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Encyclopedia > Diesel
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Diesel or diesel fuel (IPA: /ˈdiːzəl/) in general is any fuel used in diesel engines. The most common is a specific fractional distillate of petroleum fuel oil, but alternatives that are not derived from petroleum, such as biodiesel, biomass to liquid (BTL) or gas to liquid (GTL) diesel, are increasingly being developed and adopted. To distinguish these types, petroleum-derived diesel is increasingly called petrodiesel. Ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) is a term used to describe a standard for defining diesel fuel with substantially lowered sulfur contents. As of 2007, almost every diesel fuel available in America and Europe is the ULSD type. Image File history File links Portal. ... For other uses, see Fuel (disambiguation). ... Diesel engines in a museum Diesel generator on an oil tanker A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle. ... Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions, such as in separating chemical compounds by their boiling point by heating them to a temperature at which several fractions of the compound will evaporate. ... -1... This article is about transesterified lipids. ... Biomass to liquid (BTL) is a (multi step) process to produce liquid fuels out of biomass: It mainly aims at using the whole plant to improve the CO2 balance and the costs. ... Gas to liquid or GTL is a refinery process to convert natural gas or other gaseous hydro-carbons into longer-chain hydro-carbons. ... This article is about the chemical element. ...

Contents

History

Etymology

The word "diesel" is derived from the German inventor Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel (March 18, 1858September 30, 1913) who in 1892 invented the diesel engine. Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel (pronounced ; March 18, 1858 – September 30, 1913) was a German inventor and mechanical engineer, famous for the invention of the diesel engine. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Diesel engines in a museum Diesel generator on an oil tanker A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle. ...


Diesel Engine

Main article: Diesel engine

Diesel engines are a type of internal combustion engine. Rudolf Diesel originally designed the diesel engine to use vegetable oils as a fuel in order to help support agrarian society[citation needed] and to enable independent craftsmen and artisans to compete with large industry.[citation needed] Diesel engines in a museum Diesel generator on an oil tanker A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle. ... Diesel engines in a museum Diesel generator on an oil tanker A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle. ... A colored automobile engine The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel (pronounced ; March 18, 1858 – September 30, 1913) was a German inventor and mechanical engineer, famous for the invention of the diesel engine. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with cooking oil. ... Agrarian has two meanings: It can mean pertaining to Agriculture It can also refer to the ideology of Agrarianism and Agrarian parties. ...


Petroleum diesel

A modern diesel pump
A modern diesel pump

'Diesel refining Petroleum diesel, or petrodiesel,[1] is produced from petroleum and is a hydrocarbon mixture, obtained in the fractional distillation of crude oil between 200 °C and 350 °C at atmospheric pressure. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Petro redirects here. ... A 3-dimensional rendered Ball-and-stick model of the methane molecule. ... Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions, such as in separating chemical compounds by their boiling point by heating them to a temperature at which several fractions of the compound will evaporate. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ... Atmospheric pressure is the pressure at any given point in the Earths atmosphere. ...


Burning effiency

The density of petroleum diesel is about 0.85 kg/l whereas petrol (gasoline) has a density of about 0.72 kg/l, about 15% less. When burnt, diesel typically releases about 38.6 MJ/l (138700 Btu per US gallon), whereas gasoline releases 34.9 MJ/l (125000 Btu per US gallon), about 11% less.[2] Diesel is generally simpler to refine from petroleum than gasoline. The price of diesel traditionally rises during colder months as demand for heating oil rises, which is refined in much the same way. Due to its higher level of pollutants, diesel must undergo additional filtration[citation needed] which contributes to a sometimes higher cost. In many parts of the United States and throughout the UK, diesel may be higher priced than petrol.[3] Reasons for higher priced diesel include the shutdown of some refineries in the Gulf of Mexico, diversion of mass refining capacity to gasoline production, and a recent transfer to ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), which causes infrastructural complications.[4] Petrol redirects here. ... Heating oil, or burning oil, also known in the United States as No. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... Ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) describes a new EPA standard for the sulfur content in on-road diesel fuel sold in the United States, beginning October 15th, 2006, except for California which must be selling it by September 1st, 2006. ...


Use as vehicle fuel

Unlike Petroleum ether and Liquefied petroleum gas engines, diesel engines do not use high voltage spark ignition (sparkplugs). Ignition of diesel only occurs under high pressure and/or with very high temperature. A car running on diesel compresses the air inside the cylinder to immense pressure ( compression in diesel engines is about 3 times higher than in ones running on gasoline ), which causes it to heat up, and the diesel fuel then being injected. The hot air inside the cylinder causes the diesel fuel to react with the air oxygen (to burn), heating and expanding the burning mixture in order to transfer the thermal energy to mechanical one, or in other words to move the piston. (glow plugs are used to assist starting the engine to pre-warm cylinders to reach a minimum operating temperature). Higher compression ratio and slower, more even burn of diesel fuel ( and lack of detonation ) result in higher efficiency and better durability of the diesel engine when compared to gasoline ones. This and being less flammable/explosive than gasoline are the main reasons for this kind of fuel to be in military use in armoured fighting vehicle like tanks, humvees etc. Engines running on diesel also provide more torque and are less likely to stall; as they run at a lower RPM, they will rather stutter a lot before stalling.[citation needed] --> Flash point -45. ... 45 kg LPG cylinders Liquefied petroleum gas (also called LPG, LP Gas, or autogas) is a mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a fuel in heating appliances and vehicles, and increasingly replacing chlorofluorocarbons as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant to reduce damage to the ozone layer. ... Used glow plug from an Vauxhall/Opel Astra turbo diesel engine Glow plugs are used to heat the combustion chambers of some diesel engines in cold conditions to help ignition at coldstart. ... An armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) is a military vehicle, equipped with protection against hostile attacks and often mounted weapons. ... The US M1A1 Abrams tank is a typical modern main battle tank. ... This article refers to the Military HMMWV, not the civilian Hummer sold by General Motors The M998 High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV or Humvee) is a military 4WD motor vehicle created by AM General. ... A stall is the slowing or stopping of a process. ...


An important disadvantage of diesel as a vehicle fuel, compared to gasoline or other petroleum derivated fuels, is that its viscosity increases at a rather fast pace as the fuel's temperature goes down, turning into a non-flowing gel at temperatures as high as -19 ºC (-2.2 ºF) or -15 ºC (+5 ºF), which can't be pumped by regular fuel pumps. Special low temperature diesel contain additives that keep it in a more liquid state at lower temperatures, yet, starting a diesel engine in very cold weather still poses considerable difficulties.


Use as car fuel

Diesel-powered cars generally have a better fuel economy than equivalent gasoline engines and produce less greenhouse gas pollution. Their greater economy is due to the higher energy per-litre content of diesel fuel and the intrinsic efficiency of the diesel engine. While petrodiesel's 15% higher density results in 15% higher greenhouse gas emissions per litre compared to gasoline,[5] the 20–40% better fuel economy achieved by modern diesel-engined automobiles offsets the higher-per-liter emissions of greenhouse gases, and produces 10-20 percent less GHG emissions than comparable gasoline vehicles.[6][7][8] However, the EPA carbon footprint estimates do not include the carbon cost of vehicle manufacture, nor the carbon cost of filtering particulates, sulfates, and nitrates emissions. Biodiesel-powered diesel engines offer substantially improved emission reductions compared to petro-diesel or gasoline-powered engines, while retaining most of the fuel economy advantages over conventional gasoline-powered automobiles. Diesel engines in a museum Diesel generator on an oil tanker A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle. ... Fuel efficiency, sometimes also referred to as fuel economy and commonly gas mileage in the United States, is a numeric measure often used to describe the amount of fuel consumed with regard to the distance travelled in a transportation vehicle, such as an automobile. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ...


Reduction of sulfur emissions

In the past, diesel fuel contained higher quantities of sulfur. European emission standards and preferential taxation have forced oil refineries to dramatically reduce the level of sulfur in diesel fuels. In the United States, more stringent emission standards have been adopted with the transition to ULSD starting in 2006 and becoming mandatory on June 1, 2010 (see also diesel exhaust). U.S. diesel fuel typically also has a lower cetane number (a measure of ignition quality) than European diesel, resulting in worse cold weather performance and some increase in emissions.[9] This is one reason why U.S. drivers of large trucks have increasingly turned to biodiesel fuels with their generally higher cetane ratings. This article is about the chemical element. ... Simplified chart showing the progression of European emission standards for Diesel cars. ... View of Shell Oil Refinery in Martinez, California. ... Ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) describes a new EPA standard for the sulfur content in on-road diesel fuel sold in the United States, beginning October 15th, 2006, except for California which must be selling it by September 1st, 2006. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2010 (MMX) will be a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Exhaust gas is gas which occurs as a result of combustion of fuel such as gasoline/petrol or diesel. ... Cetane number or CN is to diesel fuel what octane rating is to gasoline. ...


Environment hazards of sulfur

High levels of sulfur in diesel are harmful for the environment because they prevent the use of catalytic diesel particulate filters to control diesel particulate emissions, as well as more advanced technologies, such as nitrogen oxide (NOx) adsorbers (still under development), to reduce emissions. However, the process for lowering sulfur also reduces the lubricity of the fuel, meaning that additives must be put into the fuel to help lubricate engines. Biodiesel and biodiesel/petrodiesel blends, with their higher lubricity levels, are increasingly being utilized as an alternative. The U.S. annual consumption of diesel fuel in 2006 was about 190 billion litres (42 billion imperial gallons or 50 billion US gallons). [1] A diesel particulate filter (top left) in a Peugeot A diesel particulate filter, sometimes called a DPF, is device designed to remove diesel particulate matter or soot from the exhaust gas of a diesel engine, most of which are rated at 85% efficiency, but often attaining efficiencies of over 90... Diesel particulate matter (DPM) refers to the particulate components of diesel exhaust, which include diesel soot and aerosols such as ash particulates, metallic abrasion particles, sulfates, and silicates. ... Look up nox, Nox in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In chemistry, adsorption of a substance is its concentration on a particular surface. ... Lubrication occurs when opposing surfaces are separated by a lubricant film. ... Look up Additive in Wiktionary, the free dictionary When used as a noun, additive refers to something that is introduced to a larger quantity of something else, usually to alter characteristics of the larger quantity. ... This article is about transesterified lipids. ...


Chemical composition

Diesel is immiscible with water
Diesel is immiscible with water

Petroleum-derived diesel is composed of about 75% saturated hydrocarbons (primarily paraffins including n, iso, and cycloparaffins), and 25% aromatic hydrocarbons (including naphthalenes and alkylbenzenes).[10] The average chemical formula for common diesel fuel is C12H23, ranging from approx. C10H20 to C15H28 Image File history File links Size of this preview: 672 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (976 × 871 pixel, file size: 228 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Taken and donated by User:Guinnog File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 672 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (976 × 871 pixel, file size: 228 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Taken and donated by User:Guinnog File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A substance is soluble in a fluid if it dissolves in the fluid. ... An alkane in organic chemistry is a type of hydrocarbon in which the molecule has the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms and so has no double bonds (they are saturated). ... For other uses, see Paraffin (disambiguation). ... cyclobutane Cycloalkanes (also called naphthenes) are chemical compounds with one or more carbon rings to which hydrogen atoms are attached according to the formula CnH2n. ... An aromatic hydrocarbon (abbreviated as AH) or arene [1] is a hydrocarbon, the molecular structure of which incorporates one or more planar sets of six carbon atoms that are connected by delocalised electrons numbering the same as if they consisted of alternating single and double covalent bonds. ... R-phrases , , S-phrases , , , , Flash point 79 - 87 °C Autoignition temperature 525 °C Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Naphthalene (not to be confused with naphtha) (also known as naphthalin, naphthaline, moth ball, tar... Benzene, C6H6, PhH, or benzol is a colorless and flammable liquid with a pleasant, sweet smell. ...


Algae, microbes, and water

There has been much discussion and misinformation about algae in diesel fuel[citation needed]. Algae require sunlight to live and grow. As there is no sunlight in a closed fuel tank, no algae can survive there. However, some microbes can survive there, and can feed on the diesel fuel. For the programming language, see algae (programming language). ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ...


These microbes form a colony that lives at the fuel/water interface. They grow quite rapidly in warmer temperatures. They can even grow in cold weather when fuel tank heaters are installed. Parts of the colony can break off and clog the fuel lines and fuel filters.


It is possible to either kill this growth with a biocide treatment, or eliminate the water, a necessary component of microbial life. There are a number of biocides on the market, which must be handled very carefully. If a biocide is used, it must be added every time a tank is refilled until the problem is fully resolved. A biocide is a chemical substance capable of killing different forms of living organisms used in fields such as medicine, agriculture, forestry, and mosquito control. ...


Biocides attack the cell wall of microbes resulting in lysis, the death of a cell by bursting. The dead cells then gather on the bottom of the fuel tanks and form a sludge, filter clogging will continue after biocide treatment until the sludge has abated. This article is about the biological definition of the word Lysis. ...


Given the right conditions microbes will repopulate the tanks and re-treatment with biocides will then be necessary. With repetitive biocide treatments microbes can then form resistance to a particular brand.[citation needed] Trying another brand may resolve this.


Petrodiesel spilled on a road will stay there until washed away by sufficiently heavy rain, whereas gasoline will quickly evaporate. Diesel spills severely reduce tire grip and have been implicated in many accidents. They are especially dangerous for two-wheeled vehicles.


Synthetic diesel

Wood, hemp, straw, corn, garbage, food scraps, and sewage-sludge may be dried and gasified to synthesis gas. After purification the Fischer-Tropsch process is used to produce synthetic diesel.[11] This means that synthetic diesel oil may be one route to biomass based diesel oil. Such processes are often called Biomass-To-Liquids or BTL. For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... U.S. Marihuana production permit. ... Bales of straw bundles of rice straw Pile of straw bales, sheltered under a tarpaulin Straw is an agricultural byproduct, the dry stalk of a cereal plant, after the nutrient grain or seed has been removed. ... Binomial name L. Corn (Zea mays L. ssp. ... For other uses, see Waste (disambiguation). ... Syngas (from synthesis gas) is the name given to gasses of varying composition that are generated in coal gasification and some types of waste-to-energy facilities. ... // The Fischer-Tropsch process is a catalyzed chemical reaction in which carbon monoxide and hydrogen are converted into liquid hydrocarbons of various forms. ... Biomass to liquid (BTL) is a (multi step) process to produce liquid fuels out of biomass: It mainly aims at using the whole plant to improve the CO2 balance and the costs. ...


Synthetic diesel may also be produced out of natural gas in the Gas-to-liquid (GTL) process or out of coal in the Coal-to-liquid (CTL) process. Such synthetic diesel has 30% less particulate emissions than conventional diesel (US- California).[12] For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... Gas to liquids or GTL is a refinery process to convert natural gas or other gaseous hydrocarbons into longer-chain hydrocarbons. ... CTL can refer to: Computational tree logic Cut-to-length logging This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Biodiesel

Main article: Biodiesel

Biodiesel can be obtained from vegetable oil (vegidiesel/vegifuel), or animal fats (bio-lipids), using transesterification. Biodiesel is a non-fossil fuel alternative to petrodiesel. It can also be mixed with petrodiesel in any amount in modern engines, though when first using it, the solvent properties of the fuel tend to dissolve accumulated deposits and can clog fuel filters.[citation needed] Biodiesel has a higher gel point than petrodiesel, but is comparable to diesel. This can be overcome by using a biodiesel/petrodiesel blend, or by installing a fuel heater, but this is only necessary during the colder months. A diesel-biodiesel mix results in lower emissions than either can achieve alone,[13] except for NOx emissions. A small fraction of biodiesel can be used as an additive in low-sulfur formulations of diesel to increase the lubricity lost when the sulfur is removed. In the event of fuel spills, biodiesel is easily washed away with ordinary water and is nontoxic compared to other fuels. This article is about transesterified lipids. ... This article is about transesterified lipids. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with cooking oil. ... Some common lipids. ... In organic chemistry, transesterification is the process of exchanging the alkoxy group of an ester compound by another alcohol. ... Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source fuels, that is, hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the earth’s crust. ... For other uses, see Solvent (disambiguation). ...


Biodiesel can be produced using kits. Certain kits allow for processing of used vegetable oil that can be run through any conventional diesel motor with modifications. The modification needed is the replacement of fuel lines from the intake and motor and all affected rubber fittings in injection and feeding pumps a.s.o. This is because biodiesel is an effective solvent and will replace softeners within unsuitable rubber with itself over time. Synthetic gaskets for fittings and hoses prevent this. For other uses, see Solvent (disambiguation). ...


Chemically, most biodiesel consists of alkyl (usually methyl) esters instead of the alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons of petroleum derived diesel. However, biodiesel has combustion properties very similar to petrodiesel, including combustion energy and cetane ratings. Paraffin biodiesel also exists. Due to the purity of the source, it has a higher quality than petrodiesel. An alkyl is a univalent radical containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms arranged in a chain. ... In chemistry a methyl-group is a hydrophobic Alkyl functional group which is derived from methane (CH4). ... For other uses, see Ester (disambiguation). ... Cetane number or CN is to diesel fuel what octane rating is to gasoline. ... For other uses, see Paraffin (disambiguation). ...


Biodiesel emissions

The use of biodiesel blended diesel fuels in fractions up to 99% result in substantial emission reductions. Sulfur oxide and sulfate emissions, major components of acid rain, are essentially eliminated with pure biodiesel and substantially reduced using biodiesel blends with minor quantities of ULSD petrodiesel. Use of biodiesel also results in substantial reductions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter compared to either gasoline or petrodiesel. C02, or carbon monoxide emissions using biodiesel are substantially reduced, on the order of 50% compared to most petrodiesel fuels. The exhaust emissions of particulate matter from biodiesel have been found to be 30 percent lower than overall particulate matter emissions from petrodiesel. The exhaust emissions of total hydrocarbons (a contributing factor in the localized formation of smog and ozone) are up to 93 percent lower for biodiesel than diesel fuel. Biodiesel emissions of nitrogen oxides can sometimes increase slightly. However, biodiesel's complete lack of sulfur and sulfate emissions allows the use of NOx control technologies, such as AdBlue, that cannot be used with conventional diesel, allowing the management and control of nitrous oxide emissions. The term acid rain is commonly used to mean the deposition of acidic components in rain, snow, fog, dew, or dry particles. ... AdBlue is the registered trademark for AUS32 (Aqueous Urea Solution 32. ...


Biodiesel also may reduce health risks associated with petroleum diesel. Biodiesel emissions showed decreased levels of PAH and nitrited PAH compounds which have been identified as potential cancer causing compounds. In recent testing, PAH compounds were reduced by 75 to 85 percent, with the exception of benzo(a)anthracene, which was reduced by roughly 50 percent. Targeted nPAH compounds were also reduced dramatically with biodiesel fuel, with 2-nitrofluorene and 1-nitropyrene reduced by 90 percent, and the rest of the nPAH compounds reduced to only trace levels.[14]


Aircraft

The first diesel powered flight of a fixed wing aircraft took place on the evening of September 18, 1928, at the Packard Motor Company proving grounds, Utica, Michigan with Captain Lionel M. Woolson and Walter Lees at the controls (the first "official" test flight was taken the next morning). The engine was designed for Packard by Woolson and the aircraft was a Stinson SM1B, X7654. Later that year Charles Lindbergh flew the same aircraft. In 1929 it was flown 621 miles (999 km) non-stop from Detroit to Langley, Virginia (near Washington, D.C.). This aircraft is presently owned by Greg Herrick and resides in the Golden Wings Flying Museum near Minneapolis, Minnesota. In 1931, Walter Lees and Fredrick Brossy set the nonstop flight record flying a Bellanca powered by a Packard diesel for 84h 32 m. The Hindenburg was powered by four 16 cylinder diesel engines, each with approximately 1,200 horsepower (890 kW) available in bursts, and 850 horsepower (630 kW) available for cruising. Modern diesel engines for propellor-driven aircraft are manufactured by Thielert Aircraft Engines and SMA. These engines are able to run on Jet A fuel, which is similar in composition to automotive diesel and cheaper and more plentiful than the 100 octane low-lead gasoline (avgas) used by the majority of the piston-engine aircraft fleet.[citation needed] is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Stinson Aircraft Company was an aircraft manufacturing company in the United States predominantly in the first half of the 20th century. ... Charles Augustus Lindbergh (February 4, 1902 – August 26, 1974) (nicknamed Lucky Lindy and The Lone Eagle) was an American aviator, author, inventor, explorer, and peace activist who, on May 20–21, 1927, rose instantaneously from virtual obscurity to world fame as the result of his piloting of the first solo... Detroit redirects here. ... Langley is an unincorporated community in the census-designated place of McLean in Fairfax County, Virginia, United States. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... AviaBellanca Aircraft Corporation is an American aircraft design and manufacturing company. ... LZ 129 Hindenburg was a German zeppelin that was destroyed by fire while landing at Lakehurst Naval Air Station in New Jersey on May 6, 1937. ... Jet fuel is a type of aviation fuel designed for use in jet-engined aircraft. ... For other uses, see Octane (disambiguation). ... // Avgas is a high-octane fuel used for aircraft and, in the past, racing cars. ...


The most-produced aviation diesel engine in history so far has been the Junkers Jumo 205, which, along with its similar developments from the Junkers Motorenwerke, had approximately 1000 examples of the unique opposed piston, two-stroke design powerplant built in the 1930s leading into World War II in Germany. The Junkers Jumo 205 aircraft engine was the most famous of a series of diesel engines that were the first, and for more than half a century, the only successful diesel aircraft engines. ... Junkers & Co was a major German aircraft manufacturer. ...


Automobiles

The very first diesel-engine automobile trip (inside USA) was completed on January 6, 1930. The trip was from Indianapolis to New York City, a distance of nearly 800 miles (1300 km).[citation needed] This feat helped to prove the usefulness of the compression ignition engine. Car redirects here. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Indianapolis redirects here. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The diesel engine is a type of internal combustion engine; more specifically, a compression ignition engine, in which the fuel is ignited by the high temperature of a compressed gas, rather than a separate source of energy (such as a spark plug). ...


Automobile racing

In 1931, Dave Evans drove his Cummins Diesel Special to a nonstop finish in the Indianapolis 500, the first time a car had completed the race without a pit stop. That car and a later Cummins Diesel Special are on display at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Hall of Fame Museum.[15] This article is about the diesel engine manufacturer. ... Indy 500 redirects here. ... Dale Earnhardt, Jr. ... Indianapolis Motor Speedway, located in Speedway, Indiana (a separate town completely surrounded by Indianapolis) in the United States, is the second-oldest surviving automobile racing track in the world (after the Milwaukee Mile), having existed since 1909, and the original Speedway, the first racing facility historically to incorporate the word. ...


In the late 1970s, Mercedes-Benz at Nardò drove a C111-III with a 5 cylinder diesel engine to several new records, including driving an average of 314 km/h (195 mph) for 12 hours and hitting a top speed of 325 km/h (201 mph). Nardò is a small town, comune and episcopal see in the southern Italian region of Apulia, in the province of Lecce. ...


With turbocharged diesel cars getting stronger in the 1990s, they were entered in touring car racing, and BMW even won the 24 Hours Nürburgring in 1998 with a 320d. After winning the 12 Hours of Sebring in 2006 with their diesel-powered R10 TDI LMP, Audi won the 24 Hours of Le Mans, too. This is the first time a diesel-fueled vehicle has won at Le Mans against cars powered with regular fuel or other alternative fuel like methanol or bio-ethanol. Competitors like Porsche predicted this victory for Audi as current FIA and ACO regulations are seen as pro-diesel. French automaker Peugeot entered the diesel powered Peugeot 908 LMP in the 2007 24 Hours of Le Mans in response to the success of the Audi R10 TDI. Touring car racing is a general term for a number of distinct auto racing competitions in heavily-modified street cars. ... For other uses, see BMW (disambiguation). ... The 24 Hours Nürburgring is a GT and touring car endurance racing event on the Nürburgring, inspired by the famous 24 Hours of Le Mans and the Spa 24 Hours. ... 318is Coupé 1995 316i Compact 1996 M3 Coupé E36 convertible E36 Wagon Georgia State Patrol 318i The E36 automobile platform was the basis for the 1991-1999 BMW 3 Series entry-level luxury car / compact executive car. ... Aston Martin DBR9 at dusk during the 2005 12 Hours of Sebring The 12 Hours of Sebring is an annual motorsport endurance race held at Sebring Raceway, a former Air Force base in Sebring, Florida. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Audi AG, more commonly known as Audi, is a premium German automobile manufacturer and one of the worlds leading performance-luxury marques, with headquarters in Ingolstadt, Bavaria. ... The 24 Hours of Le Mans (24 Heures du Mans) is the worlds most famous sports car endurance race, held annually at Circuit de la Sarthe near Le Mans, France, in the French Sarthe département. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH (often abbreviated MeOH). ... The use of ethanol as a fuel for internal combustion engines, either alone or in combination with other fuels, has been given much attention mostly because of its possible environmental and long-term economical advantages over fossil fuel. ... The Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile, commonly referred to as the FIA, is a non-profit association established in 1904 to represent the interest of motoring organisations and motor car users. ... The Automobile Club de lOuest (Automobile Club of the West - referring to the western region of France), sometimes abbreviated to ACO, is the largest automotive group in France. ... Peugeot is a major French car brand, part of PSA Peugeot Citroën. ... Peugeot 908 Design Model The 908 is a race car built by the French automobile manufacturer Peugeot to compete in the 24 Hours of Le Mans endurance race starting in 2007. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The 24 Hours of Le Mans (24 Heures du Mans) is the worlds most famous sports car endurance race, held annually at Circuit de la Sarthe near Le Mans, France, in the French Sarthe département. ...


In an effort to further demonstrate the potential of diesel power, California-based Gale Banks Engineering designed, built and raced a Cummins-powered pickup at the Bonneville Salt Flats in October 2002. The truck set a top speed of 355 km/h (222 mph) and became the world’s fastest pickup, and almost equally notable, the truck drove to the race towing its own support trailer. Bonneville Salt Flats The Bonneville Salt Flats are a 159 square mile (412 km²)[1] salt flat in northwestern Utah. ...


On 23 August 2006, the British-based earthmoving machine manufacturer JCB raced the specially designed JCB Dieselmax car at 563.4 km/h (350.1 mph). The driver was Andy Green. The car was powered by two modified JCB 444 diesel engines. {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... JCB is a family business named after its founder J.C.Bamford, producing distinctive yellow-and-black engineering vehicles, diggers (Backhoes) and excavators. ... JCB Dieselmax on display at the British International Motor Show The JCB Dieselmax is a diesel-engined Streamliner car designed for the purpose of breaking the land speed record for a diesel-engined vehicle. ... Wing Commander Andy Green OBE (born 1962), a British RAF pilot, is the current holder of the land speed record and the first person to break the sound barrier on land. ...


Other uses

Poor quality, (high sulfur) diesel fuel has been used as a palladium extraction agent for the liquid-liquid extraction of this metal from nitric acid mixtures. This has been proposed as a means of separating the fission product palladium from PUREX raffinate which comes from used nuclear fuel. In this solvent extraction system the hydrocarbons of the diesel act as the diluent while the dialkyl sulfides act as the extractant. This extraction operates by a solvation mechanism. So far neither a pilot plant or full scale plant has been constructed to recover palladium, rhodium or ruthenium from nuclear wastes created by the use of nuclear fuel.[16] This article is about the chemical element. ... For other uses, see Palladium (disambiguation). ... Liquid-liquid extraction, also known as solvent extraction and partitioning, is a method to separate compounds based on their solution preferences for two different immiscible liquids, usually water and an organic solvent. ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ... Fission products are the atomic fragments left after a large nucleus fissions. ... The PUREX process is used to reprocess spent nuclear fuel, in order to extract uranium and plutonium, independent of each other, from the fission products. ... Raffinate is a term in solvent extraction to describe a liquid stream which remains after the extraction with the immisible liquid to remove solutes from the original liquor. ... Nuclear Fuel Process A graph comparing nucleon number against binding energy Nuclear fuel is any material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned to derive energy. ... A 3-dimensional rendered Ball-and-stick model of the methane molecule. ... Categories: Move to Wiktionary | Stub ... An alkyl is a univalent radical containing only carbon and hydrogen atoms arranged in a chain. ... Formally, sulfide is the dianion, S2−, which exists in strongly alkaline aqueous solutions formed from H2S or alkali metal salts such as Li2S, Na2S, and K2S. Sulfide is exceptionally basic and, with a pKa > 14, it does not exist in appreciable concentrations even in highly alkaline water. ... Solvation is the attraction and association of molecules of a solvent with molecules or ions of a solute. ... A pilot plant is a small chemical processing system which is operated to generate information about the behavior of the system for use in design of larger facilities. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhodium, Rh, 45 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 102. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Ruthenium, Ru, 44 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 101. ... Political Punk band from Victorville, Ca WWW.MYSPACE.COM/NUCLEARWASTEX ... Nuclear Fuel Process A graph comparing nucleon number against binding energy Nuclear fuel is any material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned to derive energy. ...


Health effects

Diesel exhaust from a large truck starting up in USA with old technology device.
Diesel exhaust from a large truck starting up in USA with old technology device.

Diesel combustion exhaust is an important source of atmospheric soot and fine particles, which is a fraction of air pollution implicated in human heart and lung damage. Diesel exhaust also contains nanoparticles which have been found to damage the cardiovascular system in a mouse model.[17] The study of nanotoxicology is still in its infancy, and the extent of health and societal effects caused by diesel combustion is unknown. Biodiesel and biodiesel blends result in greatly decreased pollution levels. Soot, also called lampblack, Pigment Black 7, carbon black or black carbon, is a dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, usually composed mainly of amorphous carbon, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke—especially from the combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in the... Fine particles Fine particles is an air pollutant mainly produced by cars running on diesel. ... Very Basic Description A nanoparticle is a microscopic particle whose size is measured in nanometers. ... Research on ultrafine particles has laid the foundation for the emerging field of nanotoxicology, with the goal of studying the biokinetics of engineered nanomaterials and their potential for causing adverse effects. ...


Taxation

Diesel fuel is very similar to heating oil which is used in central heating. In Europe, the United States, and Canada, taxes on diesel fuel are higher than on heating oil due to the fuel tax, and in those areas, heating oil is marked with fuel dyes and trace chemicals to prevent and detect tax fraud. Similarly, "untaxed" diesel (sometimes called "off road diesel") is available in the United States, which is available for use primarily in agricultural applications such as fuel for tractors, recreational and utility vehicles or other non-commercial vehicles that do not use public roads. Additionally, this fuel may have sulphur levels that exceed the limits for road use using the newer 2007 standards. This untaxed diesel is dyed red for identification purposes,[18] and should a person be found to be using this untaxed diesel fuel for a typically taxed purpose (such as "over-the-road", or driving use), the user can be fined US$10,000. In the United Kingdom, Belgium and the Netherlands it is known as red diesel (or gas oil), and is also used in agricultural vehicles, home heating tanks, refrigeration units on vans/trucks which contain perishable items (e.g. food, medicine) and for marine craft. Diesel fuel, or Marked Gas Oil is dyed green in the Republic of Ireland. The term DERV ("diesel engined road vehicle") is used in the UK as a synonym for unmarked road diesel fuel. In India, taxes on diesel fuel are lower than on gasoline as the majority of the transportation that transports grains and other essential commodities across the country runs on diesel. Heating oil, or burning oil, also known in the United States as No. ... For the Grand Central Records albums, see Central Heating (Grand Central album) and Central Heating 2. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Taxes redirects here. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Gold standard Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Policy-mix Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Regulation Banking Fractional-reserve Full-reserve   Free banking Islamic... Fuel dyes are dyes added to fuels, as in some countries it is required by law to dye a low-tax fuel to deter its use in applications intended for higher-taxed ones. ... This article contrasts tax evasion, tax avoidance, tax resistance and tax mitigation. ... A non-commercial enterprise is work that values other considerations above and beyond that of making a profit. ... A public road is a road that is open to common use by the general population. ... Diesel is a product used as a fuel in a diesel engine invented by Rudolf Diesel, and perfected by Charles F. Kettering. ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ...


In Germany, diesel fuel is taxed lower than gasoline but the annual vehicle tax is higher for diesel vehicles than for gasoline vehicles.[citation needed] This gives an advantage to vehicles that travel longer distances (which is the case for trucks and utility vehicles) because the annual vehicle tax depends only on engine displacement, not on distance driven. The point at which a diesel vehicle becomes less expensive than a comparable gasoline vehicle is around 20,000 km per year (12,500 miles per year) for an average car.[citation needed] One complete cycle of a four cylinder, four stroke engine. ...


Taxes on biodiesel in the United States vary from state to state and in some states (Texas, for example) have no tax on biodiesel and a reduced tax on biodiesel blends equivalent to the amount of biodiesel in the blend, so B20 fuel is taxed 20% less than pure petrodiesel.[19] Other states, such as North Carolina, tax biodiesel (in any blended configuration) the same as petrodiesel, although they have introduced new incentives to producers and users of all biofuels.[20] This article is about transesterified lipids. ...


See also

Diesel engines in a museum Diesel generator on an oil tanker A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle. ... It has been suggested that Gasoline type C be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Kerosene (disambiguation). ... Liquid fuels are those combustible or energy-generating molecules that can be harnessed to create mechanical energy, usually producing kinetic energy; they also must take the shape of their container. ... For other types of hybrid transportation, see Hybrid vehicle (disambiguation). ... ... // The following is a list of automobiles (including pickup trucks, SUVs, and vans) made with diesel engines. ... Turbodiesel refers to any diesel engine with a turbocharger. ... Dieselisation or Dieselization (see spelling differences) is generally used for the nowadays increasingly common use of diesel fuel in diesel engines in vehicles, as opposed to gasoline in petrol engines in road transport; and as opposed to steam engines in steam locomotives and rail transport. ...

References

  1. ^ macCompanion Magazine
  2. ^ Table B4, Appendix B, Transportation Energy Data Book from the Center for Transportation Analysis of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory
  3. ^ Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update
  4. ^ http://www.eia.doe.gov/bookshelf/brochures/diesel/dieselprices2006.html
  5. ^ Emission Facts: Average Carbon Dioxide Emissions Resulting from Gasoline and Diesel Fuel. US Environmental Protection Agency (2005).
  6. ^ Greenhouse Gas Reductions. Diesel Technology Forum. Retrieved on 2008-03-13.
  7. ^ "Diesel cars set to outsell petrol", BBC News, October 23, 2002. 
  8. ^ More Miles To The Gallon. Diesel Technology Forum. Retrieved on 2006-11-19.
  9. ^ "Idle Hour," Feature Article, January 2005
  10. ^ Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1995. Toxicological profile for fuel oils. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service
  11. ^ http://www.fas.usda.gov/pecad/highlights/2005/01/btl0104/syntheticdiesel.htm. Retrieved on December 5, 2005. appears to be at this link http://www.fas.usda.gov/pecad2/highlights/2005/01/btl0104/syntheticdiesel.htm now
  12. ^ SYNTHETIC DIESEL FUEL. Retrieved on December 5, 2005.
  13. ^ Is biodiesel cleaner than petrol diesel? at Waste Vegetable Oil Fuels
  14. ^ Hempcar.org-Pollution: Petrol vs Hemp
  15. ^ Indianapolis Motor Speedway. Retrieved on December 5, 2005.
  16. ^ Torgov, V.G.; Tatarchuk, V.V.; Druzhinina, I.A.; Korda, T.M. et. al, Atomic Energy, 1994, 76(6), 442–448. (Translated from Atomnaya Energiya; 76: No. 6, 478–485 (June 1994))
  17. ^ http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=washingtonstory&sid=aBt.yLf.YfOo Study Pollution Particles Lead to Higher Heart Attack Risk
  18. ^ United States Government Printing Office (2006-10-25). Title 26, § 48.4082-1 Diesel fuel and kerosene; exemption for dyed fuel.. Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (e-CFR). Retrieved on 2006-10-28. “Diesel fuel or kerosene satisfies the dyeing requirement of this paragraph (b) only if the diesel fuel or kerosene contains— (1) The dye Solvent Red 164 (and no other dye) at a concentration spectrally equivalent to at least 3.9 pounds of the solid dye standard Solvent Red 26 per thousand barrels of diesel fuel or kerosene; or (2) Any dye of a type and in a concentration that has been approved by the Commissioner.” Cited as 26 CFR 48.4082-1. This regulation implements 26 U.S.C. § 4082-1.
  19. ^ http://www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/progs/ind_state_laws.php/TX/BIOD Texas Biodiesel Laws and Incentives
  20. ^ http://www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/progs/ind_state_laws.php/NC/BIOD North Carolina Biodiesel Laws and Incentives

A combination of federal, state and private funds is providing $300 million for the construction of 13 facilities on ORNLs new main campus. ... A combination of federal, state and private funds is providing $300 million for the construction of 13 facilities on ORNLs new main campus. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... DHHS redirects here. ... The logotype of the United States Government Printing Office In the United States, the Government Printing Office (GPO) prints and provides access to documents produced by and for all three branches of the federal government, including the Supreme Court, the Congress, and all executive branch agencies like the FCC and... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Internal Revenue Code (or IRC) (more formally, the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended) is the main body of domestic statutory tax law of the United States organized topically, including laws covering the income tax (see Income tax in the United States), payroll taxes, gift taxes, estate taxes...

External links

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