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Encyclopedia > Dian Fossey

Dian Fossey (January 16, 1932, San Francisco, CaliforniaDecember 26, 1985, Virunga Mountains, Rwanda) was an American zoologist who completed an extended study of eight gorilla groups. She observed them daily for years in the mountain forests of Rwanda, initially encouraged to work there by famous paleontologist Louis Leakey. is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Christiaan Toussaint (born on May 20, 1987) and Jurgen Lomp (born on January 23, 1988) are two promosing Tech Trance producers under the name of Virunga. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Gorilla (disambiguation). ... Paleontology, palaeontology or palæontology (from Greek: paleo, ancient; ontos, being; and logos, knowledge) is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils. ... Louis Leakey examining skulls from Olduvai Gorge Map of Kenya. ...


Her work is somewhat similar to Jane Goodall's work with chimpanzees. Dame Jane Goodall, DBE, PhD, (born 3 April 1934 as Valerie Jane Morris Goodall) is an English UN Messenger of Peace, primatologist, ethologist, and anthropologist. ... Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzees, also called chimps, are the common name for two species in the genus Pan. ...

Contents

Education and early school/learning

Dian enrolled in a pre-veterinary course at the University of California, Davis, after attending Lowell High School in San Francisco, going against the advice of her stepfather who wanted her to pursue business instead. She supported herself by working as a clerk at the White House Department Store, doing other clerking and laboratory work, and working as a machinist in a factory. Dian later transferred to San José State College (now San José State University) to study occupational therapy after having difficulty with chemistry and physics. She received her bachelor's degree in 1954. At that time, Dian also established herself as an equestrian. Veterinary medicine is the application of medical diagnostic and therapeutic principles to companion, domestic, exotic, wildlife, and production animals. ... The University of California, Davis, commonly known as UC Davis, is one of the ten campuses of the University of California, and was established as the University Farm in 1905. ... A machinist is a craftsman who uses machine tools to make parts or alter parts by cutting away excess material. ... San José State University, commonly shortened to San José State and SJSU, is the founding campus of what became the California State University system. ... Occupational therapy refers to the use of meaningful occupation to assist people who have difficulty in achieving healthy and balanced life; and to enable an inclusive society so that all people can participate to their potential in daily occupations of life. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... A bachelors degree is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three, four, or in some cases and countries, five or six years. ... For the Roman class, see Equestrian (Roman) A young rider at a horse show in Australia. ...


Initially following her college major, Fossey began a career in occupational therapy. She would become director of the occupational therapy department at Kosair Children's Hospital in Louisville, Kentucky [1]. It was in Louisville she attended a lecture by Louis Leakey. Louisville redirects here. ...


Interest in Africa

Fossey became interested in Africa after seeing photos and hearing about Africa itself from a friend (Mary White Henry) who had been there. After taking out a loan in 1963 she embarked on a trip to Africa. At Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, Fossey met Dr. Louis Leakey and his wife Mary Leakey while they were examining the area for hominid fossils. Louis talked to Dian about the work of Jane Goodall and the importance of long term research of the great apes, work pioneered by George Schaller. After leaving the Leakeys Dian saw her first wild mountain gorillas during a visit to Uganda. Olduvai Gorge, February 2006 Olduvai Gorge from space Topography of Olduvai Gorge The Olduvai Gorge or Oldupai Gorge is commonly referred to as The Cradle of Mankind. ... Louis Leakey examining skulls from Olduvai Gorge Map of Kenya. ... Replica of an Australopithecus boisei skull discovered by Mary Leakey in 1959 Mary Leakey (February 6, 1913 – December 9, 1996) was a British archaeologist and anthropologist, who discovered the first skull of a fossil ape on Rusinga Island and also a noted robust Australopithecine called Zinjanthropus at Olduvai. ... A hominid is any member of the biological family Hominidae (the great apes), including the extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... Dame Jane Goodall, DBE, PhD, (born 3 April 1934 as Valerie Jane Morris Goodall) is an English UN Messenger of Peace, primatologist, ethologist, and anthropologist. ... Dr. George Schaller at a lecture in Beijing Zoo on Aug. ...


By 1966 Fossey had gained the support of Dr. Leakey, and through him, funds to carry out long-term research on the mountain gorillas. She began her field study at Kabara, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (then Zaire), but by 1967, political upheaval forced her to move to Rwanda,[2] which raised $30,000 for her to use. The Democratic Republic of the Congo, called Zaïre between 1971 and 1997, is a nation in central Africa. ...


Start of her work

In 1967, she founded the Karisoke Research Centre, a remote rainforest camp nestled in the Virunga Mountains in Ruhengeri province, Rwanda. When her photograph, taken by Bob Campbell, appeared on the cover of National Geographic Magazine in January 1970, Fossey became an international celebrity, bringing massive publicity to her cause of saving the mountain gorilla from extinction, as well as convincing the general public that gorillas are not as bad as they are sometimes depicted in movies and books. Photographs showing the gorilla "Peanuts" touching Fossey's hand depicted the first recorded peaceful contact between a human being and a wild gorilla. Her extraordinary rapport with animals and her background as an occupational therapist brushed away the Hollywood "King Kong" myth of an aggressive, savage beast. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For the novel, see Rainforest (novel). ... Christiaan Toussaint (born on May 20, 1987) and Jurgen Lomp (born on January 23, 1988) are two promosing Tech Trance producers under the name of Virunga. ... Ruhengeri Ruhengeri is a market town in north western Rwanda, lying near Lake Bulera and the Volcans National Park. ... Robert Campbell, Bobby Campbell or Bob Campbell may refer to: In politics: Robert Campbell (politician) (1808-1870), a New York politician. ... The National Geographic Magazine, later shortened to National Geographic, is the official journal of the National Geographic Society. ...


Fossey strongly supported "active conservation"—for example anti-poaching patrols and preservation of natural habitat—as opposed to "theoretical conservation", which includes the promotion of tourism. She was also strongly opposed to zoos, as the capture of individual animals all too often involves the killing of their family members. Many animals do not survive the transport, and the breeding rate and survival rate in zoos are often lower than in the wild. For example, in 1978, Fossey attempted to prevent the export of two young gorillas, Coco and Pucker, from Rwanda to the Cologne, Germany, zoo. She learned that, during their capture, 20 adult gorillas had been killed.[2] The two captives were given to Fossey by their captors for treatment of injuries suffered during capture and captivity. With considerable effort, she restored them to some approximation of health. They were shipped to Cologne, where they lived nine years in captivity, both dying in the same month.[3] She viewed the holding of animals in "prison" (zoos) for the entertainment of people as unethical.[4] Fossey is responsible for the revision of a European Community project that converted parkland into pyrethrum farms. Thanks to her efforts, the park boundary was lowered from the 3000-meter line to the 2500-meter line. For other uses, see Poaching (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Zoo (disambiguation). ... The article about perfume can be found at Eau de Cologne. ... For other uses, see Zoo (disambiguation). ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... Pyrethrum refers to several Old World plants of the genus Chrysanthemum (e. ...


Fossey's book Gorillas in the Mist was praised by Nikolaas Tinbergen, the Dutch ethologist and ornithologist who won the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Her book remains the best-selling book about gorillas of all time. A film from 1988 based on the autobiographical book by Dian Fossey. ... Nikolaas Niko Tinbergen (April 15, 1907 – December 21, 1988) was a Dutch ethologist and ornithologist who shared the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Karl von Frisch and Konrad Lorenz for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns in animals. ... Emil Adolf von Behring was the first person to receive the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, for his work on the treatment of diphtheria. ...


Death

Fossey was brutally murdered in the bedroom of her cabin on December 26, 1985. Her skull had been split by a native panga (machete), a tool widely used by poachers, which she had confiscated years earlier and hung as a decoration on the wall of her living room adjacent to her bedroom. Fossey was found dead beside her bed and 2 meters away from the hole in the cabin that was cut on the day of her murder.[5] Despite the violent nature of the wound, there was relatively little blood in her bedroom, leading some to believe that she was killed before the head-wound was inflicted, as head wounds, even superficial ones, usually bleed profusely. is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... modern factory-made Machete For other uses, see Machete (disambiguation). ... modern factory-made Machete For other uses, see Machete (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Poaching (disambiguation). ...


Farley Mowat's biography of Fossey, Virunga: The Passion of Dian Fossey, posits that it is unlikely that she was killed by poachers. Mowat believes that she was killed by those who viewed her as an impediment to the touristic and financial exploitation of the gorillas. According to the book, which includes many of Fossey's own private letters, poachers would have been more likely to kill her in the forest, with little risk to themselves. For the Sea Shepherd ship, see RV Farley Mowat. ...


On the night of Fossey's murder, a metal sheathing from her bedroom was removed at the only place of the bedroom where it would not have been obstructed by her furniture, which supports the case that the murder was committed by someone who was familiar with the cabin and her day-to-day activities. The sheathing of her cabin, which was normally securely locked at night, might also have been removed after the murder to make it appear as if the killing was the work of poachers. But according to Mowat it is unlikely that a stranger could have entered her cabin by cutting a hole and then going to her living-room to get the panga, all while Fossey could have had enough time to escape. The cabin was in great disarray, with broken glass on the floor and tables and other furniture turned around. Fossey was found dead with her gun beside her, but the ammunition was of the wrong caliber and didn't fit the weapon. All of Fossey's valuables in the cabin, thousands of dollars in cash and travelers' checks, and photo equipment remained untouched—valuables a poor poacher would most likely have taken.


After Fossey's death, her entire staff, including Rwelekana, a tracker she had fired months before, was arrested. All but Rwelekana, who was later found dead in prison, supposedly having hanged himself, were released. Mowat believes that Fossey was murdered by an African man she may have admitted inside her cabin but who was working for the very people who wanted her removed so the gorillas could be exploited as a tourist and entertainment attraction.[5]


According to Linda Melvern in her book Conspiracy to Murder, Protais Zigiranyirazo, Rwanda's ex-president's brother-in-law, could also have been "implicated in the murder of Dian Fossey in 1985." Quoting Nick Gordon, author of a book about Fossey's death, "Another reason why she might have been murdered is that she knew too much about the illegal trafficking by Rwanda's ruling clique." Protais Zigiranyirazo, who was the prefect of the Ruhengeri province (where Karisoke was located), also had strong financial interests in gorilla tourism. Protais Zigiranyirazo (born 1938?) commonly known as Monsieur Zed, is a Rwandan businessman and politician. ...


Dian Fossey was portrayed by her detractors as eccentric and obsessed, and all kinds of stories were circulated about her. According to her letters, ORTPN, the World Wildlife Fund, African Wildlife Foundation, FPS, the Mountain Gorilla Project and some of her former students tried to wrest control of the Karisoke research center from her for the purpose of tourism, by portraying her as unstable. In her last two years Fossey claims not to have lost any gorillas to poachers; however the Mountain Gorilla Project, which was supposed to patrol the Mount Sabyinyo area, tried to cover up gorilla deaths caused by poaching and diseases transmitted through tourists. Nevertheless these organizations received most of the public donations.[citation needed] The public often believed their money would go to Fossey, who was struggling to finance her anti-poaching patrols, while organizations collecting in her name put it into costly tourism projects and as she put it "to pay the airfare of so called conservationists who will never go on anti-poaching patrols in their life". WWF, the global environment conservation organization, was constituted and registered in 1961 pursuant to Sections 80 et seq. ... FPS has several meanings: Frames per second in visual media. ... Mount Sabyinyo (also Sabinyo, Sabinio) is an extinct volcano in eastern Africa, in the Virunga Mountains. ...


Many of the organizations that opposed Fossey, including ORTPN (the Rwandan tourism office) and other wildlife organizations, used and continue to use her name for their own financial gain up to this day.[citation needed] Weeks before her death, ORTPN refused to renew her visa, and pressure on Fossey was mounting. However, Fossey managed to obtain a special two-year visa through Augustin Nduwayezu, a benevolent Secretary-General in charge of immigration.[5] Mowat believes that the extension of her visa amounted to a de facto death warrant.


Months before her death, Fossey signed a $1,000,000 contract with Warner Bros. for a movie that was to be based on her book, Gorillas in the Mist. The prospect that her work would be funded far into the future may have contributed to her demise. “WB” redirects here. ...


Fossey's will stated that all her money (including proceeds from the movie) should go to the Digit Fund to finance anti-poaching patrols. However, her mother, Kitty Price, challenged the will and won.[5] This article or section needs to be wikified. ...


The director of ORTPN, Habirameye, who refused to renew Fossey's last visa request, insisted at the filming of Gorillas in the Mist that there should be as little about the death scene as possible.


Dian Fossey is interred at a site in Rwanda that she herself had constructed for her dead gorilla friends. She believed that all beings had the same rights and that they needed to be treated with the same respect as humans. She was buried in the gorilla graveyard next to Digit, who was killed and beheaded in 1978, and near many gorillas killed by poachers.


Legacy

After her death, Fossey's Digit Fund in the U.S. was renamed the "Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International". The Digit Fund in the UK, which Fossey lost to the Fauna Protection League (FPS), was also renamed after her as "The Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund UK" (DFGF-UK). However she never received any funds collected in her name by the FPS; and although some conservationists associated with the FPS wanted her to be removed from Rwanda FPS and the DFGF-UK (which renamed itself "The Gorilla Organisation" in 2006), they continue to use her name up to this day for their financial purposes (including promotion of tourism, which Dian opposed, and the financing of local bureaucrats).[5]


One of Dian Fossey's friends, Shirley McGreal, continues to work for the protection of primates through the work of her International Primate Protection League (IPPL) one of the few wildlife organizations that according to Fossey effectively promote "active conservation". Logo of the IPPL The International Primate Protection League (IPPL), founded in 1973 in Thailand by Dr. Shirley McGreal, is represented in 31 countries, and works toward the well being of non-human primates (NHP). ...


For a year after Fossey's death, until the conviction of one of her students for her murder, poachers dared not enter the forest for fear of being captured and interrogated for her murder. Many believe that the student convicted of murdering Dian was just a scapegoat and that the evidence against him was contrived. Immediately after the conviction, in late 1986, poaching began to rise again. Elephants and leopards are now completely extinct in the Virungas.


After Fossey's death until the 1994 Rwanda genocide, Karisoke was directed by former students who had opposed her.[5] During the genocide the camp was completely looted and destroyed. Today only remnants remain of her cabin that was converted into a museum for tourists at the time. During the civil war the Virunga parks were filled with refugees and illegal logging destroyed vast areas. Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... The skulls of victims show gashes and signs of violence The Rwandan genocide was the organized murder of up to one million Rwandans in 1994. ...


Books and movies

Her book is a description of her scientific research and an insightful memoir of how Dian Fossey came to study gorillas in Rwanda. Portions of her life story were later adapted as the film Gorillas in the Mist: The Story of Dian Fossey, starring Sigourney Weaver as Fossey. The written work covers her scientific career in much greater detail, and omits material on her personal life, including her affair with photographer Bob Campbell (which formed a major subplot of the movie, in which Campbell was played by Bryan Brown). The movie also portrayed Fossey as a woman completely obsessed by "her" gorillas, who would stop at nothing to protect them. It includes a fictitious scene in which she orchestrated the mock hanging of a poacher and another where she burned poachers' huts. The movie invented characters, including the animal trader Van Vecten, and changed the names of Fossey's students. Sigourney Weaver (born Susan Alexandra Weaver on October 8, 1949 in New York City) is an Oscar-nominated American actress. ... Bryan Brown (born June 23, 1947 in Sydney) is an Australian actor. ...


Mowat's Virunga, whose British and U.S. editions are called Woman in the Mist, was the first book-length biography of Dian Fossey, and it serves as a useful counterweight to the dramatizations of the movie and the focus on gorillas in her own work.


A new book published in 2005 by National Geographic in the United States and Palazzo Editions in the United Kingdom as No One Loved Gorillas More, written by Camilla de la Bedoyere, features for the first time Fossey's story told through the letters she wrote to her family and friends. The book was published to commemorate the twentieth anniversary of her death, and includes many of Bob Campbell's previously unpublished photographs. The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ...


She is also prominently featured in a book by the Vanity Fair journalist Alex Shoumatoff called African Madness. Title-page to Vanity Fair, drawn by Thackeray, who furnished the illustrations for many of his earlier editions Vanity Fair: A Novel without a Hero is a novel by William Makepeace Thackeray that satirizes society in early 19th-century England. ... Alex Shoumatoff, (born November 4, 1946 in Mount Kisco, New York), is an American writer, known for his literary journalism, nature and environmental writing, and books and magazine pieces about world travels, political and environmental situations and affairs. ...


More recently, the Kentucky Opera Visions Program, in Louisville, has written an opera about Dian Fossey. The opera, entitled Nyiramachabelli, premiered on May 23, 2006. The Kentucky Opera is the state opera of Kentucky, located in Louisville. ... Louisville redirects here. ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


A book called the Dark Romance of Dian Fossey was published in 1989 and compares the story of Dian Fossey with versions as seen by others. However, much of the book is uncited and it repeats the salacious and racist stories created by her detractors.[citation needed] For instance, the book claims that Fossey became a racist because she was gang-raped by Rwandan soldiers,[citation needed] an event that Fossey and her friends repeatedly and vehemently denied.


In 2006, Gorilla Dreams: The Legacy of Dian Fossey was published, written by the investigative journalist Georgianne Nienaber. // Journalism is the discipline of gathering, writing and reporting news, and broadly it includes the process of editing and presenting the news articles. ...


Although Fossey’s death is officially unsolved, recently released documents obtained through the Freedom of Information Act, as well as testimony from the International War Crimes Tribunal proceedings, offer new suspects, motives, and opportunities. Every fact about Fossey’s life is meticulously annotated.[citation needed] However, the setting of her conversations with the murdered gorillas is obviously fictional, yet steeped in Rwandan tradition.[citation needed] Nearly sixty countries around the world have implemented some form of freedom of information legislation, which sets rules on governmental secrecy. ...


Quotes

  • "When you realize the value of all life, you dwell less on what is past and concentrate more on the preservation of the future.”"
    • The last words printed carefully in Dian's journal on the final page.
  • "No, I won't let them turn this mountain into a goddamn zoo."
    • Dian Fossey in the movie Gorillas in the Mist. In 1990, more than 10,000 tourists visited the Virungas while the gorilla population remained about 350. In 2005, eight gorillas died of measles which were transmitted by tourists.[citation needed]
  • "And of course, nobody thinks about the goose that laid the golden egg."

Bibliography

  • Dian Fossey: Gorillas in the Mist, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1983
  • ——: "An amiable giant: Fuertes's gorilla", Living Bird Quarterly 1(summer): 21-22, 1982
  • ——: "Mountain gorilla research, 1974", Nat. Geogr. Soc. Res. Reps. 14: 243-258, 1982
  • ——: "The imperiled mountain gorilla", National Geographic 159: 501-523, 1981
  • ——: "Mountain gorilla research, 1971-1972", Nat. Geogr. Soc. Res. Reps. 1971 Projects, 12: 237-255, 1980
  • ——: "Development of the mountain gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei) through the first thirty-six months", in The Great Apes 139-186 (D.A. Hamburg & E.R. McCown eds., Benjamin-Cummings), 1979
  • ——: "Mountain gorilla research, 1969-1970", Nat. Geogr. Soc. Res. Reps. 1969 Projects, 11: 173-176, 1978
  • ——: "His name was Digit", Int. Primate Protection League (IPPL) 5(2): 1-7, 1978
  • ——: The behaviour of the mountain gorilla, Ph.D. diss. Cambridge University, 1976
  • ——: "Observations on the home range of one group of mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei)", Anim. Behav. 22: 568-581, 1974
  • ——: "Vocalizations of the mountain gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei)", Anim. Behav. 20: 36-53, 1972
  • ——: "Living with mountain gorillas", in The Marvels of Animal Behavior 208-229 (T.B. Allen ed., National Geographic Society), 1972
  • ——: "More years with mountain gorillas", Nat. Geogr. 140: 574-585, 1971
  • ——: "Making friends with mountain gorillas", Nat. Geogr. 137: 48-67, 1970
  • D. Fossey & A.H. Harcourt: "Feeding ecology of free-ranging mountain gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei)", in Primate Ecology: Studies of Feeding and Ranging Behaviour in Lemurs, Monkeys and Apes 415-447 (T.H. Clutton-Brock ed., Academic Press), 1977

Notes

  1. ^ Current Biography, Jill Kadetsky, 1991, p. 121 [1]
  2. ^ About Dian Fossey - Info about the Life of Dian Fossey - DFGFI
  3. ^ Mowat, Farley. Woman in the Mists. 1987.
  4. ^ Fossey, Dian : Gorillas in the Mist. 1983
  5. ^ a b c d e f Mowat, Farley. Woman in the Mists: The Story of Dian Fossey and the Mountain Gorillas of Africa. Warner Books, 1987.

External links

Families Hylobatidae Hominidae Apes are the members of the Hominoidea superfamily of primates, including humans. ... Research into non-human great ape language has involved teaching gorillas, chimpanzees, and orangutans to communicate with human beings and with each other using sign language, physical tokens, and lexigrams; see Yerkish. ... The Great Ape Trust is a 200-acre ape sanctuary and language study in Des Moines, Iowa that houses orangutans and bonobos. ... Dr Biruté Marija Filomena Galdikas, OC Ph. ... Dame Jane Goodall, DBE, PhD, (born 3 April 1934 as Valerie Jane Morris Goodall) is an English UN Messenger of Peace, primatologist, ethologist, and anthropologist. ... The Chimpanzee Genome Project is an effort to determine the DNA sequence of the genome of the closest living human relatives. ... The Human Genome Project (HGP) is an international scientific research project. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 537 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1466 × 1636 pixel, file size: 307 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Original caption: Skelett des Menschen (1) und des Gorillas (2), unnatürlich gestreckt. ... Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... Advocates of Great Ape personhood consider common chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans (the hominid apes) to be persons. ... A Great Ape research ban, or severe restrictions on the use of non-human great apes in research, is currently in place in the Netherlands, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Germany and Japan, and has been proposed in Austria. ... The Great Ape Project, founded by Italian philosopher Paola Cavalieri and Australian philosopher Peter Singer, is campaigning to have the United Nations endorse a Declaration on Great Apes. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... The logo of The Great Ape Project, which aims to expand moral equality to great apes, and to foster greater understanding of them by humans. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Ape extinction, particularly great ape extinction, is one of the most widely held biodiversity concerns. ... This is a list of apes of encyclopedic interest. ... This is a list of fictional apes (Bonobos, Chimpanzees, Gorillas, Orangutans, and Gibbons) and other non-human higher primates. ... For the history of humans on Earth, see History of the world. ... Mythic humanoids are mythic creatures that are human-like, half-human, or fictional apes. ... A hominid is any member of the biological family Hominidae (the great apes), including the extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. ... This article is about the book. ...

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