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Encyclopedia > Diclofenac

my sister died form overdose!!!

Diclofenac
Systematic (IUPAC) name
2-[2-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)
aminophenyl]ethanoic acid
Identifiers
CAS number 15307-86-5
ATC code M01AB05 M02AA15, S01BC03
PubChem 3033
DrugBank APRD00527
Chemical data
Formula C14H11Cl2NO2 
Mol. mass 296.148 g/mol
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 100%
Protein binding more than 99%
Metabolism hepatic, no active metabolites exist
Half life 1.2-2 hr (35% of the drug enters enterohepatic recirculation)
Excretion biliary, only 1% in urine
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

A(AU) B (1st. and 2nd. trimenon), X (third trimenon) Diclofenac chemical structure, drawn by User:Jfdwolff on OpenOffice. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... The DrugBank database available at the University of Alberta is a unique bioinformatics and cheminformatics resource that combines detailed drug (i. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... The molecular mass (abbreviated Mr) of a substance, formerly also called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. ... A drugs efficacy may be affected by the degree to which it binds to the proteins within blood plasma. ... Drug metabolism is the metabolism of drugs, their biochemical modification or degradation, usually through specialized enzymatic systems. ... It has been suggested that Effective half-life be merged into this article or section. ... Excretion is the process of eliminating waste products of metabolism and other materials that are of no use. ... The pregnancy category of a pharmaceutical agent is an assessment of the risk of fetal injury due to the pharmaceutical, if it is used as directed by the mother during pregnancy. ... For other uses, see Australia (disambiguation). ...

Legal status

POM(UK) Rx-only most preparations/countries. Limited OTC some countries The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction. ... A prescription drug is a licensed medicine that is regulated by legislation to require a prescription before it can be obtained. ...

Routes oral, rectal, im, iv (renal- and gallstones), topical

Diclofenac (marketed as Voltaren, Voltarol, Diclon, Dicloflex Difen, Difene, Cataflam, Pennsaid, Rhumalgan, Modifenac, Abitren and Zolterol) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) taken to reduce inflammation and an analgesic reducing pain in conditions such as in arthritis or acute injury. It can also be used to reduce menstrual pain, dysmenorrhea. In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body 1. ... Intramuscular injection is an injection of a substance directly into a muscle. ... An intravenous drip in a hospital Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, usually abbreviated to NSAIDs, are drugs with analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects - they reduce pain, fever and inflammation. ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ... An analgesic (colloquially known as a painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain (achieve analgesia). ... Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides) is a group of conditions where there is damage caused to the joints of the body. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The menstrual cycle is the periodic change in a womans body that occurs every month between puberty and menopause and that relates to reproduction. ... Look up Pain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Dysmenorrhea (or dysmenorrhoea), cramps or painful menstruation, involves menstrual periods that are accompanied by either sharp, intermittent pain or dull, aching pain, usually in the pelvis or lower abdomen. ...


In the United Kingdom, in India and the United States it may be supplied as either the sodium or potassium salt, while in some other countries only as the potassium salt. Diclofenac is available as a generic drug in a number of formulations. Over the counter (OTC) use is approved in some countries for minor aches and pains and fever associated with common infections. For sodium in the diet, see Edible salt. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... For other meanings of the word salt see table salt or salt (disambiguation). ... Over-the-counter substances, also abbreviated OTC, are drugs and other medical remedies that may be sold without a prescription and without a visit to a medical professional, in contrast to prescription only medicines (POM). ...


Diclofenac is well-tolerated after 30 years experience by the general human population, but may unexpectedly become intolerated in some of the elderly population of long term users.[citation needed]

Contents

Mechanism of action

The action of one single dose is much longer (6 to 8 hours) than the very short half-life that the drug indicates. This could partly be due to a particular high concentration achieved in synovial fluids. Synovial fluid is a thin, stringy fluid found in the cavities of synovial joints. ...


The exact mechanism of action is not entirely known, but it is thought that the primary mechanism responsible for its anti-inflammatory/antipyretic/analgesic action is inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis by inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX). Chemical structure of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1). ... Cyclooxygenase (COX) is an enzyme (EC 1. ...


Inhibition of COX also decreases prostaglandins in the epithelium of the stomach, making it more sensitive to corrosion by gastric acid. This is also the main side effect of diclofenac. Diclofenac has a low to moderate preference to block the COX2-isoenzyme (approximately 10-fold) and is said to have therefore a somewhat lower incidence of gastrointestinal complaints than noted with indomethacin and aspirin. This article is about the epithelium as it relates to animal anatomy. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... Gastric acid is, together with several enzymes and the intrinsic factor, one of the main secretions of the stomach. ... Indomethacin (USAN) or indometacin (INN) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug commonly used to reduce fever, pain, stiffness, and swelling. ... Aspirin, or acetylsalicylic acid (IPA: ), (acetosal) is a drug in the family of salicylates, often used as an analgesic (to relieve minor aches and pains), antipyretic (to reduce fever), and as an anti-inflammatory. ...


Diclofenac may also be a unique member of the NSAIDs. There is some evidence that diclofenac inhibits the lipooxygenase pathways, thus reducing formation of the leukotrienes (also pro-inflammatory autacoids). There is also speculation that diclofenac may inhibit phospholipase A2 as part of its mechanism of action. These additional actions may explain the high potency of diclofenac - it is the most potent NSAID on a broad basis. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, usually abbreviated to NSAIDs, are drugs with analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects - they reduce pain, fever and inflammation. ... Leukotrienes are autocrine and paracrine eicosanoid lipid mediators derived from arachidonic acid by 5-lipoxygenase. ... A phospholipase is an enzyme that converts phospholipids into fatty acids and other lipophilic substances. ...


There are marked differences among NSAIDs in their selective inhibition of the two subtypes of cyclo-oxygenase, COX-1 and COX-2. Much pharmaceutical drug design has attempted to focus on selective COX-2 inhibition as a way to minimize the gastrointestinal side effects of NSAIDs like aspirin. In practice, use of some COX-2 inhibitors due to their adverse effects has led to massive numbers of patient family lawsuits alleging wrongful death by heart attack, yet other significantly COX-selective NSAIDs like diclofenac have been well-tolerated by most of the population. COX-2 selective inhibitor is a form of Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that directly targets COX-2, an enzyme responsible for inflammation and pain. ... An adverse drug reaction (abbreviated ADR) is a term to describe the unwanted, negative consequences sometimes associated with the use of medications. ... A myocardial infarction occurs when an atherosclerotic plaque slowly builds up in the inner lining of a coronary artery and then suddenly ruptures, totally occluding the artery and preventing blood flow downstream. ...


Indications

Combined Diclofenac sodium and misoprostol tablets.

Diclofenac is used for musculoskeletal complaints, especially arthritis (rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, spondylarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis), gout attacks, and pain management in case of kidney stones and gallstones. An additional indication is the treatment of acute migraines. Diclofenac is used commonly to treat mild to moderate post-operative or post-traumatic pain, particular when inflammation is also present, and is effective against menstrual pain. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides) is a group of conditions where there is damage caused to the joints of the body. ... Pain management (also called pain medicine) is the discipline concerned with the relief of pain. ... “Bladder stone” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Diclofenac suppositories

As long-term use of diclofenac and similar NSAIDs predisposes for peptic ulcer, many patients at risk for this complication are prescribed a combination (Arthrotec®) of diclofenac and misoprostol, a synthetic prostaglandin analogue, to protect the gastric mucosa. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... A benign gastric ulcer (from the antrum) of a gastrectomy specimen. ... Misoprostol is a drug that is United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved for the treatment and prevention of stomach ulcers. ...


An external, gel-based form of diclofenac (Solareze®) is available for the treatment of facial actinic keratosis which is caused by over-exposure to sunlight. Some countries have also approved the external use of diclofenac gel to treat muskoskeletal conditions. Actinic keratosis (also called solar keratosis, senile keratosis, or AK) is a premalignant condition of thick, scaly, or crusty patches of skin. ...


Over-the-counter use against minor aches and pains and fever associated with common infections is also licensed in some countries.


In many countries eye-drops are sold to treat acute and chronic non-bacterial inflammations of the anterior part of the eyes (e.g. postoperative states). A common brand name is Voltaren-ophta.


Off label/investigational uses

Diclofenac is often used to treat chronic pain associated with cancer, particularly if inflammation is also present (Step I of the World Health Organisation (WHO) Scheme for treatment of chronic pain). Good results (sometimes better than those with opioids) have been seen in female breast cancer and in the pain associated with bony metastases. Diclofenac can be combined with opioids if needed. In Europe Combaren® exists, a fixed combination of diclofenac and codeine (50 mg each) for cancer treatment. Combinations with psychoactive drugs such as chlorprothixene and/or amitriptyline have also been investigated and found useful in a number of cancer patients. Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... For other meanings of the acronym WHO, see WHO (disambiguation) WHO flag Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the World Health Organization (WHO) is an agency of the United Nations, acting as a coordinating authority on international public health. ... Chlorprothixene is a typical antipsychotic drug of the thioxanthine class. ... Amitriptyline (or Amitryptyline) hydrochloride (sold as Elavil, Tryptanol, Endep, Elatrol, Tryptizol, Trepiline, Laroxyl) is a tricyclic antidepressant drug. ...


Fever due to malignant lymphogranulomatosis (Hodgkin's lymphoma) often responds to diclofenac. Treatment can be terminated as soon as the usual treatment with radiation and/or chemotherapy causes remission of fever. Hodgkins lymphoma, also known as Hodgkins disease, is a type of lymphoma first described by Thomas Hodgkin in 1832. ...


Diclofenac may prevent the development of Alzheimer's disease if given daily in small doses during many years. All investigations were stopped after it was found that some of the other investigated NSAIDs (naproxen, rofecoxib) caused a higher incidence of death cases due to cardiovascular events and stroke compared to placebo.


Diclofenac has been found to increase the blood pressure in patients with Shy-Drager syndrome (autonomous hypotension) often seen in diabetic patients. Currently, this use is highly investigational and cannot be recommended as routine treatment. Shy-Drager syndrome is a rare, progressively degenerative disease of the autonomic nervous system. ... In physiology and medicine, hypotension refers to an abnormally low blood pressure. ...


Diclofenac has been found to be effective against all strains of multi drug resistant e coli, with a MIC of 25 microg/mL. Therefore, it may be suggested that diclofenac has the capacity to treat UTI (uncomplicated urinary tract infections) caused by E. coli.[1]


Contraindications

  • Hypersensitivity against diclofenac
  • History of allergic reactions (bronchospasm, shock, rhinitis, urticaria) following the use of Aspirin or another NSAID
  • Third-trimester pregnancy
  • Active stomach and/or duodenal ulceration or gastrointestinal bleeding
  • Inflammative intestinal disorders such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis
  • Severe insufficiency of the heart (NYHA III/IV)
  • Recently, a warning has been issued by FDA not to treat patients recovering from heart surgery
  • Severe liver insufficiency (Child-Pugh Class C)
  • Severe renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance <30 ml/min)
  • Caution in patients with preexisting hepatic porphyria, as diclofenac may trigger attacks
  • Caution in patients with severe, active bleeding such as cerebral hemorrhage

Side effects

  • Diclofenac is among the better tolerated NSAIDs. Though 20% of patients on long-term treatment experience side effects, only 2% have to discontinue the drug, mostly due to gastrointestinal complaints.

Cardiac

  • Following the identification of increased risks of heart attacks with the selective COX-2 inhibitor rofecoxib in 2004, attention has focused on all the other members of the NSAIDs group, including Diclofenac. Research results are mixed with a meta-analysis of papers and reports up to April 2006 suggesting a relative increased rate of heart disease of 1.63 compared to non users.[2] Professor Peter Weissberg, Medical Director of the British Heart Foundation said, "However, the increased risk is small and many patients with chronic debilitating pain may well feel that this small risk is worth taking to relieve their symptoms". Only Aspirin was found not to increase the risk of heart disease, however this is known to have a higher rate of gastric ulceration than Diclofenac.
    A subsequent large study of 74,838 users of NSAIDs or coxibs, published in May 2006 found no additional cardiovascular risk from Diclofenac use.[3]
  • Diclonefac has similar COX-2 selectivity to celecoxib [4]. Perhaps related to this selectivity, a review of this constantly changing topic by FDA Medical Officer David Graham concluded in September, 2006 that Diclofenac does increase the risk of myocardial infarction [5].

COX-2 selective inhibitor is a form of Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that directly targets COX-2, an enzyme responsible for inflammation and pain. ... Rofecoxib (IPA: ) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) developed by Merck & Co. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Aspirin, or acetylsalicylic acid (IPA: ), (acetosal) is a drug in the family of salicylates, often used as an analgesic (to relieve minor aches and pains), antipyretic (to reduce fever), and as an anti-inflammatory. ... Acute myocardial infarction (AMI or MI), more commonly known as a heart attack, is a disease state that occurs when the blood supply to a part of the heart is interrupted. ...

Gastrointestinal

  • Gastrointestinal complaints are most often noted (see above). The development of ulceration and/or bleeding requires immediate termination of treatment with diclofenac. Most patients receive an ulcer-protective drug as prophylaxis during long-term treatment (misoprostol, ranitidine 150mg at bedtime or omeprazole 20 mg at bedtime).

Hepatic

  • Liver damage occurs infrequently, but is usually reversible. Hepatitis may occur rarely without any warning symptoms and may be fatal. Patients with osteoarthritis develop more often symptomatic liver disease than patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Liver function should be monitored regularly during long-term treatment. If used for the shortterm treatment of pain or fever, diclofenac has not been found to be more hepatotoxic than other NSAIDs.

Renal

  • Studies in Pakistan showed that the drug, diclofenac, an anti-inflammatory commonly prescribed for arthritis and pain in people, caused acute kidney failure in vultures when they ate the carcasses of animals that had recently been treated with it. The findings, which followed a two-year investigation by an international team of 13 scientists, were published online by the journal Nature (see Ecological problems). Species and individual humans that are drug sensitive are initially assumed to lack genes expressing specific drug detoxification enzymes. Because elderly humans have reduced expression levels of all enzymes, elderly human metabolisms may gradually approach those of vultures, thus unexpectedly becoming more diclofenac intolerant.
  • NSAIDs "are associated with adverse renal [kidney] effects caused by the reduction in synthesis of renal prostaglandins"[6] in sensitive persons or animal species, and potentially during long term use in non-sensitive persons if resistance to side effects decreases with age. Unfortunately this side effect can't be avoided merely by using a COX-2 selective inhibitor because, "Both isoforms of COX, COX-1 and COX-2, are expressed in the kidney... Consequently, the same precautions regarding renal risk that are followed for nonselective NSAIDs should be used when selective COX-2 inhibitors are administered."[6]

my sister died form overdose!!! Diclofenac (marketed as Voltaren, Voltarol, Diclon, Dicloflex Difen, Difene, Cataflam, Pennsaid, Rhumalgan, Modifenac, Abitren and Zolterol) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) taken to reduce inflammation and an analgesic reducing pain in conditions such as in arthritis or acute injury. ...

Other

  • Bone marrow depression is noted infrequently (leukopenia, agranulocytosis, thrombopenia with/without purpura, aplastic anemia). These conditions may be life-threatening and/or irreversible, if detected too late. All patients should be monitored closely. Diclofenac is a weak and reversible inhibitor of thrombocytic aggregation needed for normal coagulation.

Leukopenia or leukocytopenia refers to a decrease in the number of circulating white blood cells (leukocytes) in the blood. ... Thrombocytopenia (or -paenia, or thrombopenia in short) is the presence of relatively few platelets in blood. ... Aplastic anemia is a condition where bone marrow does not produce sufficient new cells to replenish blood cells. ...

Formulations

Enteric Coated Diclofenac Sodium tablets by Dexel-Pharma Ltd.

Voltaren and Voltarol contain the sodium salt of diclofenac. In the United Kingdom Voltarol can be supplied with either the sodium salt or potassium salt, while Cataflam in some other countries is the potassium salt only. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... An enteric coating is a barrier applied to oral medication that controls the location in the digestive system where it is absorbed. ...


Diclofenac is available in stomach acid resistant formulations (25 and 50 mg), fast disintegrating oral formulations (50 mg), slow- and controlled-release forms (75, 100 or 150 mg), suppositories (50 and 100 mg), and injectable forms (50 and 75 mg). The milligram (symbol mg) is an SI unit of mass. ...


Diclofenac is also available over the counter (OTC) in some countries: Voltaren dolo (12.5 mg diclofenac as potassium salt) in Switzerland and Germany, and preparations with 25 mg diclofenac are OTC in New Zealand. Over-the-counter substances, also abbreviated OTC, are drugs and other medical remedies that may be sold without a prescription and without a visit to a medical professional, in contrast to prescription only medicines (POM). ...


Ecological problems

Use of diclofenac in animals has been reported to have led to a sharp decline in the vulture population in the Indian subcontinent, up to 95% in some areas.[7] The mechanism is probably renal failure, a known side-effect of diclofenac. Vultures eat the carcasses of domesticated animals that have been administered veterinary diclofenac, and are poisoned by the accumulated chemical. At a meeting of the National Wildlife Board in March 2005, the Government of India announced that it intended to phase out the veterinary use of diclofenac.[8] Meloxicam is a safer (though more expensive) candidate to replace use of diclofenac.[9] Orders Falconiformes (Fam. ... Renal failure is the condition in which the kidneys fail to function properly. ...


"The loss of tens of millions of vultures over the last decade has had major ecological consequences across the Indian subcontinent that pose a potential threat to human health. In many places, populations of feral dogs (Canis familiaris) have benefited from the disappearance of Gyps vultures as the main scavenger of wild and domestic ungulate carcasses. Associated with the rise in dog numbers is an increased risk of human cases of rabies."[9] Binomial name Gyps fulvus Hablizl, 1783 The Griffon Vulture, Gyps fulvus is an Old World vulture in the family Accipitridae, which also includes eagles, kites, buzzards and hawks. ...


The Government of India cites one of those major consequences as a vulture species extinction.[8] Westerners may not initially appreciate how a major shift in transfer of corpse pathogens from vultures to feral dogs and rats can lead to a disease pandemic causing millions of deaths in a crowded country like India.


The loss of vultures has had a social impact on the Indian Zoroastrian Parsi community, who traditionally use vultures to dispose of human corpses in "sky burials", and are now having to seek alternative disposal methods.[9]


In Punjab it appears that vulture numbers are slowly rising after use of the drug was discontinued. , This article is about the Indian state of Punjab. ...


Humanist groups such as HEPA have declined the use of Diclofenac.


References

  1. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=17091768&dopt=Abstract
  2. ^ Kearney P, Baigent C, Godwin J, Halls H, Emberson J, Patrono C (2006). "Do selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors and traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increase the risk of atherothrombosis? Meta-analysis of randomised trials.". BMJ 332 (7553): 1302-8. PMID 16740558. 
  3. ^ Solomon D, Avorn J, Stürmer T, Glynn R, Mogun H, Schneeweiss S (2006). "Cardiovascular outcomes in new users of coxibs and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs: high-risk subgroups and time course of risk.". Arthritis Rheum 54 (5): 1378-89. PMID 16645966. 
  4. ^ FitzGerald G, Patrono C (2001). "The coxibs, selective inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2". N Engl J Med 345 (6): 433-42. PMID 11496855. 
  5. ^ Graham D (2006). "COX-2 inhibitors, other NSAIDs, and cardiovascular risk: the seduction of common sense". JAMA 296 (13): 1653-6. DOI:10.1001/jama.296.13.jed60058. PMID 16968830. 
  6. ^ a b Brater DC (2002). "Renal effects of cyclooxygyenase-2-selective inhibitors". J Pain Symptom Manage 23 (4 Suppl): S15-20; discussion S21-3. PMID 11992745. 
  7. ^ Oaks JL, Gilbert M, Virani MZ, Watson RT, Meteyer CU, Rideout BA, Shivaprasad HL, Ahmed S, Chaudhry MJ, Arshad M, Mahmood S, Ali A, Khan AA (2004). "Diclofenac residues as the cause of vulture population decline in Pakistan". Nature 427 (6975): 630-3. PMID 14745453. 
  8. ^ a b Press Information Bureau, Government of India (2005-05-16). Saving the Vultures from Extiction. Press release. Retrieved on 2006-05-12.
  9. ^ a b c

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A press release (sometimes known as a news release or press statement) is a written or recorded communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing something claimed as having news value. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
diclofenac: Information from Answers.com (2400 words)
Diclofenac has a low to moderate preference to block the COX2-isoenzyme (approximately 10-fold) and is said to have therefore a somewhat lower incidence of gastrointestinal complaints than noted with indomethacin and aspirin.
Diclofenac is used for musculoskeletal complaints, especially arthritis (rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, spondylarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis), gout attacks, and pain management in case of kidney stones and gallstones.
Diclofenac is available in stomach acid resistant formulations (25 and 50 mg), fast disintegrating oral formulations (50 mg), slow- and controlled-release forms (75, 100 or 150 mg), suppositories (50 and 100 mg), and injectable forms (50 and 75 mg).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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