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Encyclopedia > Dictionary
For Wikimedia's dictionary project visit Wiktionary, or see the Wiktionary article.

A dictionary is a book of alphabetically listed words in a specific language, with definitions, etymologies, pronunciations, and other information;[1] or a book of alphabetically listed words in one language with their equivalents in another, also known as a lexicon.[1] Look up dictionary in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Words has several meanings: words in Unix. ... Look up lexicon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


IIn many languages, words can appear in many different forms, but only the undeclined or unconjugated form appears as the headword in most dictionaries. Dictionaries are most commonly found in the form of a book, but some newer dictionaries, like StarDict and the New Oxford American Dictionary on Mac OS X, are dictionary software running on PDAs or computers. There are also many online dictionaries accessible via the Internet. In linguistics, and particularly in morphology, a lemma or citation form is the canonical form of a lexeme. ... A headword (or head word) is the word under which a set of related dictionary definitions will be listed. ... StarDict is a free GPL desktop dictionary that serves as a user interface to StarDict dictionary files. ... The New Oxford American Dictionary (NOAD) is a single-volume dictionary of North American English by the American editors at the Oxford University Press. ... Mac OS X (pronounced ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... User with Treo (PDA with smartphone functionality) Personal digital assistants (PDAs) are handheld computers, but have become much more versatile over the years. ... This article is about the machine. ...

A multi-volume Latin dictionary in the University Library of Graz.
A multi-volume Latin dictionary in the University Library of Graz.

Contents

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1408x1120, 805 KB) A multi-volume Latin dictionary (Egidio Forcellini: Totius Latinitatis Lexicon, 1858-87) in a table in the main reading room of the University Library of Graz. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1408x1120, 805 KB) A multi-volume Latin dictionary (Egidio Forcellini: Totius Latinitatis Lexicon, 1858-87) in a table in the main reading room of the University Library of Graz. ... a part of the new front built 1994-96 The University Library of Graz is the biggest scientific and public library in Styria and the third biggest in Austria. ...

History

The first known bilingual dictionaries were created in Ancient Mesopotamia - specifically in Ebla (modern Syria) - with cuneiform tablets displaying Sumerian words and their Akkadian equivalents dating back to 2300BC[2]. The first dictionary of the Chinese language, the Shuowen Jiezi, was written around 100 CE (although other sources suggest that Chinese scholars may have created a monolingual dictionary as far back as 1109BC[3]), while a Greek lexicon (specifically a list of words used by Homer, and their meanings) was written by Apollonius the Sophist at around the same time[2]. According to the The Chronicles of Japan, Japanese dictionaries originated in 682 CE, although the first dictionary dealt with the deciphering of Chinese characters. a version of Shuowen Jiezi Shuōwén JiÄ›zì (說文解字, Explaining Simple and Analyzing Compound Characters) was the first Chinese character dictionary, compiled by XÇ” Shèn between 100 CE and 121 CE in Han Dynasty China. ... This article is about the Greek poet Homer and the works attributed to him. ... Apollonius, surnamed the Sophist, was a famous grammarian, who probably lived towards the end of the 1st century A.D. and taught in Rome in Tiberius times. ... Nihonshoki (日本書紀) is the second oldest history book about the ancient history of Japan. ... Japanese dictionaries have a history that began over 1300 years ago when Japanese Buddhist priests, who wanted to understand Chinese sutras, adapted Chinese character dictionaries. ...


The earliest European dictionaries were bilingual dictionaries. These were glossaries of French, Italian or Latin words, along with definitions of the foreign words in English. An early nonalphabetical list of 8000 English words was the Elementarie created by Richard Mulcaster in 1592.[4][5] Daniel Webster also made a dictionary in the 1700's. It was one of America's first dictionaries. That is where the Webster part in dictionaries comes from. Richard Mulcaster, one of the greatest British educational visionaries, is known best for his headmasterships and paedegogic writings. ...


The first purely English alphabetical dictionary was A Table Alphabeticall, written by English schoolteacher Robert Cawdrey in 1604. It was eight years ahead of the first Italian dictionary and thirty-five years ahead of the French. Conversely, it is eight hundred years after the first Arabic, and almost one-thousand years after the first Sanskrit in India. The only surviving copy is found at the Bodleian Library in Oxford. Yet this early effort, as well as the many imitators which followed it, was seen as unreliable and nowhere near definitive[6]. It wasn't until Samuel Johnson's A Dictionary of the English Language (1755) that a truly noteworthy, reliable English Dictionary was deemed to have been produced, and the fact that today many people still mistakenly believe Johnson to have written the first English Dictionary is a testament to this legacy[7]. By this stage, dictionaries had evolved to contain textual references for most words, and were arranged alphabetically, rather than by topic (a previously popular form of arrangement, which meant all animals would be grouped together etc.). Johnson's masterwork could be judged as the first to bring all these elements together, creating the first 'modern' dictionary[7]. A Table Alphabeticall is the abbreviated title of the first monolingual dictionary in the English language, created by Robert Cawdrey in 1604. ... This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... Robert Cawdrey (ca. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Entrance to the Library, with the coats-of-arms of several Oxford colleges The Bodleian Library, the main research library of the University of Oxford, is one of the oldest libraries in Europe, and in England is second in size only to the British Library. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... For other persons named Samuel Johnson, see Samuel Johnson (disambiguation). ... A Dictionary of the English Language, one of the most influential dictionaries in the history of the English language, was prepared by Samuel Johnson and published on April 15, 1755. ... 1755 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Johnson's Dictionary remained the English-language standard for over 150 years, until the Oxford University Press began writing and releasing the Oxford English Dictionary in short fascicles from 1884 onwards. It took nearly 50 years to finally complete the huge work, and they finally released the complete OED in 12 volumes in 1928. It remains the most comprehensive and trusted English language dictionary to this day, with revisions and updates added by a dedicated team every three months. Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... OED stands for Oxford English Dictionary Office of Enrollment & Discipline This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


In literary and fanciful usage, multiple dictionaries are referred to as a 'bunch of dictionaries.'


Word order

Today, dictionaries of most languages with alphabetic and syllabic writing systems list words in lexicographic order, usually alphabetical or some analogous phonetic system. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... ABCs redirects here. ... Writing systems of the world today. ... In mathematics, the lexicographic or lexicographical order, (also known as dictionary order, alphabetic order or lexicographic(al) product), is a natural order structure of the Cartesian product of two ordered sets. ... Phonetic (pho-NET-ic) is a nationwide voicemail-to-text messaging service available for most digital mobile phones in which a subscriber is provided a custom voice mailbox for the purpose of receiving all incoming voice messages as actual transcribed text for reading via short messaging (also known as SMS...


In many languages, words are grouped together according to their root word, with the roots being arranged alphabetically. If English dictionaries were arranged like this, the words "import," "export," "support," "report," "porter," "important" and "transportation" would theoretically be listed under the Latin "portare," "to carry." This method has the advantage that all words of a common origin are listed together, but the disadvantage is that one has to know the roots of the word before one can look it up. Some Hebrew, Sanskrit, and Arabic dictionaries work this way. In Policy debate, a disadvantage (abbreviated as DA, and sometimes referred to as a Disad) is an argument that a team brings up against a policy action that is being considered. ... The word Hebrew most likely means to cross over, referring to the Semitic people crossing over the Euphrates River. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ...


While most of Japanese and Korean dictionaries are arranged according to their phonetic writing (kana syllabic script for the Japanese, and hangul alphabet for the Korean), the main body of modern Chinese dictionaries mostly is ordered according to the latin alphabet with the pinyin spelling ; but most Chinese dictionaries have an appendix ordering entries accordance to the Chinese logographic writing system, in order to allow readers to find words written in logograms whose pronunciation is not known. Chinese characters may be sorted according to one of many schemes based on the component parts of the characters (radicals, number of strokes, overall shape). Japanese writing Kanji 漢字 Kana 仮名 Hiragana 平仮名 Katakana 片仮名 Manyogana 万葉仮名 Uses Furigana 振り仮名 Okurigana 送り仮名 Rōmaji ローマ字 For other meanings of Kana, see Kana (disambiguation). ... Jamo redirects here. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... A Chinese logogram A logogram, or logograph, is a single written character which represents a word or a morpheme (a meaningful unit of language). ... A Chinese logogram A logogram, or logograph, is a single written character which represents a word or a morpheme (a meaningful unit of language). ... Scheme can refer to: The Scheme programming language. ... The left part of 媽 mā, a Chinese character meaning mother, is a radical (in both senses) nÇš, which means woman (or female) A radical (from Latin radix, meaning root) is the semantic root (i. ... Outline of the character æ°¸, showing stroke order. ...


Coverage

Dictionaries can vary widely in coverage, size, and scope. A maximizing dictionary lists as many words as possible from a particular speech community (e.g., the Oxford English Dictionary), whereas a minimizing dictionary exclusively attempts to cover only a limited selection of words from a speech community (e.g., a dictionary of Basic English words). Take for instance, two dictionaries of Chinese characters: the pocket-sized minimizing dictionary Xinhua Zidian (2004, 700 pages) only includes 11,200 commonly used characters, while the multi-volume maximizing dictionary Hanyu Da Zidian (1995, 5800 pages) includes over 54,678 characters and variants. A dictionary is maximizing if it attempts to include as many words as possible from a particular speech community. ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... A dictionary is minimizing if it attempts to include only a limited selction of words from a particular speech community. ... Look up Appendix:Basic English word list in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... 2004 10th edition Xinhua zidian The Xīnhuá zìdiǎn (Simplified Chinese: , literally new China character dictionary) is the most popular modern Chinese dictionary, which is published by the Commercial Press(Pinyin: Shangwu Yingshuguan). ... The Hanyu Da Zidian (Chinese: ; pinyin: Hànyǔ dà zìdiǎn; literally Comprehensive Chinese Character Dictionary) is one of the best available reference works on Chinese characters. ... Variant Chinese characters are Chinese characters that can be used interchangeably. ...


Special-purpose dictionaries

There are many different types of special-purpose dictionaries, including bilingual, multilingual, scientifical, historical, biographical, technical and geographical dictionaries.

A selection of special purpose dictionaries

Image File history File links Dictionary-selection. ... Image File history File links Dictionary-selection. ...

Specialized dictionaries

Picture dictionaries explain concepts from soup-tureen in the 1904 Engelska bild-glosor med textöfningar … to supersonic transport in the 1998 Visual Encyclopedia.

According to the Manual of Specialised Lexicography a specialized dictionary (also referred to as a technical dictionary) is a lexicon that focuses upon a specific subject field. Following the description in The Bilingual LSP Dictionary lexicographers categorize specialized dictionaries into three types. A multi-field dictionary broadly covers several semantic fields (e.g., a picture dictionary), a single-field dictionary narrowly covers one particular subject field (e.g., law), and a sub-field dictionary covers a singular field (e.g., constitutional law). For example, the 23-language Inter-Active Terminology for Europe is a multi-field dictionary, the American National Biography is a single-field, and the African American National Biography Project is a sub-field dictionary. In terms of the above coverage distinction between "minimizing dictionaries" and "maximizing dictionaries", multi-field dictionaries tend to minimize coverage across lexical fields (for instance, Oxford Dictionary of World Religions) whereas single-field and sub-field dictionaries tend to maximize coverage within a limited subject field (The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology). See also LSP dictionary. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 1047 KB) Picture dictionaries, old and new. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 1047 KB) Picture dictionaries, old and new. ... A Sevres tureen, made in 1782, owned by John and Abigail Adams. ... The Concorde supersonic transport has a delta wing, a slender fuselage and four underslung Olympus engines. ... A specialized dictionary is a dictionary that covers a relatively restricted set of phenomena. ... A lexicographer is a person devoted to the study of lexicography, especially an author of a dictionary. ... A multi-field dictionary is a specialized dictionary that has been designed and compiled to cover the terms within two or more subject fields. ... A picture dictionary is a specialized dictionary that seeks to visually represent objects, concepts, and actions, often grouped with related items in one graphic. ... A single-field dictionary is a specialized dictionary that has been designed and compiled to cover the terms of one particular subject field. ... A sub-field dictionary is a specialized dictionary that has been designed and compiled to cover the terms of one (or possibly more) sub-fields of a particular subject field. ... Inter-Active Terminology for Europe (IATE) is the inter-institutional terminology database of the European Union. ... The American National Biography is a 24 volume set containing approximately 17,400 entries[1] and 20 million words. ... The African American National Biography Project is a joint project of the W. E. B. Du Bois Institute for African and African American Research and Oxford University Press. ... The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions is an alphebetical reference work with over 8,200 entries, topic index of 13,000 headings. ... The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology is a notable etymological dictionary of the English language, published by Oxford University Press. ... An LSP (language for specific purposes) dictionary is a dictionary that is intended to describe a variety of one or more languages used by experts within a particlar subject field. ...


Data dictionaries

Data sets and databases collected and utilized for statistical analyses are typically accompanied by, or able to be used to generate, a list of all variable names used within the data set, as well as matters such as their meaning, values, level of measurement, length, decimal allowances, and type (numeric, string, etc.) This article is about computing. ... This article is about the field of statistics. ... In computer science and mathematics, a variable (pronounced ) (sometimes called an object or identifier in computer science) is a symbolic representation used to denote a quantity or expression. ... The level of measurement of a variable in mathematics and statistics is a classification that was proposed in order to describe the nature of information contained within numbers assigned to objects and, therefore, within the variable. ...


Glossaries

Another variant is the glossary, an alphabetical list of defined terms in a specialised field, such as medicine or science. The simplest dictionary, a defining dictionary, provides a core glossary of the simplest meanings of the simplest concepts. From these, other concepts can be explained and defined, in particular for those who are first learning a language. In English, the commercial defining dictionaries typically include only one or two meanings of under 2000 words. With these, the rest of English, and even the 4000 most common English idioms and metaphors, can be defined. Look up glossary in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A defining vocabulary is a published, stable, and culturally accepted core glossary specifically used by dictionary publishers to standardize their use of simple words to explain complex words, and culture-specific idioms or metaphors. ... A core glossary is a simple glossary or defining dictionary which enables definition of other concepts, especially for newcomers to a language or field of study. ... An idiom is an expression (i. ... This article is about metaphor in literature and rhetoric. ...


Pronunciation

Dictionaries for languages for which the pronunciation of words is not apparent from their spelling, such as the English language, usually provide the pronunciation, often using the International Phonetic Alphabet. For example, the definition for the word dictionary might be followed by the (American English) phonemic spelling: /ˈdɪkʃəˌnɛri/. English dictionaries, however, often use other systems, such as the English Phonemic Representation system, in which the pronunciation of dictionary is given as [dĭk'shə-něr'ē]. Yet others use an ad hoc notation; for example, dictionary may become [DIK-shuh-ner-ee]. This chart shows concisely the most common way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is applied to represent the English language. ... Many dictionaries and other language references give pronunciation guides for some or all words listed. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The English Phonemic Representation (abbreviated enPR; sometimes referred to as the AHD system) is a wiktionary-specific system of phonetic notation based on the Latin alphabet as representation of the sounds used in pronouncing spoken English. ...


The online Turkish–English (and English–Turkish) dictionary Seslisozluk enables registered users to listen to the pronunciation of the words. Turkish is a Turkic language, spoken natively by about 72 million speakers in Turkey, Cyprus, and worldwide. ...


Variations between dictionaries

Prescription and description

Dictionary makers apply two basic philosophies to the defining of words: prescriptive or descriptive. Noah Webster, intent on forging a distinct identity for the American language, altered spellings and accentuated differences in meaning and pronunciation of some words. This is why American English now uses the spelling color while the rest of the English-speaking world prefers colour. (Similarly, British English subsequently underwent a few spelling changes that did not affect American English; see further at American and British English spelling differences.) Large 20th-century dictionaries such as the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) and Webster's Third are descriptive, and attempt to describe the actual use of words. In linguistics, prescription is the laying down or prescribing of normative rules for the use of a language. ... Noah Webster Noah Webster (October 16, 1758 – April 28, 1843) was an American lexicographer, textbook author, spelling reformer, political writer, word enthusiast, and editor. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ... Spelling differences redirects here. ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... 1888 advertisement for Websters Dictionary Websters Dictionary is a common title given to English language dictionaries in the United States, deriving its name from American lexicographer Noah Webster. ...

A dictionary open at the word "Internet", viewed through a lens
A dictionary open at the word "Internet", viewed through a lens

While descriptivists argue that prescriptivism is an unnatural attempt to dictate usage or curtail change, prescriptivists argue that to indiscriminately document "improper" or "inferior" usages sanctions those usages by default and causes language to "deteriorate". Although the debate can become very heated, only a small number of controversial words are usually affected. But the softening of usage notations, from the previous edition, for two words, ain't and regardless, out of over 450,000 in Webster's Third in 1961, was enough to provoke outrage among many with prescriptivist leanings, who branded the dictionary as "permissive." Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2848x2136, 1446 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Dictionary Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2848x2136, 1446 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Dictionary Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The prescriptive/descriptive issue has been given so much consideration in modern times that most dictionaries of English apply the descriptive method to definitions, while additionally informing readers of attitudes which may influence their choices on words often considered vulgar, offensive, erroneous, or easily confused. Merriam-Webster is subtle, only adding italicized notations such as, sometimes offensive or nonstand (nonstandard.) American Heritage goes further, discussing issues separately in numerous "usage notes." Encarta provides similar notes, but is more prescriptive, offering warnings and admonitions against the use of certain words considered by many to be offensive or illiterate, such as, "an offensive term for..." or "a taboo term meaning..." Merriam-Webster, originally known as the G. & C. Merriam Company of Springfield, Massachusetts, is a United States company that publishes reference books, especially dictionaries that are descendants of Noah Websters An American Dictionary of the English Language (1828). ... The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD) is a dictionary of American English published by Boston publisher Houghton-Mifflin, the first edition of which appeared in 1969. ... The Encarta Websters Dictionary 2004 is the second edition of the Encarta World English Dictionary, originally published in 1999, Ann Soukhanov, editor. ...


Because of the broad use of dictionaries, and their acceptance by many as language authorities, their treatment of the language does affect usage to some degree, even the most descriptive dictionaries providing conservative continuity. In the long run, however, usage primarily determines the meanings of words in English, and the language is being changed and created every day. As Jorge Luis Borges says in the prologue to "El otro, el mismo": "It is often forgotten that (dictionaries) are artificial repositories, put together well after the languages they define. The roots of language are irrational and of a magical nature." Borges redirects here. ...


Major English dictionaries

For languages other than modern English, see the article about that language. See also articles such as Japanese dictionaries. Penguin Group is the second largest trade book publisher in the world. ... Merriam-Webster, originally known as the G. & C. Merriam Company of Springfield, Massachusetts, is a United States company that publishes reference books, especially dictionaries that are descendants of Noah Websters An American Dictionary of the English Language (1828). ... 1888 advertisement for Websters Dictionary Websters Dictionary is the common title given to English language dictionaries in the United States, derived from American lexicographer Noah Webster. ... The Random House Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged was the original name of a large American dictionary, first published in 1966, and recently renamed the Random House Websters Unabridged Dictionary. ... The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD) is an American dictionary of the English language published by Boston publisher Houghton-Mifflin, the first edition of which appeared in 1969. ... Compact school and office edition, 1967 Websters New World Dictionary of the American Language is an American dictionary first published in 1951 and presently published by John Wiley & Sons. ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... Concise Oxford Dictionary (COD) is probably the best-known smaller Oxford dictionaries. ... The New Oxford Dictionary of English (often abbreviated to NODE) is an English language dictionary first published in 1998 by the Oxford University Press. ... The New Oxford American Dictionary (NOAD) is a single-volume dictionary of North American English by the American editors at the Oxford University Press. ... The Canadian Oxford Dictionary, published by the Oxford University Press Canada, was first released in 1998 and quickly became the standard dictionary reference for Canadian English. ... 1888 advertisement for Websters Dictionary Websters Dictionary is the common title given to English language dictionaries in the United States, derived from American lexicographer Noah Webster. ... For other persons named Samuel Johnson, see Samuel Johnson (disambiguation). ... A Dictionary of the English Language, one of the most influential dictionaries in the history of the English language, was prepared by Samuel Johnson and published on April 15, 1755. ... Noah Webster Noah Webster (October 16, 1758 – April 28, 1843) was an American lexicographer, textbook author, spelling reformer, political writer, word enthusiast, and editor. ... The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia was one of the largest and most highly regarded dictionaries of the English language. ... Brewers Dictionary of Phrase and Fable - sometimes referred to simply as Brewers - is a reference work containing definitions and explanations of many famous phrases, allusions and figures, whether historical or mythical. ... Image:Macq4TH 3D NEW.jpg The Macquarie Dictionary, 4th edition. ... Australian English (AuE, AusE, en-AU) is the form of the English language used in Australia. ... The ninth edition of the Chambers Dictionary of the English language was published in 2003 by Chambers Harrap. ... HarperCollins is a publishing company owned by News Corporation. ... COBUILD, an acronym for Collins Birmingham University International Language Database, is a British research facility set up at the University of Birmingham in 1980 and funded by Collins publishers. ... HarperCollins is a publishing company owned by News Corporation. ... Longman is a firm of English publishers. ... Blacks Law Dictionary, 7th edition Blacks Law Dictionary is the definitive law dictionary for the law of the United States. ... A law dictionary is a dictionary that is designed and compiled to give information about terms used in the field of law. ... Japanese dictionaries have a history that began over 1300 years ago when Japanese Buddhist priests, who wanted to understand Chinese sutras, adapted Chinese character dictionaries. ...


Others

Academic Dictionary of Lithuanian Lithuanian: is the main thesaurus of the Lithuanian language. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... LEO (meaning link everything online) is an internet site run by the computer science department of the Technische Universität München in Munich, Germany. ... Lingvo Online is a free online russian-to 5 other languages dictionary combined with human translation service. ... The first Lithuanian language dictionary was compiled by Konstantinas Sirvydas and was printed in 1620. ... The Logos Dictionary is a large multilingual online dictionary provided by Logos Group, a European translation company. ... Merriam-Webster, originally known as the G. & C. Merriam Company of Springfield, Massachusetts, is a United States company that publishes reference books, especially dictionaries that are descendants of Noah Websters An American Dictionary of the English Language (1828). ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy the notability guideline for Web content. ... Pseudodictionary is an online dictionary dedicated to collecting definitions for neologisms or slang terms. ... Reference. ... The Dictionary of the Scots Language (DSL) is an online Scots-English language dictionary, now run by Scottish Language Dictionaries Ltd (formerly the Scottish National Dictionary Association), based at George Square, at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Current logo of Susning. ... Urban Dictionary is an online web dictionary whose definitions are written by some of its users. ... WWWJDIC is an online Japanese dictionary based on the electronic dictionary of Australian academic Jim Breen. ... Private Sözlük in 2003 Private Sözlük is a turkish dictionary site like this, inspired by Ekşi Sözlük. ...

See also

Look up Dictionary in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

A bilingual dictionary is a dictionary that is usually used to translate words or phrases from one language to another. ... Centre for Lexicography ia a centre affiliated with the Aarhus School of Business, Denmark, and was established in 1996. ... COBUILD, an acronym for Collins Birmingham University International Language Database, is a British research facility set up at the University of Birmingham in 1980 and funded by Collins publishers. ... In linguistics, a corpus (plural corpora) or text corpus is a large and structured set of texts (now usually electronically stored and processed). ... Corpus linguistics is the study of language as expressed in samples (corpora) or real world text. ... DICT is a dictionary network protocol created by the DICT Development Group. ... Electronic dictionaries )[1] are small handheld computers with integrated reference materials. ... An encyclopedic dictionary typically includes a large number of short listings discussing a wide of topics. ... A lexicographic error is an inaccurate entry in a dictionary. ... Current lexicographical projects require a lot of IT infrastructure to be completed - both hardware and software. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into List of encyclopedias. ... Medical Dictionary is a lexicon for words used in medicine. ... Monolingual learners dictionaries are aimed at the advanced learners of a foreign language. ... OED stands for Oxford English Dictionary Office of Enrollment & Discipline This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A rhyming dictionary is a specialist dictionary designed for use in writing poetry. ... For the American rapper, see TheSaurus (rapper). ... A translation dictionary (or sometimes translator) is a specialized lexicon designed for giving users rough equivalences of words and phrase equivalences between two distinct languages. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... WordNet is a semantic lexicon for the English language. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Webster's New World College Dictionary, Fourth Edition, 2002
  2. ^ a b http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761573731/Dictionary.html#p3
  3. ^ http://www.sentex.net/~ajy/facts/firsts.html quoting the Waterford Star (Waterford, Ontario, June 13, 1907, page 3)
  4. ^ 1582 - Mulcaster's Elementarie, Learning Dictionaries and Meaning, The British Library
  5. ^ A Brief History of English Lexicography, Peter Erdmann and See-Young Cho, Technische Universität Berlin, 1999.
  6. ^ Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield was still lamenting in 1754, 150 years after Cawdrey's publication, that it is "a sort of disgrace to our nation, that hitherto we have had no . . . standard of our language; our dictionaries at present being more properly what our neighbours the Dutch and the Germans call theirs, word-books, than dictionaries in the superior sense of that title." [(http://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Papers/firstdict.html)]
  7. ^ a b http://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Papers/firstdict.html

The British Library (BL) is the national library of the United Kingdom. ... South Side of the main building Main building The Technical University of Berlin (TUB, TU Berlin, German: Technische Universität Berlin) is located in Berlin, Germany. ... Philip Dormer Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield (22 September 1694 – 24 March 1773) was a British statesman and man of letters. ...

Relevant literature

  • Manual of Specialised Lexicography, Henning Bergenholtz/Sven Tarp (eds.), Benjamins Publishing, 1995
  • Diction and Stylistics of the 21st century, Darwin, Charles Schickelgruber Maxis (ed.), Jackson Publishing, 2001
  • The Bilingual LSP Dictionary, Sandro Nielsen, Gunter Narr Verlag 1994
  • Dictionaries, The Art and Craft of Lexicography, Sidney I. Landau, Simon & Schuster, 1998, hardcover, ISBN 0-684-18096-0
  • The Professor and the Madman, A Tale of Murder, Insanity, and the Making of the Oxford English Dictionary, Simon Winchester, HarperPerennial, New York, 1998, trade paperback, ISBN 0-06-017596-6. (published in the UK as The Surgeon of Crowthorne)
  • A Brief History of English Lexicography. Retrieved on 2007-01-22.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ...

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