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Encyclopedia > Dictator

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A dictator is an authoritarian, often totalitarian ruler (e.g. absolutist or autocratic) who assumes sole power over his state, though the term is normally not applied to those who acquire such position by regular constitutional means, such as a hereditary absolute monarch, except to denote personal abuse of power. The word originated as the title of a magistrate in ancient Rome appointed by the Senate to rule the republic in times of emergency (see Roman dictator and justitium). Like the term tyrant, originally a respectable Ancient Greek title, and to a lesser degree autocrat, it came to be used almost exclusively as a non-titular term for oppressive, even abusive rule, yet had rare modern titular uses. In political science and constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the state. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... For other uses, see Chancellor (disambiguation). ... A premier is an executive official of government. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... A cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ... A ministry is a department of a government, led by a minister. ... A minister or a secretary is a politician who holds significant public office in a national or regional government. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a prime minister and a president are both active participants in the day-to-day functioning of the administration of a country. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, and the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... Cohabitation in government occurs in semi-presidential systems, such as Frances system, when the President and the Prime Minister come from different political parties. ... The Houses of Parliament, also known as the Palace of Westminster, in London. ... This is a list of state leaders, showing heads of state and heads of government where different, mainly in parliamentary systems; it should be noted that often a leader is both in presidential systems or dictatorships. ... This is a list of the offices of heads of state and heads of government, and cabinets, by country. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... Absolutism is a political theory which argues that one person, who is often generally a monarch, should hold all power. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An autocracy is a form of government in which the political power is held by a single person. ... Absolute monarchy is an idealized form of government, a monarchy where the ruler has the power to rule his or her country and citizens freely with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition telling him or her what to do, although some religious authority may be able to discourage the... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Dictator was a political office of the Roman Republic. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Dictator was a political office of the Roman Republic. ... Justitium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... An autocrat is generally speaking any ruler with absolute power; the term is now usually used in a negative sense (cf. ...


In modern usage, the term "dictator" is generally used to describe a leader who holds and/or abuses an extraordinary amount of personal power, especially the power to make laws without effective restraint by a legislative assembly. Dictatorships are often characterized by some of these traits: suspension of elections and of civil liberties; proclamation of a state of emergency; rule by decree; repression of political opponents without abiding by rule of law procedures; single-party state, cult of personality, etc. For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... A Legislative Assembly in some parts of the Commonwealth refers to a legislature, or a chamber of the legislature. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... This article is about the political process. ... Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. ... A state of emergency is a governmental declaration that may suspend certain normal functions of government, may work to alert citizens to alter their normal behaviors, or may order government agencies to implement emergency preparedness plans. ... Rule by decree is a style of governance allowing quick, unchallenged creation of law by a single person or group, and is used primarily by dictators and absolute monarchs. ... Political repression is the oppression or persecution of an individual or group for political reasons, particularly for the purpose of restricting or preventing their ability to take part in the political life of society. ... The rule of law is the principle that governmental authority is legitimately exercised only in accordance with written, publicly disclosed laws adopted and enforced in accordance with established procedure. ... States in which the constitution mandates power to a sole party are colored brown. ... A cult of personality or personality cult arises when a countrys leader uses mass media to create a larger-than-life public image through unquestioning flattery and praise. ...


The term "dictator" is comparable to (but not synonymous with) the ancient concept of a tyrant, although initially "tyrant", like "dictator", did not carry negative connotations. A wide variety of leaders coming to power in a number of different kinds of regimes, such as military juntas, single-party states and civilian governments under personal rule, have been described as dictators. A military junta is government by a committee of military leaders. ... States in which the constitution mandates power to a sole party are colored brown. ...

Contents

Classical era

Roman dictators were usually appointed by the Senate, instead of two collegial Consuls, and invested with sweeping authority over the citizens, but was originally limited to a term-– commonly of six months or the duration of a military conflict-– and lacked power over the public finances. Lucius Cornelius Sulla and Julius Caesar, however, exceeded these limitations and governed without these constraints. The Romans abandoned the institution of dictatorship after Caesar's murder, though his political heir Augustus developed the Principate into a de facto similar, but constitutionally lesser status. For modern diplomatic consuls, see Consulate general. ... Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L•CORNELIVS•L•F•P•N•SVLLA•FELIX)[1] (ca. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... The Principate is, according to its etymological derivation from the Latin word princeps, meaning chief or first, the political regime dominated by such a political leader, whether or not he is formally head of state and/or head of government. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without...


In the system of Roman Republic, a dictator rei gerendae causa was a person temporarily granted superior power over the state during times of war. The office of the Roman dictator was held for only six months. The ideal model was Cincinnatus, who according to tradition was plowing his land when called to dictatorship, saved Rome from invasion and afterwards returned to his labour, renouncing every honour and power, after only three months. Other famous dictatores included Cornelius Sulla and Julius Caesar. Compare with the originally military Roman title, imperator. This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Dictator was a political office of the Roman Republic. ... With one hand he returns the fasces, symbol of power as appointed dictator of Rome. ... This page is about the Roman dictator Sulla, for the Brythonic goddess sometimes called Sulla, see Sul. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... The Latin word imperator was a title originally roughly equivalent to commander during the period of the Roman Republic. ...


Modern era

Modern dictators have usually come to power in times of emergency. Frequently they have seized power by coup d'état, but some, most notably Benito Mussolini in Italy and Adolf Hitler in Germany achieved office as head of government by legal means (election or appointment), and once in office gained additional extraordinary powers. Mainly Latin American, Asian and African nations, especially developing nations, have known many dictatorships, usually by military leaders at the head of a junta, either claiming to constitute a revolution or to reestablish order and stability. Coup redirects here. ... Mussolini redirects here. ... Hitler redirects here. ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... This article is about the political process. ... Appointment may refer to a number of things, including the following: Look up appointment in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... A military dictatorship is a form of government wherein the political power resides with the military; it is similar but not identical to a stratocracy, a state ruled directly by the military. ... For other uses, see Revolution (disambiguation). ...


In popular usage in western nations, "dictatorship" is often associated with brutality and oppression. As a result, it is often also used as a term of abuse for political opponents; for example, Henry Clay's dominance of the U.S. Congress as Speaker of the House and as a member of the U.S. Senate led to his nickname, "the Dictator". The term has also come to be associated with megalomania. Many dictators create a cult of personality and have come to favor increasingly grandiloquent titles and honours for themselves. E.g., Idi Amin Dada, who had been a British army lieutenant prior to Uganda's independence from Britain in October 1962, subsequently styled himself as "His Excellency President for Life Field Marshal Al Hadji Dr. Idi Amin, VC, DSO, MC, Lord of All the Beasts of the Earth and Fishes of the Sea and Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular". In "The Great Dictator" (1940), Charlie Chaplin satirized not only Hitler but the institution of dictatorship itself. Leaders and their regimes very rarely call themselves "dictator(ship)", and usually do not consider themselves to be oppressive, or simply do not admit it. For his namesake son, see Henry Clay, Jr. ... Congress in Joint Session. ... The term Speaker is usually the title given to the presiding officer of a countrys lower house of parliament or congress (ie: the House of Commons or House of Representatives). ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... This article is about the psychopathological condition. ... A cult of personality or personality cult arises when a countrys leader uses mass media to create a larger-than-life public image through unquestioning flattery and praise. ... Idi Amin Dada (mid-1920s[1]–16 August 2003) was an army officer and president of Uganda. ... Lieutenant is a military, naval, paramilitary, fire service or police officer rank. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Note: This article is about the military usage of the word marshal. For other usages, see the end of this article. ... For other uses, see Victoria Cross (disambiguation). ... DSO medal The Distinguished Service Order (DSO) is a military decoration of the United Kingdom, and formerly of other Commonwealth countries, awarded for meritorious or distinguished service by officers of the armed forces during wartime, typically in actual combat. ... The Military Cross (MC) is the third level military decoration awarded to officers and (since 1993) other ranks of the British Army and formerly also to officers of other Commonwealth countries. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... The Great Dictator is a film directed by and starring Charlie Chaplin. ... Charles Chaplin redirects here. ...


The association between the dictator and the military is a common one; many dictators take great pains to emphasize their connections with the military and often wear military uniforms. In some cases, this is perfectly legitimate; Francisco Franco was a lieutenant general in the Spanish Army before he became Chief of State of Spain; Manuel Noriega was officially commander of the Panamanian Defense Forces. In other cases, the association is mere pretense. The word legitimacy comes from the Latin word legitimare and it has two uses: Legitimacy (political science) is variously defined, but refers in general to the peoples acceptance of a law, ruling, or a regime itself as valid. ... “Franco” redirects here. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ...


Modern use in formal titles

Dictator (plain)

In the former doge-state Venice, while a republic resisting annexation by either the kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia or the Austrian empire, a former Chief Executive (president, 23 March - 5 July 1848), Daniele Manin (b. 1804 - d. 1857), was styled Dictator 11-13 August 1848 before joining the 13 August 1848 - 7 March 1849 Triumvirate. Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... Kingdom of Sardinia, in 1839: Mainland Piedmont, with Savoia upper left (pink) and Nizza (Nice) lower left (brown) both now French, and Sardinia in the inset The Kingdom of Sardinia is a former kingdom in Italy. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Danièle Manin (May 13, 1804 - September 22, 1857), Venetian patriot and statesman, was born in Venice. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1849 (MDCCCXLIX) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

General Simón Bolívar, the 17 February 1824 - 28 January 1827 Head of state, was acting Dictator until 10 February 1825 when his title changed to Liberator 'Liberator', and on 9 December 1826 again to President-for-Life. This article is about the South American independence leader. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1827 (MDCCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

Józef Chłopicki Józef Chłopicki (1771-1854) was a Polish General who was involved in fighting in Europe at the time of Napoleon and later. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Ludwik Mierosławski Ludwik Mierosławski Ludwik Adam Mierosławski (1814-1878) was a Polish general, writer, poet, historian and political activist. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Marian Langiewicz (5 August 1827 - 11 May 1887) was a Polish patriot notable as a military leader of the January Uprising in 1863. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Romuald Traugutt on a 20 zloty banknote of the Peoples Republic of Poland Romuald Traugutt (16 January 1826 - 5 August 1864) was a Polish general and war hero, best known for commanding the January Uprising. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... The term triumvirate is commonly used to describe a political regime dominated by three powerful political and/or military leaders. ... Ataman (variants: wataman, vataman, otaman, Cyrillic: атаман (Russian), ватаман (Russian, regional), отаман (Ukrainian)) was a title of Cossack and haidamak leaders of various kinds. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...

Compound and derived titles

  • In Paraguay, in a procession of generally short-lived juntas, the last of the Consuls of the Republic in power, two Consuls alternating in power every 4 months, 12 June 1814 - 3 October 1814 José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia y Velasco (2nd time), succeeded himself as the only ever Supreme Dictator 3 October 1814 - 20 September 1840 - from 6 June 1816 he was styled Perpetual Supreme Dictator

Motto: Capital Medellín Governor Area 63,612 km² Population  - Total (2003)  - Density   5,750,478 90 people/km² Adjective antioqueño Antioquia was one of the states in the original United States of Colombia, and is now a department in the northwest part of the Republic of Colombia. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the day. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the US Federal Agent designation, see Special agent. ... For other places of the same name, see Cartagena Bocagrande Cartagena San Pedro Square,Old City Cartagena Cartagena, Colombia, also known as Cartagena de Indias, is a large seaport on the north coast of Colombia. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the US Federal Agent designation, see Special agent. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... Manuel Rodrí­guez Torices (full birth name Manuel Juan Robustiano de los Dolores Rodrí­guez Torices y Quiroz) (May 24, 1788 - October 5, 1816) was a Neogranadine statesman, lawyer, journalist, and Precursor of the Independence of Colombia. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the Roman rank. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1816 (MDCCCXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Dictator was the title of a magistrate in ancient Rome appointed by the Senate to rule the state in times of emergency. ... Dictator was the title of a magistrate in ancient Rome appointed by the Senate to rule the state in times of emergency. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Kingdom of Sardinia, in 1839: Mainland Piedmont with Savoy, Nice, and Sardinia in the inset. ... Agostino Depretis (January 31, 1813 – July 29, 1887) was an Italian statesman. ...

"The benevolent dictator"

The benevolent dictator is a more modern version of the classical “enlightened despot”, being an absolute ruler who exercises his or her political power for the benefit of the people rather than exclusively for his or her own benefit. Like many political classifications, this term suffers from its inherent subjectivity. Such leaders as Anwar Sadat, Kenneth Kaunda, Józef Piłsudski, Omar Torrijos, Juan and Eva Peron and Fidel Castro have been characterized by their supporters as benevolent dictators.[citation needed] The benevolent dictator is a more modern version of the classical enlightened despot, being an undemocratic or authoritarian leader who exercises his or her political power for the benefit of the people rather than exclusively for his or her own self-interest or benefit, or for the benefit of only... For the period in European history, The Age of Enlightenment For the corresponding movement in the European Jewish community, see Haskalah. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Muhammad Anwar Al-Sadat (محمد أنورالسادات in Arabic) (December 25, 1918 – October 6, 1981) was an Egyptian politician and served as the third President of Egypt from September 28, 1970 until his assassination on October 6, 1981. ... Kenneth Kaunda Kenneth David Kaunda, commonly known as KK (born April 28, 1924) was the first President of Zambia (1964–1991). ... Office Chief of State, Marshal of Poland Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Statesman Political party none (see Sanacja for details), formerly PPS Spouse Maria PiÅ‚sudska Aleksandra PiÅ‚sudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays... Omar Torrijos (right) with farmers in the Panamanian countryside. ... Juan Domingo Perón (October 8, 1895 – July 1, 1974) was an Argentine military officer and the President of Argentina from 1946 to 1955 and from 1973 to 1974. ... Evitas image appeared on a wide variety of products, including stamps, coins, postcards and calendars. ... Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba but on indefinite medical hiatus. ...


In Spanish, the word dictablanda is sometimes used for a dictatorship conserving some of the liberties and mechanisms of democracy. (The pun is that, in Spanish, dictadura is “dictatorship”, dura is “hard” and blanda is “soft”). Some examples includes Yugoslavia under Tito or Spain under Francisco Franco. This contrasts with democradura (literally “hard democracy”), characterized by full formal democracy alongside limitations on constitutional freedoms and human rights abuses, frequently within the context of a civil conflict or the existence of an insurgency. Governments in Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela have at various times been considered régimes by different critics and opposition groups, not necessarily with an academic or political consensus about the application of the term emerging. Dictablanda is a word used by political scientists to describe a dictatorship in which civil liberties are mostly preserved rather than destroyed. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Josip Broz Tito (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз Тито, May 7, 1892 [May 25th according to official birth certificate] – May 4, 1980) was the leader of the Second Yugoslavia, which lasted from 1943 until 1991. ... “Franco” redirects here. ... An illiberal democracy is a country in which the leaders and lawmakers are elected by the people, but individual freedoms such as those protected in the United States Bill of Rights or the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen do not exist. ...


Dictators in game theory

In social choice theory, the notion of a dictator is formally defined as a person that can achieve any feasible social outcome he/she wishes. The formal definition yields an interesting distinction between two different types of dictators. Social choice theory studies how individual preferences are aggregated to form a collective preference. ...

  • The strong dictator has, for any social goal he/she has in mind (e.g. raise taxes, having someone killed, etc.), a definite way of achieving that goal. This can be seen as having explicit absolute power, like Pinochet[citation needed] in Chile.
  • The weak dictator has, for any social goal he/she has in mind, and for any political scenario, a course of action that would bring about the desired goal. For the weak dictator, it is usually not enough to "give their orders", rather he/she has to manipulate the political scene appropriately. This means that the weak dictator might actually be lurking in the shadows, working within a political setup that seems to be non-dictatorial. An example of such a figure is Lorenzo the Magnificent, who controlled Renaissance Florence.

Note that these definitions disregard some alleged dictators, e.g. Benito Mussolini, who are not interested in the actual achieving of social goals, as much as in propaganda and controlling public opinion. Monarchs and military dictators are also excluded from these definitions, because their rule relies on the consent of other political powers (the barons or the army). General Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte1 (born November 25, 1915) was head of the military government that ruled Chile from 1973 to 1990. ... For other uses, see Lorenzo de Medici (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... Mussolini redirects here. ... Soviet Propaganda Poster during World War II. The text reads Red Army Fighter, SAVE US! Chinese propaganda poster from the time of the Cultural Revolution. ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... US General Douglas MacArthur (left), military ruler of Japan 1945-1952, next to Japans defeated Emperor, Hirohito Military rule may mean: Militarism as an ideology of government Military occupation (or Belligerent occupation), when a country or area is conquered after invasion List of military occupations Martial law, where military... Various rulers or governments of Europe, of Japan bestow or recognise the title of baron. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


See also

Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... The Dictator Novel (Spanish: novela del dictador) is a genre of Latin American literature which developed the theme of caudillos (as dictators are known in this continent) especially starting with Ramón del Valle-Incláns Tirano Banderas (1926). ... Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... This is a list of heads of state, government leaders, and other rulers in any given year. ... Look up junta in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The following heads of government or heads of state formally suspended the countrys constitution while in office. ... This article lists national heads of government and heads of state who held an active military rank while in office. ... Coups détat are listed by country in alphabetical order. ... US General Douglas MacArthur (left), military ruler of Japan 1945-1952, next to Japans defeated Emperor, Hirohito Military rule may mean: Militarism as an ideology of government Military occupation (or Belligerent occupation), when a country or area is conquered after invasion List of military occupations Martial law, where military... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Dictator was a political office of the Roman Republic. ... Rule by decree is a style of governance allowing quick, unchallenged creation of law by a single person or group, and is used primarily by dictators and absolute monarchs. ... A single-party state or one-party system or single-party system is a type of party system and form of government where only a single political party dominates the government and no opposition parties are allowed. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Totalitarianism is a term employed by some scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ...

Sources and external links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Guess the Dictator/Sit-Com Character (375 words)
Pretend to be the bumbling sidekick or the heartless autocrat and our state-of-last-century's-art algorithm will guess who you are.
This version of Guess the Dictator uses all kinds of "fancy" Web 2.0 technology, which will probably cause lots of things to break.
If you have a problem with the game, please email webmaster -at- smalltime.com and let me know the problem as well as what browser and operating system you are using.
Dictator (352 words)
A consul or (in emergency situations) praetor could appoint a dictator; this proposal could not be vetoed.
It was impossible to appeal against the measures of the dictator.
Every year, the Romans appointed a dictator whose only task it was to fix a nail to the wall of the temple of Jupiter (the meaning of this ritual is unclear).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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