had very complex cylinder heads, with their own gasoline combustion chambers, and in general were vulnerable to expensive damage if special care was not taken (especially in letting the engine cool before turning it off). An automobile self-starter is an electric motor that initiates piston motion in a cars internal combustion engine before it can power itself. ... The air start system on a large slow speed diesel engine is used to initiate ignition and consists of the following components: a compressor, an air reservoir (large cylindrical tank), associated piping, a control valve (this is linked to the camshaft), and the air start valves. ... Lubrication occurs when opposing surfaces are separated by a lubricant film. ... The Coffman engine starter was a device used mostly in early piston propeller aircraft for starting the engine(s) from inside the cockpit. ... Deere & Company (usually known by its brand name John Deere) (NYSE: DE) is an American corporation based in Moline, Illinois, and the leading manufacturer of agricultural machinery in the world. ... For the song by Craig Morgan, see International Harvester (song). ...


As mentioned above, diesel engines tend to have more torque at lower engine speeds than gasoline engines. However, diesel engines tend to have a narrower power band than gasoline engines. Naturally-aspirated diesels tend to lack power and torque at the top of their speed range. This narrow band is a reason why a vehicle such as a truck may have a gearbox with as many as 18 or more gears, to allow the engine's power to be used effectively at all speeds. Turbochargers tend to improve power at high engine speeds; superchargers improve power at lower speeds; and variable geometry turbochargers improve the engine's performance equally by flattening the torque curve. For other senses of this word, see torque (disambiguation). ... The power band of an engine refers to the range of operating speeds under which the engine is able to operate efficiently. ... “Gearbox” redirects here. ...


Quality and variety of fuels

Petrol/gasoline engines are limited in the variety and quality of the fuels they can burn. Older petrol engines fitted with a carburetor required a volatile fuel that would vaporize easily to create the necessary fuel/air mix for combustion. Because both air and fuel are admitted to the cylinder, if the compression ratio of the engine is too high or the fuel too volatile (with too low an octane rating), the fuel will ignite under compression, as in a diesel engine, before the piston reaches the top of its stroke. This pre-ignition causes a power loss and over time major damage to the piston and cylinder. The need for a fuel that is volatile enough to vaporize but not too volatile (to avoid pre-ignition) means that petrol engines will only run on a narrow range of fuels. There has been some success at dual-fuel engines that use gasoline/ethanol, gasoline/propane, and gasoline/methane. Bendix-Technico (Stromberg) 1-barrel downdraft carburetor model BXUV-3, with nomenclature A carburetor (North American spelling) or carburettor (Commonwealth spelling), is a device that blends air and fuel for an internal combustion engine. ... Bold text The compression ratio is a single number that can be used to predict the performance of any engine (such as an internal-combustion engine or a Stirling Engine). ... For other uses, see Octane (disambiguation). ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Propane is a three-carbon alkane, normally a gas, but compressible to a liquid that is transportable. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ...


In diesel engines, a mechanical injector system vaporizes the fuel into a pre-combustion chamber (as opposed to a Venturi jet in a carburetor, or a Fuel injector in a fuel injection system vaporizing fuel into the intake manifold or intake runners as in a petrol engine). This forced vaporisation means that less volatile fuels can be used. More crucially, because only air is inducted into the cylinder in a diesel engine, the compression ratio can be much higher as there is no risk of pre-ignition provided the injection process is accurately timed. This means that cylinder temperatures are much higher in a diesel engine than a petrol engine allowing less combustible fuels to be used. A copper aspirator. ... // Fuel injection is a system of fuel delivery for mixture with air in an internal combustion engine. ...


Diesel fuel is a form of light fuel oil, very similar to kerosene, but diesel engines, especially older or simple designs that lack precision electronic injection systems, can run on a wide variety of other fuels. One of the most common alternatives is vegetable oil from a very wide variety of plants. Some engines can be run on vegetable oil without modification, and most others require fairly basic alterations. Biodiesel is a pure diesel-like fuel refined from vegetable oil and can be used in nearly all diesel engines. The only limits on the fuels used in diesel engines are the ability of the fuel to flow along the fuel lines and the ability of the fuel to lubricate the injector pump and injectors adequately. In general terms, inline mechanical injector pumps tolerate poor-quality or bio-fuels better than distributor-type pumps. Also, indirect injection engines generally run more satisfactorily on bio-fuels than direct injection engines. This is partly because an indirect injection engine has a much greater 'swirl' effect, improving vaporisation and combustion of fuel, and also because (in the case of vegetable oil-type fuels) lipid depositions can condense on the cylinder walls of a direct-injection engine if combustion temperatures are too low (such as starting the engine from cold). For other uses, see Kerosene (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with cooking oil. ... This article is about transesterified lipids. ... Some common lipids. ...


A related historical note: at the request of the French Government the Otto company demonstrated a diesel engine at the 1900 Exposition Universelle (World's Fair) which used peanut oil (see biodiesel). The French government were at the time exploring the possibility of using peanut oil as a locally produced fuel in their African colonies. Diesel himself later tested extensively the use of plant oils in his engine and began to actively promote the use of these fuels. The Exposition Universelle of 1900 was a worlds fair held in Paris, France, to celebrate the achievements of the past century and to accelerate development into the next. ... Worlds Fair is any of various large expositions held since the mid-19th century. ... This article is about transesterified lipids. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


Most large marine diesels (often called cathedral engines due to their size) run on heavy fuel oil (sometimes called "bunker oil"), which is a thick, viscous and almost un-flammable fuel which is very safe to store and cheap to buy in bulk as it is a waste product from the petroleum refining industry. The fuel must be heated to thin it out (often by the exhaust header) and is often passed through multiple injection stages to vaporize it. An oil tanker taking on bunker fuel. ...


Rudolf Diesel experimented with the use of coal dust as a fuel.


Fuel and fluid characteristics

Main article: Diesel

Diesel engines can operate on a variety of different fuels, depending on configuration, though the eponymous diesel fuel derived from crude oil is most common. Good-quality diesel fuel can be synthesised from vegetable oil and alcohol. Biodiesel is growing in popularity since it can frequently be used in unmodified engines, though production remains limited. Recently, Biodiesel from coconut, which can produce a very promising coco methyl esther (CME), has characteristics which enhance lubricity and combustion giving a regular diesel engine without any modification more power, less particulate matter or black smoke, and smoother engine performance. The Philippines pioneers in the research on Coconut based CME with the help of German and American scientists. Petroleum-derived diesel is often called petrodiesel if there is need to distinguish the source of the fuel. This article is about the fuel. ... This article is about the fuel. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with cooking oil. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about transesterified lipids. ...


Pure plant oils are increasingly being used as a fuel for cars, trucks and remote combined heat and power generation especially in Germany where hundreds of decentralised small and medium sized oil presses cold press oilseed, mainly rapeseed, for fuel. There is a Deutsches Institut für Normung fuel standard for rapeseed oil fuel. Waste Vegetable Oil which has been filtered. ... Cogeneration (also combined heat and power or CHP) is the use of a power station to simultaneously generate both heat and electricity. ... Binomial name Brassica napus L. Rapeseed (Brassica napus), also known as Rape, Oilseed Rape, Rapa, Rapaseed and (one particular cultivar) Canola, is a bright yellow flowering member (related to mustard) of the family Brassicaceae. ... DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e. ... Binomial name Brassica napus L. Rapeseed (Brassica napus), also known as Rape, Oilseed Rape, Rapa, Rapaseed and (one particular cultivar) Canola, is a bright yellow flowering member (related to mustard) of the family Brassicaceae. ...


The engines can work with the full spectrum of crude oil distillates, from compressed natural gas, alcohols, gasoline, to the fuel oils from diesel oil to residual fuels. The type of fuel used is a combination of service requirements, and fuel costs.


Residual fuels are the "dregs" of the distillation process and are a thicker, heavier oil, or oil with higher viscosity, which are so thick that they are not readily pumpable unless heated. Residual fuel oils are cheaper than clean, refined diesel oil, although they are dirtier. Their main considerations are for use in ships and very large generation sets, due to the cost of the large volume of fuel consumed, frequently amounting to many tonnes per hour. The poorly refined biofuels straight vegetable oil (SVO) and waste vegetable oil (WVO) can fall into this category. Moving beyond that, use of low-grade fuels can lead to serious maintenance problems. Most diesel engines that power ships like supertankers are built so that the engine can safely use low grade fuels. For other uses, see Viscosity (disambiguation). ... Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) is a fuel for diesel engines that can be either pure new vegetable oil or waste vegetable oil that has been cleaned, although this is normally referred to as WVO. Vegetable oil used as fuel in a compression ignition or diesel engine is also referred to... Waste Vegetable Oil (WVO) is vegetable oil that has become unfit for food preparation. ...


Normal diesel fuel is more difficult to ignite than gasoline because of its higher flash point, but once burning, a diesel fire can be fierce. For other uses, see Flash point (disambiguation). ...


Diesel applications

The worldwide usage of the diesel engine is highly dependent on local conditions and the specific application. Applications which require the diesel's reliability and high torque output (such as tractors, trucks, heavy equipment, most buses etc.) are found practically world-wide (obviously these applications also benefit from the diesel's improved fuel economy). Local conditions such as fuel prices play a big part in the acceptance of the diesel engine — for example, in Europe most tractors were diesel-powered by the end of the 1950s, whilst in the U.S. diesel did not dominate the market until the 1970s. Similarly, around half of all the cars sold in Europe (where fuel prices are high) are diesel-powered, while practically no North American private cars have diesel engines, because of much lower fuel costs and a poor public image. For other uses, see Truck (disambiguation). ... An excavator Engineering vehicles are heavy-duty vehicles, specially designed for executing engineering tasks. ... Autobus redirects here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ...


Besides their use in merchant ships and boats, there is also a naval advantage in the relative safety of diesel fuel, additional to improved range over a gasoline engine. The German "pocket battleships" were the largest diesel warships, but the German torpedo-boats known as E-boats (Schnellboot) of the Second World War were also diesel craft. Conventional submarines have used them since before the First World War. It was an advantage of American diesel-electric submarines that they operated a two-stroke cycle as opposed to the four-stroke cycle that other navies used. Pocket battleship is an English language term for a class of warships built by German Reichsmarine in accordance with restrictions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles. ... E-boat is the British and American name for the German Schnellboot (S-boot), a small, fast torpedo boat a little larger than the American PT boat and the British MTB. Specification Length - 34. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ...


Mercedes-Benz, cooperating with Robert Bosch GmbH, has had a successful run of diesel-powered passenger cars since 1936, sold in many parts of the World, with other manufacturers joining in the 1970s and 1980s. Other car manufacturers followed, Borgward in 1952, Fiat in 1953 and Peugeot in 1958. This page is about the Mercedes-Benz brand of automobiles and trucks from the DaimlerChrysler automobile manufacturer. ... Logo of Robert Bosch GmbH Robert Bosch GmbH [1] is a German corporation which was started in 1886 by Robert Bosch in Stuttgart, Germany. ... Borgward Hansa 1500 of 1952 Borgward Hansa 1500 SP-C 1954 Isabella TS Deluxe Borgward P100 with air spring Borgward was a German automobile manufacturer founded by Carl F. W. Borgward (November 10, 1890 - July 28, 1963). ... For other uses, see Fiat (disambiguation). ... Peugeot is a major French car brand, part of PSA Peugeot Citroën. ...


In the United States, diesel is not as popular in passenger cars as in Europe. Such cars have been traditionally perceived as heavier, noisier, having performance characteristics which make them slower to accelerate, sootier, smellier, and of being more expensive than equivalent gasoline vehicles. From the late seventies to the mid-eighties, General Motors' Oldsmobile, Cadillac, and Chevrolet divisions produced a low-powered and unreliable V8 diesel engine which generally serves as the prime example for this reputation. Dodge with its ever-famous Cummins inline-six diesels optioned in pickup trucks (since about the late 1980s) really revitalized the appeal for diesel power in light vehicles among American consumers, but a superior and widely-accepted American regular-production diesel passenger car never materialized. Ford Motor Company tried diesel engines in some passenger cars in the 1980s, but to not much avail. In addition, before the introduction of 15 parts per million ultra-low sulfur diesel, which started at 15 October 2006 in the U.S. (1 June 2006 in Canada), diesel fuel used in North America still had higher sulfur content than the fuel used in Europe, effectively limiting diesel use to industrial vehicles, which had further contributed to the negative image. Ultra-low sulfur diesel is not mandatory until 2010 in the US. This image does not reflect recent designs, especially where the very high low-rev torque of modern diesels is concerned—which have characteristics similar to the big V8 gasoline engines popular in the US. Light and heavy trucks, in the U.S., have been diesel-optioned for years. After the introduction of ultra-low sulfur diesel, Mercedes-Benz has marketed passenger vehicles under the BlueTec banner. In addition, other manufacturers such as Ford, General Motors, Honda, Subaru, Audi, Volkswagen, BMW, and Nissan plan to sell Diesel vehicle in the US in 2008-2010, designed to meet the tougher emissions requirements in 2010. Recently, in early 2008, Honda has stated that they plan to offer their 50 state compliant 2.2 liter i-DTEC diesel engine in the new 2009 Acura TSX for the US market. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... General Motors Corporation, also known as GM, is a multinational corporation headquartered in the United States and has been the worlds largest and most dominant automaker since 1931 till the second half of 2007, surpassed by Toyota; as well as the global industry sales leader for 77 years. ... Oldsmobile is a brand of automobile produced for most of its existence by General Motors. ... For other uses, see Cadillac (disambiguation). ... Chevrolet (IPA: - French origin) (colloquially Chevy) is a brand of automobile, produced by General Motors (GM). ... For other uses, see Dodge (disambiguation). ... This article is about the diesel engine manufacturer. ... “Ford” redirects here. ... Ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) describes a new EPA standard for the sulfur content in on-road diesel fuel sold in the United States, beginning October 15th, 2006, except for California which must be selling it by September 1st, 2006. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This page is about the Mercedes-Benz brand of automobiles and trucks from the DaimlerChrysler automobile manufacturer. ... BlueTec is DaimlerChryslers name for its two nitrogen oxide (NOx) reducing systems, for use in their Diesel automobile engines. ... Ford may mean a number of things: A ford is a river crossing. ... General Motors Corporation, also known as GM, is a multinational corporation headquartered in the United States and has been the worlds largest and most dominant automaker since 1931 till the second half of 2007, surpassed by Toyota; as well as the global industry sales leader for 77 years. ... This article is about the Japanese motor corporation. ... For other uses, see Subaru (disambiguation). ... Audi AG, more commonly known as Audi, is a premium German automobile manufacturer and one of the worlds leading performance-luxury marques, with headquarters in Ingolstadt, Bavaria. ... VW redirects here. ... For other uses, see BMW (disambiguation). ... Nissan Motor Co. ... This article is about the Japanese motor corporation. ...


In Canada, Smart Fortwo was first introduced in 2004 with a diesel engine, up until 2008.[6] The Fortwo is the original smart model, launched in 1998 as City Coupe. ...


In Japan, newly registered Diesel vehicles were less than 1% in 2005.[7] Honda and Mercedes-Benz have made plans to offer Diesel vehicles in the future, with Mercedes-Benz having already started selling the Mercedes-Benz E320 CDI in autumn 2006.


European governments tend to favor diesel engines in taxation policy because of diesel's superior fuel efficiency. Fuel efficiency, in its basic sense, is the same as thermal efficiency, meaning the efficiency of a process that converts chemical potential energy contained in a carrier fuel into kinetic energy or work. ...


In Europe, where tax rates in many countries make diesel fuel much cheaper than gasoline, diesel vehicles are very popular (over half the new cars sold are powered by diesel engines) and newer designs have significantly narrowed differences between petrol and diesel vehicles in the areas mentioned. Often, among comparably designated models, the turbodiesels outperform their naturally aspirated petrol-powered sister cars. One anecdote tells of Formula One driver Jenson Button, who was arrested while driving a diesel-powered BMW 330cd Coupé at 230 km/h (about 140 mph) in France, where he was too young to have a gasoline-engined car hired to him. Button dryly observed in subsequent interviews that he had actually done BMW a public relations service, as nobody had believed a diesel could be driven that fast. Yet, BMW had already won the 24 Hours Nürburgring overall in 1998 with a 3-series diesel. The BMW diesel lab in Steyr, Austria is led by Ferenc Anisits and develops innovative diesel engines. F1 redirects here. ... Jenson Alexander Lyons Button, often called Jense, (born 19 January 1980) is an English Formula One racing driver. ... The E46 automobile platform is the fourth generation of BMWs highly successful 3 Series entry-level luxury car / compact executive car. ... Kilometre per hour (American spelling: kilometer per hour) is a unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector). ... For other uses, see BMW (disambiguation). ... The 24 Hours Nürburgring is antouring car Endurance racing event on the Nürburgring, inspired by the famous 24 Hours of Le Mans, the Spa 24 Hours and the 24 Hours of Daytona. ...


Mercedes-Benz, offering diesel-powered passenger cars since 1936, has put the emphasis on high performance diesel cars in its newer ranges, as does Volkswagen with its brands. Citroën sells more cars with diesel engines than gasoline engines, as the French brands (also Peugeot) pioneered smoke-less HDI designs with filters. Even the Italian marque Alfa Romeo, known for design and successful history in racing, focuses on diesels that are also raced. This page is about the Mercedes-Benz brand of automobiles and trucks from the DaimlerChrysler automobile manufacturer. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... VW redirects here. ... Citroën is a French automobile manufacturer, founded in 1919 by André Citroën. ... Peugeot is a major French car brand, part of PSA Peugeot Citroën. ... In chemistry and common usage, a filter is a device (usually a membrane or layer) that is designed to block certain objects or substances while letting others through. ... Alfa Romeo is an Italian automobile manufacturing company, founded as Darracq Italiana by Cavaliere Ugo Stella, an aristocrat from Milan in partnership with the French automobile firm of Alexandre Darracq. ...


A few motorcycles have been built using diesel engines, but the weight and cost disadvantages generally outweigh the efficiency gains in this application. For other uses, see Motorcycle (disambiguation). ...


Engine speeds

Within the diesel engine industry, engines are often categorized by their speeds into three unofficial groups:


High-speed engines

High-speed (approximately 1200 rpm and greater) engines are used to power trucks (lorries), buses, tractors, cars, yachts, compressors, pumps and small electrical generators. A lorry is an expression for a truck an open railroad car with a tipping trough, often found in mines The word originally meant a sort of heavy horsedrawn wagon. ... Autobus redirects here. ... Car redirects here. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... A gas compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume. ... This article is about a mechanical device. ... This article is about machines that produce electricity. ...


Medium-speed engines

Large electrical generators are often driven by medium speed engines, (approximately 300 to 1200 rpm) which are optimised to run at a set synchronous speed depending on the generation frequency (50 or 60 Hertz) and provide a rapid response to load changes. Medium speed engines are also used for ship propulsion, and mechanical drive applications such as large compressors or pumps. The largest medium speed engines produced today (2007) have outputs up to approximately 22,400 kW (30,000)bhp). and are supplied by companies like MAN B&W [1], Wartsila [2], and Rolls-Royce[3] (acquired Ulstein Bergen Diesel in 1999). Medium speed engines produced today are primarily four-stroke machines, however there are some two-stroke units still in production. This article is about the SI unit of frequency. ... The kilowatt (symbol: kW) is a unit for measuring power, equal to one thousand watts. ... The horsepower (hp) is the name of several non-metric units of power. ... The MAN B&W Diesel Group is a supplier of large diesel engines for marine propulsion systems, stationary power supply and rail traction. ... Wärtsilä Logo Wärtsilä is a Finnish manufacturer of power plants (mainly diesel-powered) for use in electricity generation and ship power, and associated services. ... This article is about the aircraft engine company. ...


Typical cylinder bore size for medium speed engines ranges from 20 cm to 50 cm, and engine configurations typically are offered ranging from in-line 4 cylinder units to Vee 20 cylinder units.


It should be noted that most liquid fueled medium speed engines operate on either diesel fuel or heavy fuel oil, in the same manner noted below for low speed engines.


It should also be noted that most major manufacturers of medium speed engines make natural gas fueled versions of their diesel cycle engines, which in fact operate on the Otto cycle, and require spark ignition, typically provided with a spark plug. The four-stroke cycle of an internal combustion engine is the cycle most commonly used for automotive and industrial purposes today ( cars and trucks, generators, etc). ...


Low-speed engines

Also known as "slow-speed", the largest diesel engines are primarily used to power ships, although there are a few land-based power generation units as well. These extremely large two-stroke engines have power outputs up to 80 MW, operate in the range from approximately 60 to 200 rpm and are up to 15 m tall, and can weigh over 2000 tons. They typically run on cheap low-grade "heavy fuel", also known as "Bunker" fuel, which requires heating in the ship for tanking and before injection due to the fuel's high viscosity. The heat for fuel heating is often provided by waste heat recovery boilers located in the exhaust ducting of the engine, which produce the steam required for fuel heating. For other uses, see Ship (disambiguation). ... The megawatt (symbol: MW) is a unit for measuring power corresponding to one million (106) watts. ... For other uses, see Viscosity (disambiguation). ...


Companies such as MAN B&W Diesel, (formerly Burmeister & Wain) and Wärtsilä (which acquired Sulzer Diesel) design such large low speed engines. They are unusually narrow and tall due to the addition of a crosshead bearing. Today (2007), the 14 cylinder Wärtsilä-Sulzer 14RTFLEX96-C turbocharged two-stroke diesel engine built by Wärtsilä licensee Doosan in Korea is the most powerful diesel engine put into service, with a cylinder bore of 960 mm delivering 84.42 MW (114,800 bhp). It was put into service in September 2006, aboard the world's largest container ship Emma Maersk which belongs to the A.P. Moller-Maersk Group. The MAN Diesel Group is a supplier of large diesel engines for marine propulsion systems, stationary power supply and rail traction. ... Burmeister & Wain, the big Copenhagen shipyards, are now part of MAN B&W Diesel. ... Wärtsilä is a Finnish manufacturer of large (diesel) engines and power plants. ... Sulzer is a Swiss engineering firm which produces large motors. ... A crosshead bearing (or simply crosshead) is used in large reciprocating engines, whether internal combustion engines or steam engines. ... A straight-14 engine is a straight engine with fourteen cylinders. ... The Wärtsilä RT-flex96C turbocharged two-stroke diesel engine is currently considered the largest reciprocating engine in the world, designed for large container ships, running on cheap, heavy fuel oil. ... Wärtsilä is a Finnish manufacturer of large (diesel) engines and power plants. ... The Doosan Group is a large South Korean industrial and construction conglomerate (chaebol). ... For Korea as a whole, see Korea. ... The horsepower (hp) is the name of several non-metric units of power. ... Emma Mærsk is a container ship owned by the A.P. Moller-Maersk Group. ... The A.P. Moller-Maersk Group (Danish: A.P. Møller-Mærsk Gruppen) is an international business consortium involved in a variety of business sectors, primarily transportation. ...


Typical bore size for low speed engines ranges from approximately 35 cm to 98 cm. So far (2008), all currently produced low speed engines are in-line configurations; no Vee versions are produced.


Unusual applications

Aircraft

The zeppelins Graf Zeppelin II and Hindenburg were propelled by "reversible" diesel engines. The direction of operation was changed by shifting gears on the camshaft. From full power forward, the engines could be brought to a stop, changed over, and brought to full power in reverse in less than 60 seconds. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Zeppelins are types of rigid airships pioneered by German Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin in the early 20th century, based in part on an earlier design by aviation pioneer David Schwarz. ... LZ 129 Hindenburg was a German zeppelin that was destroyed by fire while landing at Lakehurst Naval Air Station in New Jersey on May 6, 1937. ...


Diesel engines were first tried in aircraft in the 1930s. A number of manufacturers built engines, the best known probably being the Packard air-cooled radial, and the Junkers Jumo 205, which was moderately successful, but proved unsuitable for combat use in WWII. Postwar, another interesting proposal was the complex Napier Nomad. In general, though, the lower power-to-weight ratio of diesels, particularly compared to kerosene-powered turboprop engines, has precluded their use in this application. The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the [[. In East Asia, the rise of militarism occurred. ... For people named Packard, see Packard (surname). ... The Junkers Jumo 205 aircraft engine was the most famous of a series of diesel engines that were the first, and for more than half a century, the only successful diesel aircraft engines. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Nomad was a complex Diesel cycle aircraft engine from Napier & Son of the UK. The Nomad used a turbine to recover power from the exhaust of the otherwise conventional Diesel engine, resulting in a specific fuel consumption that remains unmatched today, 50 years later. ... Power-to-weight ratio is a measure commonly used when comparing various vehicles (or engines), including automobiles, motorcycles and aircraft. ... For other uses, see Kerosene (disambiguation). ... A schematic diagram showing the operation of a turboprop engine. ...


The very high cost of avgas in Europe, and the advances in automotive diesel technology have seen renewed interest in the concept. New, certified diesel-powered light planes are already available, and a number of other companies are also developing new engine and aircraft designs for the purpose. Many of these run on the readily-available jet fuel, or can run on either jet fuel or conventional automotive diesel. To gain the high power-to-weight ratio needed for an aero engine, these new "aero-diesels" are usually two-strokes and some, like the British "Dair" engine, use opposed-action pistons to gain further power. // Avgas is a high-octane fuel used for aircraft and, in the past, racing cars. ...


Automobile racing

Although the weight and lower output of a diesel engine tend to keep them away from automotive racing applications, there are many diesels being raced in classes that call for them, mainly in truck racing and tractor pulling, as well in types of racing where these drawbacks are less severe, such as land speed record racing or endurance racing. Even diesel engined dragsters exist, despite the diesel's drawbacks of weight and low peak rpm, specifications central to performance in this sport. However, in 2006, the new Audi R10 TDI LMP1 entered by Joest Racing became the first diesel-engined car to win the 24 Hours of Le Mans.[8] For other uses, see Truck (disambiguation). ... Race-tractor with 4 V8-engines Allis Chalmers Diesel Pulling Tractor Sled Tractor pulling, also known as power pulling, is a competition using tractors to pull a heavy sled along a track and is very popular in rural areas. ... Ralph DePalma in his Packard 905 Special at Daytona Beach in 1919, courtesy Florida Photographic Collection For the album Land Speed Record by the band Hüsker Dü, see Land Speed Record (album). ... Endurance racing can refer to races involving persons running in events such as marathons or triathlons, long cross-country skiing events, the racing of horses or other animals, or motorsport. ...


Historic

As early as 1931, Clessie Cummins installed his diesel in the Cummins "Diesel Special" race car, hitting 162 km/h (101 mph) at Daytona and 138 km/h (86 mph) at the Indianapolis 500 race,[9] where Dave Evans became the first driver to complete the Indianapolis 500 without making a single pit stop, completing the full distance on the lead lap and finishing 13th, relying on torque and fuel efficiency to overcome weight and low peak power.[10] Clessie Lyle Cummins was the founder of the Cummins Engine Co. ... Indy 500 redirects here. ... Indy 500 redirects here. ... Dale Earnhardt, Jr. ...


In 1933, a 1925 Bentley with a Gardner 4LW engine was the first diesel-engine car to take part in the Monte Carlo Rally when it was driven by Lord Howard de Clifford. It was the leading British car and finished fifth overall. [11] Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bentleys winged B badge and hood ornament 1929 Blower Bentley from the Ralph Lauren collection. ... L Gardner and Sons Ltd was a well-known British builder of diesel engines for stationary, marine, road and rail applications. ... Stephane Sarrazin driving a Subaru Impreza WRC on the Monte Carlo Rally Carlos Sainz driving a Toyota Corolla WRC on the Monte Carlo Rally Carlssons replica 1963 Monte Carlo Saab 96 rally car at Linköping, on the occasion of the Diamond Jubilee of SAAB in 1997 The Monte...

A 1952 "Cummins Diesel Special" Indianapolis 500 roadster.
A 1952 "Cummins Diesel Special" Indianapolis 500 roadster.

In 1952, Fred Agabashian in a Cummins diesel won the pole at the Indianapolis 500 race with a turbocharged 6.6 liter diesel car,[12] setting a record for pole position lap speed, 222.108 km/h or 138.010 mph.[10] Don Cummins and his chief engineer Neve Reiners recognized that the low center of gravity of the flat engine configuration (designed to lie beneath the floor of a bus) plus the power advantage gained by the novel use of Elliott turbocharging would be a winning combination.[13] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 562 pixelsFull resolution (1452 × 1020 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 562 pixelsFull resolution (1452 × 1020 pixel, file size: 1. ... Indy 500 redirects here. ... Fred Agabashian (21 August 1913 - 13 October 1989) was an American Formula One driver (Indy 500 only) who debuted on May 30, 1950. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... The Boxer engine, first patented by German engineer Karl Benz A flat engine is an internal combustion engine with pistons that are all relatively horizontal. ... Autobus redirects here. ... Turbo redirects here. ...


At the start, a slow pace lap (reportedly less than 80 mph) apparently induced what is now referred to as "turbo lag" and badly hampered the throttle response of the Cummins Diesel. Although Agabashian found himself in eighth place before reaching the first turn, he moved up to fifth in a few laps and was running competitively (albeit well back in the field after a tire change) until the badly situated air intake of the car swallowed enough debris from the track to disable the turbocharger at lap 71; he finished 27th.[14] Turbo lag is the delay between when you press the throttle and the turbocharger starts producing boost pressure. ...


Modern

When turbocharged diesel technology made progress in the 1990s and rule makers supported the concept, BMW and Volkswagen raced diesel touring cars, with BMW winning the 1998 24 Hours Nürburgring with a 320d against other factory-entered diesel competition of VW and about 200 normally powered cars, mainly by being able to drive very long stints. Alfa Romeo even organized a racing series with their Alfa Romeo 147 1.9 JTD models. For other uses, see BMW (disambiguation). ... VW redirects here. ... Touring car racing is a general term for a number of distinct auto racing competitions in heavily-modified street cars. ... The 24 Hours Nürburgring is antouring car Endurance racing event on the Nürburgring, inspired by the famous 24 Hours of Le Mans, the Spa 24 Hours and the 24 Hours of Daytona. ... 318is Coupé 1995 316i Compact 1996 M3 Coupé E36 convertible E36 Wagon Georgia State Patrol 318i The E36 automobile platform was the basis for the 1991-1999 BMW 3 Series entry-level luxury car / compact executive car. ... Alfa Romeo is an Italian automobile manufacturing company, founded as Darracq Italiana by Cavaliere Ugo Stella, an aristocrat from Milan in partnership with the French automobile firm of Alexandre Darracq. ... The Alfa Romeo 147 is a small family car produced by Italian automaker Alfa Romeo since 2000. ...


In 2006, a BMW 120d repeated a similar result, scoring 5th in a field of 220 cars, many of them much more powerful, a significantly stronger competition than in 1998. The VW Dakar Rally race Touareg for 2005 and 2006 are powered by their own line of TDI engines in order to challenge for the first overall diesel win there. For information about the 2007 Dakar Rally, see 2007 Dakar Rally. ... The Volkswagen Touareg is a mid-size luxury SUV produced by German automaker Volkswagen since 2003. ...

The diesel engine of Audi's 2007 24 Hours of Le Mans-winning R10.
The diesel engine of Audi's 2007 24 Hours of Le Mans-winning R10.

Meanwhile, the five time 24 Hours of Le Mans winner Audi R8 race car was replaced by the Audi R10 in 2006, which is powered by a 650 hp (485 kW) and 1100 N·m (810 lbf·ft) V12 TDI common rail diesel engine, mated to a 5-speed gearbox, instead of the 6 used in the R8, to handle the extra torque produced. The gearbox is considered the main problem, as earlier attempts by others failed due to the lack of suitable transmissions that could stand the torque long enough. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 494 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1264 pixel, file size: 419 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 494 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1264 pixel, file size: 419 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Audi AG, more commonly known as Audi, is a premium German automobile manufacturer and one of the worlds leading performance-luxury marques, with headquarters in Ingolstadt, Bavaria. ... The 2007 24 Hours of Le Mans was the 75th Grand Prix of Endurance, and took place on June 16 and June 17, 2007. ... Audi R10 The Audi R10 is a racing car prepared for sports car racing in the LMP1 class of the 24 Hours of Le Mans and other similar endurance races. ... The 24 Hours of Le Mans (24 Heures du Mans) is the worlds most famous sports car endurance race, held annually at Circuit de la Sarthe near Le Mans, France, in the French Sarthe département. ... This article is about the 1999–2006 race car used in sports car racing. ... Audi R10 The Audi R10 is a racing car prepared for sports car racing in the LMP1 class of the 24 Hours of Le Mans and other similar endurance races. ... Newton metre is the unit of moment (torque) in the SI system. ... CRD redirects here. ...


After winning the 12 Hours of Sebring in 2006 with their diesel-powered R10, Audi obtained the overall win at the 2006 24 Hours of Le Mans, too. This is the first time a sports car could compete for overall victories with diesel fuel against cars powered with regular fuel or methanol and bio-ethanol. However, the significance of this is slightly lessened by the fact that the ACO/ALMS race rules encourage the use of alternative fuels such as diesel. Aston Martin DBR9 at dusk during the 2005 12 Hours of Sebring The 12 Hours of Sebring is an annual motorsport endurance race held at Sebring Raceway, a former Air Force base in Sebring, Florida. ... Audi R10 The Audi R10 is a racing car prepared for sports car racing in the LMP1 class of the 24 Hours of Le Mans and other similar endurance races. ... Audi AG, more commonly known as Audi, is a premium German automobile manufacturer and one of the worlds leading performance-luxury marques, with headquarters in Ingolstadt, Bavaria. ... The 24 Hours of Le Mans (24 Heures du Mans) is the worlds most famous sports car endurance race, held annually at Circuit de la Sarthe near Le Mans, France, in the French Sarthe département. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH (often abbreviated MeOH). ... The use of ethanol as a fuel for internal combustion engines, either alone or in combination with other fuels, has been given much attention mostly because of its possible environmental and long-term economical advantages over fossil fuel. ... The Automobile Club de lOuest (Automobile Club of the West - referring to the western region of France), sometimes abbreviated to ACO, is the largest automotive group in France. ... Alms Bag taken from some Tapestry in Orleans, Fifteenth Century. ...


Audi again triumphed at Sebring in 2007. It had both a speed and fuel economy advantage over the entire field including the Porsche RS Spyders, gasoline powered purpose-built race cars. Audi's diesels won again the 2007 24 Hours of Le Mans, against competition coming from the Peugot 908 diesel powered racer. The RS Spyder (type 9R6) is a LMP2 class race car built by Porsche. ... Peugeot 908 Design Model The 908 is a race car built by the French automobile manufacturer Peugeot to compete in the 24 Hours of Le Mans endurance race starting in 2007. ...


In 2006, the JCB Dieselmax broke the diesel land speed record posting an average speed of over 328 mph. The vehicle used "two diesel engines that have a combined total of 1,500 horsepower (1120 kilowatts). Each is a 4-cylinder, 4.4-liter engine used commercially in a backhoe loader." [15] [16] JCB is a family business named after its founder J.C.Bamford, producing distinctive yellow-and-black engineering vehicles, diggers (Backhoes) and excavators. ...


In the 2008 BTCC (British Touring car Chamionship), Jason Plato and Darren Turner are racing factory sponsored SEAT Leon TDi with some success against a variety of gasoline powered competitors. [17]


Motorcycles

Main article: Diesel motorcycle

With a traditionally poor power-to-weight ratio, diesel engines are generally unsuited to use in a motorcycle, which requires high power, low weight and rapid acceleration. However, in the 1980s NATO forces in Europe standardised all their vehicles to diesel power. Some had fleets of motorcycles, and so trials were conducted with diesel engines for these. Air-cooled single-cylinder engines built by Lombardini of Italy were used and had some success, achieving similar performance to petrol bikes and fuel usage of nearly 200 miles per gallon.[vague] This led to some countries re-fitting their bikes with diesel power. A Diesel motorcycle is a motorcycle that is powered by a diesel engine. ... For other uses, see Motorcycle (disambiguation). ... This article is about the military alliance. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... The gallon (abbreviation: gal) is a unit of volume. ...


Development by Cranfield University and California-based Hayes Diversified Technologies led to the production of a diesel powered off road motorbike based on the running gear of a Kawasaki KLR650 petrol-engine trail bike for military use. The engine of the diesel motorcycle is a liquid cooled, single cylinder four-stroke which displaces 584 cc and produces 21 kW (28 bhp) with a top speed of 85 mph (136 km/h). Hayes Diversified Technologies mooted, but has subsequently delayed, the delivery of a civilian version for approximately USD$19,000. Cranfield University is a British postgraduate university based on three campuses. ... The Kawasaki KLR650 is a dual-sport motorcycle intended for use on both paved and unpaved roads. ...


In 2005 the United States Marine Corps adopted the M1030M1, an off-road motorcycle based on the Kawasaki KLR650, and modified it with an engine designed to run on diesel or JP8 jet fuel. Since other U.S. tactical vehicles like the HMMWV utility vehicle and M1 Abrams tank use JP8, adopting a scout motorcycle which runs on the same fuels would ease logistics. The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States armed forces responsible for providing force projection from the sea,[1] using the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces and is one of seven uniformed services. ... This article refers to the Military HMMWV, not the civilian Hummer sold by General Motors General Characteristics (Humvee) Manufacturer: AM General Length: 4. ... The M1 Abrams is a military tank produced in the United States. ...


In India, motorcycles built by Royal Enfield Could be bought with 325 cc single-cylinder diesel engines. Due to the fact that diesel is much cheaper than petrol and of more reliable quality. These engines were noisy and unrefined, and not very popular because of low performance and weight penalties and also the unique kick-starting techniques. The diesel engine was designed to be used for other commercial applications like Gen-sets, water pump, etc., Royal Enfield was the brand of the Enfield Cycle Company, an English engineering company. ... This article is about the fuel. ...


Current and future developments

Already, many common rail and unit injection systems employ new injectors using stacked piezoelectric wafers in lieu of a solenoid, giving finer control of the injection event. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... CRD redirects here. ... Piezoelectricity is the ability of certain crystals to produce a voltage when subjected to mechanical stress. ...


Variable geometry turbochargers have flexible vanes, which move and let more air into the engine depending on load. This technology increases both performance and fuel economy. Boost lag is reduced as turbo impeller inertia is compensated for. The Variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) exists in several forms, usually designed to allow the effective A/R ratio of the turbo to be altered as the conditions change. ...


Accelerometer pilot control (APC) uses an accelerometer to provide feedback on the engine's level of noise and vibration and thus instruct the ECU to inject the minimum amount of fuel that will produce quiet combustion and still provide the required power (especially while idling.) A depiction of an accelerometer designed at Sandia National Laboratories. ...


The next generation of common rail diesels is expected to use variable injection geometry, which allows the amount of fuel injected to be varied over a wider range, and variable valve timing similar to that on gasoline engines. Gasoline engine (also referred to as petrol engine or Otto engine) invented at the end of the 19th century by German engineer Nikolaus Otto is a type of internal combustion engine which is often used for automobiles, aircraft, small mobile vehicles such as lawnmowers or motorcycles, and outboard motors for...


Particularly in the United States, coming tougher emissions regulations present a considerable challenge to diesel engine manufacturers. Other methods to achieve even more efficient combustion, such as HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) are being studied. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition, or HCCI, is a form of internal combustion in which well mixed fuel and oxidizer (typically air) are compressed to the point of auto-ignition. ...


Diesel car history

The first production diesel cars were the Mercedes-Benz 260D and the Hanomag Rekord, both introduced in 1936. The Citroën Rosalie was also produced between 1935 and 1937 with an extremely rare diesel engine option (the 1766 cc 11UD engine) only in the Familiale (estate or station wagon) version.[18] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Hanomag 2/10PS Kommissbrot Hanomag 1. ... Citroën is a French automobile manufacturer, founded in 1919 by André Citroën. ... With the introduction of the front-wheel drive Traction, Citroën continued the rear-wheel drive production for potential customers who were apprehensive of the newcomer. ...


Following the 1970s oil crisis, turbodiesels were tested (e. g. by the Mercedes-Benz C111 experimental and record-setting vehicles). The first production turbo diesel car was, in 1978, the 3.0 5-cylinder 115 hp (86 kW) Mercedes 300 SD, available only in North America. In Europe, the Peugeot 604 with a 2.3 litre turbo diesel was introduced in 1979, and then the Mercedes 300 TD turbo. Oil crisis may refer to: 1973 oil crisis 1979 energy crisis 1990 spike in the price of oil Oil price increases of 2004 and 2005 Hubbert peak theory Energy crisis This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... The C111 was a series of experimental automobiles produced by Mercedes-Benz in the 1960s and 1970s. ... The diesel engine is a type of internal combustion engine; more specifically, it is a compression ignition engine, in which the fuel is ignited by being suddenly exposed to the high temperature and pressure of a compressed gas, rather than by a separate source of ignition, such as a spark... Mercedes-Benz W116 The Mercedes-Benz W116 automobiles were produced from 1972 through 1980 and were the first Mercedes models to be officially called S-Class, although earlier sedan models had already unofficially been designated with the letter S - for Sonderklasse or special class. They were large luxury sedans, which... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Peugeot 604 The Peugeot 604 was an executive car produced by the French manufacturer Peugeot from 1975 to 1985. ... The Mercedes-Benz W123 cars were produced from 1976 through 1985. ...


Many Audi enthusiasts claim that the Audi 100 TDI was the first turbo charged direct injection diesel sold in 1989, but actually it isn't true, as the Fiat Croma TD-i.d. was sold with turbo direct injection in 1986[19] and two years later Austin Rover Montego.[20] What was pioneering about the Audi 100, however, was the use of electronic control of the engine, as the Fiat and Austin had purely mechanically controlled injection. The electronic control of direct injection really made a difference in terms of emissions, refinement and power. Audi AG, more commonly known as Audi, is a premium German automobile manufacturer and one of the worlds leading performance-luxury marques, with headquarters in Ingolstadt, Bavaria. ... The Audi 100 was a mid-sized automobile from Audi, made between 1968 and 1994. ... TDI may stand for: Tabbed document interface, a type of graphical user interface Texas Department of Insurance The Dartmouth Independent, a newspaper at Dartmouth College Time Delay and Integration, timing synchronization in an image sensor Toluene diisocyanate, an organic chemical Turbocharged Direct Injection, a diesel engine used in cars made... The Type Four Fiat Croma The Fiat Croma is a nameplate used for two automobiles produced by Italian automaker Fiat, one built from 1985 to 1996 and the other since 2005. ... MG Rover was the last independent mass-production producer of the British motor industry. ... The Austin Montego is a British mid-size saloon car that was produced by the Austin Rover subsidiary of British Leyland (BL), and its successors, from 1984 until 1994. ...


It's interesting to see that the big players in the diesel car market are the same ones who pioneered various developments (Mercedes-Benz, BMW, Peugeot/Citroën, Fiat, Alfa Romeo, Volkswagen Group), with the exception of Austin Rover, although Austin Rover's ancestor, the Rover Company had been building small-capacity diesel engines since 1956, when it introduced a 2051 cc 4-cylinder diesel engine for its Land Rover 4 × 4. In fact, the 1988 Austin-Rover unit was developed by Perkins Engines of Peterborough, who have designed and built high-speed diesels since the 1930s. For other uses, see BMW (disambiguation). ... Peugeot is a major French car brand, part of PSA Peugeot Citroën. ... Citroën is a French automobile manufacturer, founded in 1919 by André Citroën. ... For other uses, see Fiat (disambiguation). ... Alfa Romeo is an Italian automobile manufacturing company, founded as Darracq Italiana by Cavaliere Ugo Stella, an aristocrat from Milan in partnership with the French automobile firm of Alexandre Darracq. ... Volkswagen Group (ISIN: DE0007664005, TYO: 7659 ) is a German automobile manufacturer and one of the largest automotive companies worldwide. ... Land Rover was the name of one of the first British civilian all-terrain utility vehicles, first produced by Rover in 1947. ... Engines P3: Three cylinder diesel engine, produced from 1953-11 to 1967-03. ... This article is about the city in the United Kingdom. ...


In 1997 first common rail diesel passenger car was introduced, the Alfa Romeo 156.[21] CRD redirects here. ... The Alfa Romeo 156 (known internally as the type 932) is a compact executive car introduced by Italian automaker Alfa Romeo at the 1997 Frankfurt Motor Show[2]as the replacement for the 155. ...


In 1998, for the very first time in the history of racing, in the legendary 24 Hours Nürburgring race, a diesel-powered car was the overall winner: the BMW works team 320d, a BMW E36 fitted with modern high-pressure diesel injection technology from Robert Bosch GmbH. The low fuel consumption and long range, allowing 4 hours of racing at once, made it a winner, as comparable petrol-powered cars spent more time refueling. The 24 Hours Nürburgring is antouring car Endurance racing event on the Nürburgring, inspired by the famous 24 Hours of Le Mans, the Spa 24 Hours and the 24 Hours of Daytona. ... 318is Coupé 1995 316i Compact 1996 M3 Coupé E36 convertible E36 Wagon Georgia State Patrol 318i The E36 automobile platform was the basis for the 1991-1999 BMW 3 Series entry-level luxury car / compact executive car. ... Logo of Robert Bosch GmbH Robert Bosch GmbH [1] is a German corporation which was started in 1886 by Robert Bosch in Stuttgart, Germany. ...


In Spring 2005, Mercedes-Benz unveiled the first application of a mass-produced aluminum block diesel engine for passenger vehicles and commercial use. While aluminum is traditionally considered of inferior strength and temperature resistance to withstand diesel applications, Mercedes engineers made extensive use of CAD/CAM design to arrive at an aluminum block that would meet with Mercedes' rigorous testing and reliability standards. First use was in 2006 model-year vehicles in the E-Class sedan and ML-class and GL-class SUVs. Similar in weight (208 kilograms (460 lb)) to the five-cylinder it replaced, and considerably lighter than the in-line six cylinder it also replaced, this 3.0L V-6 produces 165 kW (224 hp) at 3,800 rpm and max torque of 510 Nm (376 ft·lbf) at 1,600-2,800 rpm and makes use of a four-valve head. Additionally, fitment of Mercedes-Benz BlueTec system, a concert of emissions control strategies, renders this new diesel 50-state legal in the U.S. beginning in 2008 (stringent NOx limits have made U.S. passenger-car diesels unpopular or impossible in parts of the U.S. in recent years). BlueTec is DaimlerChryslers name for its two nitrogen oxide (NOx) reducing systems, for use in their Diesel automobile engines. ... Look up nox, Nox in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In 2006, the new Audi R10 TDI LMP1 entered by Joest Racing became the first diesel-engined car to win the 24 Hours of Le Mans. The winning car also bettered the post-1990 course configuration lap record by 1, at 380 laps. However, this fell short of the all-time distance record set in 1971 by over 200 kilometres (120 mi). Audi R10 The Audi R10 is a racing car prepared for sports car racing in the LMP1 class of the 24 Hours of Le Mans and other similar endurance races. ... Established in 1978. ... The 24 Hours of Le Mans (24 Heures du Mans) is the worlds most famous sports car endurance race, held annually at Circuit de la Sarthe near Le Mans, France, in the French Sarthe département. ...


The Subaru car company of Japan is preparing to sell its station wagon version of their Legacy mid-size car (called the Subaru Outback in North America) with a new 2.0 liter, boxer engine format opposed-four cylinder engine of 110 kW (147 hp) power, and 350 Nm (258 ft-lb) of torque, in the United Kingdom, with sales in continental Europe planned for 2009, and in the United States by 2010. For other uses, see Subaru (disambiguation). ... Estate car body style (Saab 95) A station wagon (United States usage), wagon (Australian usage, though station wagon is widely used) or estate car (United Kingdom usage) is a car body style similar to a sedan car but with an extended rear cargo area. ... See also the smaller Impreza-based Subaru Outback Sport Subaru introduced the all-wheel-drive Outback to the US market in 1994 as a 1995 model, deriving the model almost completely from the Subaru Legacy. ... Diagram of the opposing pistons in a boxer engine A flat engine or boxer engine or horizontally opposed engine is a type of engine where the pistons lie horizontally opposed, with pairs of cylinders on the left and the right, as opposed to most modern engines where all pistons are...


See also

  • Dieselisation
  • Diesel generator
  • Elsbett — An improved multi-fuel diesel engine design
  • Hybrid power source
  • Junkers Jumo 205 — The more successful of the first series of production diesel aircraft engines.
  • Napier Deltic — A high-speed, lightweight (about 4 tons) diesel engine used in fast naval craft and some railway locomotives.
  • Petrol engine
  • Six stroke engine — 40% improved efficiency over 4 stroke by using wasted heat to generate steam.
  • SVO — Straight Vegetable Oil — Alternative fuel for diesel engines.
  • Wärtsilä-Sulzer RTA96-C — World's most powerful, most efficient and largest diesel engine.
  • WVO — Waste Vegetable Oil — Filtered, alternative fuel for diesel engines.

Dieselisation or Dieselization (see spelling differences) is generally used for the nowadays increasingly common use of diesel fuel in diesel engines in vehicles, as opposed to gasoline in petrol engines in road transport; and as opposed to steam engines in steam locomotives and rail transport. ... A diesel generator is the combination of a diesel engine with an electrical generator (often called an alternator) to generate electric energy. ... The Elsbett engine is a design of diesel engine designed to run on vegetable oil. ... The hybrid power plant is a complete electrical power supply system that can be easily configured to meet a broad range of remote power needs. ... The Junkers Jumo 205 aircraft engine was the most famous of a series of diesel engines that were the first, and for more than half a century, the only successful diesel aircraft engines. ... Napier Deltic powered British Rail Class 55 Alycidon, at the National Railway Museum, York, UK The term Deltic (meaning in the form of the Greek letter Delta) is used to refer to both the opposed piston high speed diesel engine designed and produced by Napier & Son, and the locomotives produced... Look up ton in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Petrol engine or Gasoline engine is an internal combustion engine with spark-ignition designed to run on petrol (gasoline) and similar volatile fuels. ... A six stroke engine is an automobile engine in which the piston of the engine move up and down an additional time for each injection of fuel. ... Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) is a fuel for diesel engines that can be either pure new vegetable oil or waste vegetable oil that has been cleaned, although this is normally referred to as WVO. Vegetable oil used as fuel in a compression ignition or diesel engine is also referred to... The Wärtsilä RT-flex96C turbocharged two-stroke diesel engine is currently considered the largest reciprocating engine in the world, designed for large container ships, running on cheap, heavy fuel oil. ... Waste Vegetable Oil (WVO) is vegetable oil that has become unfit for food preparation due to chemical degradation (oxidation, hydrogenation) and/or accumulation of contaminants. ...

References

  1. ^ Rudolf Diesel — Patent No 7241 Dated 1892. Oldengine.org (2005-12-15). Retrieved on 2007-07-29.
  2. ^ The Akroyd Oil Engine. Ray Hooley's — Ruston-Hornsby — Engine Pages. Retrieved on 2007-07-29.
  3. ^ Audi press release
  4. ^ Modern High-Speed Oil Engines, Volume II by C. W. Chapman, published by The Caxton Publishing Co. Ltd. Reprinted in July 1949
  5. ^ Engine Genetics. Perkins Engines Company Limited (2006).
  6. ^ Filion, Nadine (2006-11-13). Smart ForTwo 2008 Preview. Auto123.com.
  7. ^ Honda plans shift towards diesel in Japanese and US markets. autoindustry.co.uk. Retrieved on 2008-04-08.
  8. ^ "World's First 7-Second Diesel Dragster" (January 2007). Diesel World Magazine. 
  9. ^ Martin Leduc. The Diesel engine and its development, A historical timeline.
  10. ^ a b Paul Abelson. Track Star, The diesel-powered Audi R10 owns every race it enters. Road King Magazine.
  11. ^ Firsts in sport.
  12. ^ Cummins History. Cummins.
  13. ^ Greg Littleton. Snowberger's Done It Again — 1952 Cummins Diesel Car. National Indy 500 Collector Club.
  14. ^ Gavin Foster (27 July 2006). Viva la diesel!. Mail & Guardian Online. (incorrect reference to the Cummins Diesel leading laps in the race)
  15. ^ Associated Press. New diesel land speed record: 328 mph. MSNBC.
  16. ^ JCB car beats diesel speed record. BBC (22 August 2006).
  17. ^ http://www.seatsportuk.co.uk/sport/
  18. ^ Cats Citroën Net History
  19. ^ Turin will host GM's diesel center.. britannica.com. Retrieved on 2008-04-08.
  20. ^ Maestro/Montego. austin-rover.co.uk. Retrieved on 2008-04-08.
  21. ^ New Powertrain Technologies Conference. autonews.com. Retrieved on 2008-04-08.

Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the diesel engine manufacturer. ... The Mail & Guardian is a South African newspaper that was started by a group of journalists in 1985 after the closures of the two leading liberal newspapers, the Rand Daily Mail and Sunday Express. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
diesel engine. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-07 (633 words)
The diesel engine does not require a large water supply or a long warming-up period and is highly efficient in converting heat energy into work.
Diesels are widely used in both stationary and mobile installations where the power required is between that furnished by the gasoline engine and that of the steam turbine and where the relatively high initial cost can be written off over a long period.
The diesel engine differs from the gasoline engine in that the ignition of fuel is caused by compression of air in its cylinders instead of by a spark: the high compression ratio allows the air in the cylinder to become hot enough to ignite the fuel.
Diesel engine - Engineering (4253 words)
To fully realize the capabilities of a diesel engine, use of a turbocharger to compress the intake air is necessary; use of an aftercooler/intercooler to cool the intake air after compression by the turbocharger further increases efficiency.
Diesel fuel is a better lubricant than gasoline so is less harmful to the oil film on piston rings and cylinder bores; it is routine for diesel engines to cover 250,000 miles or more without a rebuild.
The BMW diesel lab in Steyr, Austria is led by Ferenc Anisits and is considered to be a leader in development of automotive diesel engines.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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