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Encyclopedia > Dichlorodifluoromethane
Dichlorodifluoromethane
IUPAC name Dichlorodifluoromethane
Other names Carbon dichloride difluoride, Dichloro-difluoro-methane, Difluorodichloromethane, Freon 12, R-12, CFC-12, P-12, Propellant 12, Halon 122, Arcton 6, Arcton 12, UN 1028
Identifiers
CAS number 75-71-8
PubChem 6391
EINECS number 200-893-9
KEGG D03789
RTECS number PA8200000
SMILES C(F)(F)(Cl)Cl
InChI InChI=1/CCl2F2/c2-1(3,4)5
Properties
Molecular formula CCl2F2
Molar mass 120.91 g/mol
Appearance Colorless gas with odor-like odor
Density 1.486 g/cm³ at -29.8 °C
Melting point

-157.7 °C (115.5 K) Image File history File links Dichlorodifluoromethane. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 640 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1100 × 1031 pixel, file size: 302 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... The EINECS number (for European Inventory of Existing Chemical Substances) is a registry number given to each chemical substance commercially available in the European Union between 1 January 1971 and 18 September 1981. ... KEGG PATHWAY Database is one of the important databases in bioinformatics. ... RTECS, also known as Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, is a database of toxicity information compiled from the open scientific literature that is available for charge. ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... The IUPAC International Chemical Identifier (InChI), developed by IUPAC and NIST, is a digital equivalent of the IUPAC name for any particular covalent compound. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... In physics, density is mass m per unit volume V. For the common case of a homogeneous substance, it is expressed as: where, in SI units: ρ (rho) is the density of the substance, measured in kg·m-3 m is the mass of the substance, measured in kg V is... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ...

Boiling point

-29.8 °C (243.3 K) Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ...

Solubility in water 0.286 g/l at 20 °C
log P 2.16
Vapor pressure 577.6 kPa
kH 0.0025 mol.kg-1.bar-1
Hazards
Main hazards Dangerous for the environment (N)
NFPA 704

Solubility refers to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A partition coefficient is a measure of differential solubility of a compound in two solvents. ... In chemistry and physics, Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... In chemistry, Henrys law is one of the gas laws, formulated by William Henry. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... NFPA 704 is a standard maintained by the U.S. National Fire Protection Association. ... Image File history File links NFPA_704. ...

0
1
0
 
R-phrases R59
S-phrases S59, S61
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Dichlorodifluoromethane (R-12), usually sold under the brand name Freon-12, is a chlorofluorocarbon halomethane, commonly known as CFC, used as a refrigerant and aerosol spray propellant until its manufacture was discontinued in 1995, due to concerns about damage to the ozone layer. It is soluble in many organic solvents. R-phrases are defined in Annex III of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Nature of special risks attributed to dangerous substances and preparations. ... S-phrases are defined in Annex IV of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Safety advice concerning dangerous substances and preparations. ... In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals) and 25 degrees Celsius (298. ... This article is about brands in marketing. ... For other uses, see CFC (disambiguation). ... Halomethane compounds are molecules of methane (CH4) with one or more of the hydrogen atoms replaced with halogen atoms. ... A refrigerant is a compound used in a heat cycle that undergoes a phase change from a gas to a liquid and back. ... Aerosol spray can Aerosol spray is a type of canister that sprays an aerosol when its button is pressed or held down. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... The ozone layer is the part of the Earths atmosphere which contains relatively high concentrations of ozone (O3). ...

Contents

Physical properties

Property Value
Density (ρ) at -29.8 °C (gas) 6.25 kg.m-3
Density (ρ) at 15 °C (gas) 5.11 kg.m-3
Triple point temperature (Tt) -157 °C (116 K)
Triple point pressure (pt) 10 MPa (0.00010 bar)
Critical temperature (Tc) -112 °C (141 K)
Critical pressure (pc) 4.170 MPa (41.15 bar)
Critical density (ρc) 4.789 mol.l-1
Latent heat of vaporization (lv) 166.95 kJ.kg-1
Specific heat capacity at constant pressure (Cp) at 30 °C 74 J.mol-1.K-1
Specific heat capacity at constant volume (Cv) at 30 °C 65 J.mol-1.K-1
Heat capacity ratio (κ) at 30 °C 1.138889
Vapor pressure (η) at -20 °C 151 kPa
Vapor pressure (η) at 0 °C 300 kPa
Vapor pressure (η) at 16 °C 500 kPa
Vapor pressure (η) at 20 °C 567 kPa
Vapor pressure (η) at 40 °C 960 kPa
Vapor pressure (η) at 50 °C 1200 kPa
Compressibility Factor (Z) at 21 °C 0.995
Viscosity (ρ) at 0 °C 11.68 μPa.s (0.01168 cP)
Thermal conductivity (k) at 0 °C 9.46 mW.m-1.K-1
Ozone depletion potential (ODP) 0.82 (CCl3F = 1)
Global warming potential (GWP) 8100 (CO2 = 1)

In physics, density is mass m per unit volume V. For the common case of a homogeneous substance, it is expressed as: where, in SI units: ρ (rho) is the density of the substance, measured in kg·m-3 m is the mass of the substance, measured in kg V is... In physics, density is mass m per unit volume V. For the common case of a homogeneous substance, it is expressed as: where, in SI units: ρ (rho) is the density of the substance, measured in kg·m-3 m is the mass of the substance, measured in kg V is... In physics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance may coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium. ... The critical temperature, Tc, of a material is the temperature above which distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist. ... The standard enthalpy change of vaporization is a physical property of substances. ... Specific heat capacity, also known simply as specific heat (Symbol: C or c) is the measure of the heat energy required to raise the temperature of a given amount of a substance by one degree. ... Specific heat capacity, also known simply as specific heat (Symbol: C or c) is the measure of the heat energy required to raise the temperature of a given amount of a substance by one degree. ... The heat capacity ratio is simply the ratio of the heat capacity at constant pressure to that at constant volume It should be noted that chemical engineers and many others commonly refer to the heat capacity ratio as rather than . ... In chemistry and physics, Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... In chemistry and physics, Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... In chemistry and physics, Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... In chemistry and physics, Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... In chemistry and physics, Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... In chemistry and physics, Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Fluid Dynamics Compressibility (physics) is a measure of the relative volume change of fluid or solid as a response to a pressure (or mean stress) change: . For a gas the magnitude of the compressibility depends strongly on whether the process is adiabatic or isothermal, while this difference is small in... Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid to deform under shear stress. ... In physics, thermal conductivity, k, is the intensive property of a material that indicates its ability to conduct heat. ... The ODP, or Ozone Depletion Potential, of a compound is the relative amount of degradation to the ozone layer it can cause, with R-11 being fixed at an ODP of 1. ... R-11 redirects here, for the ballistic missile, see Scud. ... Global warming potential (GWP) is a measure of how much a given mass of greenhouse gas is estimated to contribute to global warming. ... In order to meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article requires cleanup. ...

Usage as an aerosol

The use of chlorofluorocarbons as an aerosol in medicine, for example: USP-approved Albuterol, has been phased out by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The use of a different propellant known as hydrofluoroalkane, or HFA, which does not harm the environment has been chosen as the replacement. [1] The United States Pharmacopeia is a compendium of quality control tests for drugs and excipients to be introduced into a medicinal formulation. ... Salbutamol (INN) or albuterol (USAN) is a short-acting β2-adrenergic receptor agonist used for the relief of bronchospasm in conditions such as asthma and COPD. It is marketed by the Allen & Hanburys respiratory division of GlaxoSmithKline under the trade name Ventolin. ... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ... Karthiks hydroflurocarbon The hydrofluroalkanes are substituent for the CFCs that are causing ozone depletion. ... HFA may stand for: High-functioning autism Hydrofluoroalkane Hyogo Framework of Actions Hemophilia Federation of America Category: ...


Retrofitting

R-12 was primarily used in automobiles produced prior to 1994. For older vehicles retrofits to R-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) are generally recommended. Retrofits usually include a complete flushing of the air conditioning system to remove the oil. The oils used for R12 and R134a are not generally compatible, although some oils designed for conversion to R134 are advertised as compatible with residual R-12. Additionally a new compressor, expansion valve, and dryer may be needed. In some cases, all new rubber hoses are needed. These components are usually aftermarket products which are certified as R-134a compatible. Some car manufacturers offer OEM replacement options for older R-12 air conditioning systems. 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane, also called simply tetrafluoroethane or R-134a, is a refrigerant that has zero ozone depletion potential and thermodynamic properties similar to R-12. ...


Alternative refrigerants

Below is a list of known "drop in" alternatives to R-12.

  • Freeze12
  • R-416a
  • R-414B
  • R-409A
  • R-406A
  • HC-12a

It should be noted the EPA does not refer to these as "drop-in" alternatives to R-12. The EPA has a section called "Misleading Use of Drop-In to Describe Refrigerants" which can be read here. This is a refrigerant invented by George H Goble. ...

Time-series of atmospheric concentrations of CFC-12 (Walker et al., 2000).
Time-series of atmospheric concentrations of CFC-12 (Walker et al., 2000).

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 713 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1700 × 1429 pixel, file size: 82 KB, MIME type: image/png) Time series of atmospheric concentrations of CFC-12 from 1931 to 2003. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 713 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1700 × 1429 pixel, file size: 82 KB, MIME type: image/png) Time series of atmospheric concentrations of CFC-12 from 1931 to 2003. ...

See also

Tetrafluoroethane (a haloalkane) is a clear liquid which boils well below room temperature (as seen here) and can be extracted from common canned air canisters by simply inverting them during use. ... Halomethane compounds are molecules of methane (CH4) with one or more of the hydrogen atoms replaced with halogen atoms. ... For other uses, see CFC (disambiguation). ... Carbon tetrafluoride, CF4, is a carbon fluoride. ... R-11 redirects here, for the ballistic missile, see Scud. ... Chlorotrifluoromethane, R-13, CFC-13, or Freon 13, is a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC). ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , , , Flash point Non flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...

External links

  • International Chemical Safety Card 0048
  • Overview of Freon-12 and some of its environmental problems
  • MSDS at Oxford University
  • Thermochemistry data at chemnet.ru
  • IR absorption spectra

  Results from FactBites:
 
Dichlorodifluoromethane (3722 words)
Dichlorodifluoromethane is a colorless gas with a characteristic ether-like odor; it is pressurized and used in liquid form.
Before a worker is placed in a job with a potential for exposure to dichlorodifluoromethane, a licensed health care professional should evaluate and document the worker's baseline health status with thorough medical, environmental, and occupational histories, a physical examination, and physiologic and laboratory tests appropriate for the anticipated occupational risks.
Containers of dichlorodifluoromethane should be protected from physical damage and ignition sources, and should be stored separately from chemically active metals such as sodium, potassium, calcium, powdered aluminum, zinc, and magnesium should be avoided.
Pre-expanding process and apparatus for the same - Patent 4524154 (3753 words)
The pressure in the pressure vessel at that time was 26 kg./cm..sup.2 G. By opening the valve 5 in the release line 14, the aqueous dispersion was released from the pressure vessel into a low-pressure vessel sealed with water and having a space volume of 32 l through orifices of 3 mm.
Since dichlorodifluoromethane and the like volatalized from the pellets increased the pressure in the low-pressure vessel during pre-expanding, the valve 12 provided in the recovery line 11 was opened to keep the pressure in the low-pressure vessel to around atmospheric pressure (0.97 to 1.05 kg./cm..sup.2 absolute).
Then the dichlorodifluoromethane in the pressure vessel, the low-pressure vessel and the collector was liquefied and recovered.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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