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Encyclopedia > Dialect

A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος, dialektos) is a variety of a language characteristic of a particular group of the language's speakers.[1] The term is applied most often to regional speech patterns, but a dialect may also be defined by other factors, such as social class.[2] A dialect of a programming language is a (relatively small) variation or extension of the language that does not change its intrinsic nature. ... A variety of a language is a form that differs from other forms of the language systematically and coherently. ...


In popular usage, the word "dialect" is sometimes used to refer to a lesser-known language (most commonly a regional language), especially one that is unwritten or not standardized.[3] This use of the word dialect is often taken as pejorative by the speakers of the languages referred to in that way since it is often accompanied by the erroneous belief that the minority language is lacking in vocabulary, grammar, or importance. A regional language is a language spoken in a part of a country, be it may be a small area, a federal state or province, or a wider area. ...


The number of speakers, and the geographical area covered by them, can be of arbitrary size, and a dialect might contain several sub-dialects. A dialect is a complete system of verbal communication (oral or signed, but not necessarily written) with its own vocabulary and grammar. Two sign language Intepreters working as a team for a school. ... A vocabulary is a set of words known to a person or other entity, or that are part of a specific language. ... For the rules of English grammar, see English grammar and Disputes in English grammar. ...


A dialect that is associated with a particular social class can be termed a sociolect. Other speech varieties include: standard languages, which are standardized for public performance (for example, a written standard); jargons, which are characterized by differences in lexicon (vocabulary); slang; patois; pidgins or argots. The particular speech patterns used by an individual are termed an idiolect. Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... In linguistics, a sociolect is the language spoken by a social group, social class or subculture. ... A standard language (also standard dialect or standardized dialect) is a particular variety of a language that has been given either legal or quasi-legal status. ... For the glossary of hacker slang, see Jargon File. ... Look up lexicon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A vocabulary is a set of words known to a person or other entity, or that are part of a specific language. ... For other uses, see Slang (disambiguation). ... Patois, although without a formal definition in linguistics, can be used to describe a language considered as nonstandard. ... This article is about simplified languages. ... Argot (French for slang) is primarily slang used by various groups, including but not limited to thieves and other criminals, to prevent outsiders from understanding their conversations. ... An idiolect is a variety of a language unique to an individual. ...


A dialect is distinguished by its vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation (phonology, including prosody). Where a distinction can be made only in terms of pronunciation, the term accent is appropriate, not dialect (although in common usage, "dialect" and "accent" are usually synonymous). Phonology (Greek phonē = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ... In linguistics, prosody refers to intonation, rhythm, and vocal stress in speech. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

Contents

Standard and non-standard dialects

A standard dialect (also known as a standardized dialect or "standard language") is a dialect that is supported by institutions. Such institutional support may include government recognition or designation; presentation as being the "correct" form of a language in schools; published grammars, dictionaries, and textbooks that set forth a "correct" spoken and written form; and an extensive formal literature that employs that dialect (prose, poetry, non-fiction, etc.). There may be multiple standard dialects associated with a language. For example, Standard American English, Southern English, Standard British English, and Standard Indian English may all be said to be standard dialects of the English language. A standard language (also standard dialect or standardized dialect) is a particular variety of a language that has been given either legal or quasi-legal status. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... Southern English may refer to: The English language as spoken in the south of England; The English language as spoken in the southern United States of America; The people of southern England. ... British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ... Indian English comprises several dialects or varieties of English spoken primarily in India, and/or by first generation Indian diaspora elsewhere in the world. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


A nonstandard dialect, like a standard dialect, has a complete vocabulary, grammar, and syntax, but is not the beneficiary of institutional support. A nonstandard dialect of a language is a dialect of a language that does not have the institutional support or sanction that a standardized dialect has. ...


"Dialect" or "language"

There are no universally accepted criteria for distinguishing languages from dialects, although a number of paradigms exist, which render sometimes contradictory results. The exact distinction is therefore a subjective one, dependent on the user's frame of reference.


Language varieties are often called dialects rather than languages: A variety of a language is a form that differs from other forms of the language systematically and coherently. ...

  • solely because they are not (or not recognized as) literary languages,
  • because the speakers of the given language do not have a state of their own,
  • because they are not used in press or literature, or very little.
  • or because their language lacks prestige.

The term idiom is used by some linguists instead of language or dialect when there is no need to commit oneself to any decision on the status with respect to this distinction.[citation needed]Anthropological linguists define dialect as the specific form of a language used by a speech community. In other words, the difference between language and dialect is the difference between the abstract or general and the concrete and particular. From this perspective, no one speaks a "language," everyone speaks a dialect of a language. Those who identify a particular dialect as the "standard" or "proper" version of a language are in fact using these terms to express a social distinction. A literary language is a register of a language that is used in writing, and which often differs in lexicon and syntax from the language used in speech. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... A prestige dialect is the dialect spoken by the most prestigious people in a speech community large enough to sustain multiple dialects. ... Anthropological linguistics is the study of language through human genetics and human development. ... Speech community is a concept in sociolinguistics that describes a more or less discrete group of people who use language in a unique and mutually accepted way among themselves. ... A standard language (also standard dialect or standardized dialect) is a particular variety of a language that has been given either legal or quasi-legal status. ...


Often, the standard language is close to the sociolect of the elite class. For other uses, see Elite (disambiguation). ...


In groups where prestige standards play less important roles, "dialect" may simply be used to refer to subtle regional variations in linguistic practices that are considered mutually intelligible, playing an important role to place strangers, carrying the message of where a stranger originates (which quarter or district in a town, which village in a rural setting, or which province of a country); thus there are many apparent "dialects" of Slavey, for example, by which the linguist simply means that there are many subtle variations among speakers who largely understand each other and recognize that they are each speaking "the same way" in a general sense. The Slavey language is a spoken language used among the Slavey Native American people of Canada. ...


Modern-day linguists knows that the status of language is not solely determined by linguistic criteria, but it is also the result of a historical and political development. Romansh came to be a written language, and therefore it is recognized as a language, even though it is very close to the Lombardic alpine dialects. An opposite example is the case of Chinese, whose variations such as Mandarin and Cantonese are often considered dialects and not languages, despite their mutual unintelligibility, because they share a common literary standard and common body of literature. Romansh (also spelled Rumantsch, Romansch or Romanche) is one of the four national languages of Switzerland, along with German, Italian and French. ... This article is on all of the Northern and Southwestern Chinese dialects. ... This article is about all of the Cantonese (Yue) dialects. ...


"A language is a dialect with an army and navy"

The Yiddish linguist Max Weinreich published the expression, "A shprakh iz a dialekt mit an armey un flot" ("אַ שפראַך איז אַ דיאַלעקט מיט אַן אַרמײ און פֿלאָט", "A language is a dialect with an army and navy"; in Yivo-bleter 25.1, 1945, p. 13). The origin of this statement is, however, uncertain — Weinreich explicitly says that he did not coin it. It illustrates the fact that the political status of the speakers of a variety influences its perceived status as language or dialect. Most governments establish a standard variety of their language (or languages) to be taught in schools and used in official documents, courts and so on; often it is also promoted for use in the media. A language is a dialect with an army and navy is one of the most frequently used aphorisms in the discussion of the distinction between dialect and language. ... Yiddish (Yid. ... Max Weinreich (1893/94 Goldingen(Kuldiga), Courland (Latvia) - 1969 New York) was a Yiddish linguist. ...


Political factors

Depending on political realities and ideologies, the classification of speech varieties as dialects or languages and their relationship to other varieties of speech can be controversial and the verdicts inconsistent. English and Serbo-Croatian illustrate the point. English and Serbo-Croatian each have two major variants (British and American English, and Serbian and Croatian, respectively), along with numerous lesser varieties. For political reasons, analyzing these varieties as "languages" or "dialects" yields inconsistent results: British and American English, spoken by close political and military allies, are almost universally regarded as dialects of a single language, whereas the standard languages of Serbia and Croatia, which differ from each other to a similar extent as the dialects of English, are being treated by many linguists from the region as distinct languages, largely because the two countries oscillate from being brotherly to being bitter enemies. (The Serbo-Croatian language article deals with this topic much more fully.) The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Serbo-Croatian or Croato-Serbian (sometimes just Croatian or Serbian) (srpskohrvatski, cрпскохрватски, hrvatskosrpski, hrvatski ili srpski or srpski ili hrvatski), earlier also Serbo-Croat, is a South Slavic language. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Serbo-Croatian or Croato-Serbian (sometimes just Croatian or Serbian) (srpskohrvatski, cрпскохрватски, hrvatskosrpski, hrvatski ili srpski or srpski ili hrvatski), earlier also Serbo-Croat, is a South Slavic language. ...


Similar examples abound. Macedonian, although mutually intelligible with Bulgarian, certain dialects of Serbian and to a lesser extent the rest of the South Slavic dialect continuum is considered by Bulgarian linguists to be a Bulgarian dialect, in contrast with the international view, and the view in the Republic of Macedonia which sees it as a language in its own right. In Lebanon, the right-wing Guardians of the Cedars, a fiercely nationalistic (mainly Christian) political party which opposes the country's ties to the Arab world, is agitating for "Lebanese" to be recognized as a distinct language from Arabic and not merely a dialect, and has even advocated replacing the Arabic alphabet with a revival of the ancient Phoenician alphabet. This article or section should be merged with List of South Slavic languages South Slavic languages is one of the three groups of Slavic languages (besides West and East Slavic). ... A dialect continuum is a range of dialects spoken across a large geographical area, differing only slightly between areas that are geographically close, and gradually decreasing in mutual intelligibility as the distances become greater. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... The logo of the Guardians of the Cedars. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Arabic redirects here. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... The Phoenician alphabet is a continuation of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, by convention taken to begin with a cut-off date of 1050 BCE. It was used by the Phoenicians to write Phoenician, a Northern Semitic language. ...


Interestingly, such moves may even appear at a local, rather than a federal level. The US state of Illinois declared "American" to be the state's official language in 1923[1], although linguists and politicians throughout much of the rest of the country considered American simply to be a dialect. Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


There have been cases of a variety of speech being deliberately altered to serve political purposes. One example is Moldovan. No such language existed before 1945, and most non-Moldovan linguists remain sceptical about its classification. After the Soviet Union annexed the Romanian province of Bessarabia and renamed it Moldavia, Romanian, a Romance language, became known as Moldovan, the Cyrillic alphabet was restored and numerous Slavic words were imported into the language, in an attempt to weaken any sense of shared national identity with Romania. After Moldavia won its independence in 1991 (and changed its name to Moldova), it reverted to a modified Latin alphabet as a rejection of the perceived political connotations of the Cyrillic alphabet. In 1996, however, the Moldovan parliament, citing fears of "Romanian expansionism," rejected a proposal from President Mircea Snegur to change the name of the language back to Romanian, and in 2003 a Romanian-Moldovan dictionary was published, purporting to show that the two countries speak different languages. Linguists of the Romanian Academy reacted by declaring that all the Moldovan words were also Romanian words; while in Moldova, the head of the Academy of Sciences' Institute of Linguistics, Ion Bărbuţă, described the dictionary as a politically motivated "absurdity". 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia (Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian, Besarabya in Turkish) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... The Romance languages, also called Romanic languages, are a subfamily of the Italic languages, specifically the descendants of the Vulgar Latin dialects spoken by the common people evolving in different areas after the break-up of the Roman Empire. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is actually a family of alphabets, subsets of which are used by certain Slavic languages — Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—as well as many other languages of the former Soviet Union...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... The President of Moldova is elected every four years, and has been since 1992. ... Mircea Ion Snegur (b. ... For other uses, see Dictionary (disambiguation). ... The Romanian Academy (Romanian: Academia Română) is a cultural forum founded in Romania in 1866. ...


In contrast, spoken languages of Han Chinese are usually referred to as dialects of one Chinese language, to promote national unity. The article "Identification of the varieties of Chinese" has more details. Spoken Chinese The Chinese spoken language(s) comprise(s) many regional variants. ... Languages Chinese languages Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... Chinese forms part of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ...


In the Philippines, the Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino (Commission on the Filipino Language) declared all the indigenous languages in the Philippines dialects[citation needed] despite the great differences between them, as well as the existence of significant bodies of literature in each of the major "dialects" and daily newspapers in some. The Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino (Commission on the Filipino Language) is the official regulating body of the Filipino language. ...


The significance of the political factors in any attempt at answering the question "what is a language?" is great enough to cast doubt on whether any strictly linguistic definition, without a socio-cultural approach, is possible. This is illustrated by the frequency with which the army-navy aphorism discussed in the preceding section is cited.


Historical linguistics

Many historical linguists view any speech form as a dialect of the older medium of communication from which it developed.[citation needed] This point of view sees the modern Romance languages as dialects of Latin, modern Greek as a dialect of ancient Greek, Tok Pisin as a dialect of English, and Scandinavian languages as dialects of Old Norse. This paradigm is not entirely problem-free. It sees genetic relationships as paramount; the "dialects" of a "language" (which itself may be a "dialect" of a yet older tongue) may or may not be mutually intelligible. Moreover, a parent language may spawn several "dialects" which themselves subdivide any number of times, with some "branches" of the tree changing more rapidly than others. This can give rise to the situation where two dialects (defined according to this paradigm) with a somewhat distant genetic relationship are mutually more readily comprehensible than more closely related dialects. This pattern is clearly present among the modern Romance tongues, with Italian and Spanish having a high degree of mutual comprehensibility, which neither language shares with French, despite both languages being genetically closer to French than to each other:[citation needed] French has undergone more rapid change than have Spanish and Italian. Historical linguistics (also diachronic linguistics or comparative linguistics) is primarily the study of the ways in which languages change over time. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family, comprising all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The North Germanic languages (also Scandinavian languages or Nordic languages) is a branch of the Germanic languages spoken in Scandinavia, parts of Finland and on the Faroe Islands and Iceland. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ...


Interlinguistics

One language, Interlingua, was developed so that the languages of Western civilization would act as its dialects.[4] Drawing from such concepts as the international scientific vocabulary and Standard Average European, linguists developed a theory that the modern Western languages were actually dialects of a hidden or latent language. Researchers at the International Auxiliary Language Association extracted words and affixes that they considered to be part of Interlingua's vocabulary.[5] In theory, speakers of the Western languages would understand written or spoken Interlingua immediately, without prior study, since their own languages were its dialects.[6] This has often turned out to be true, especially, but not solely, for speakers of the Romance languages and educated speakers of English. Interlingua has also been found to assist in the learning of other languages. In one study, Swedish high school students learning Interlingua were able to translate passages from Spanish, Portuguese, and Italian that students of those languages found too difficult to understand.[7] It should be noted, however, that the vocabulary of Interlingua extends beyond the Western language families.[8] This article is about the auxiliary language created by the International Auxiliary Language Association. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Interlingua vocabulary. ... International Scientific Vocabulary (or ISV) is a form of vocabulary comprising scientific words whose language of origin may or may not be certain, but which are in current use in several modern languages among scientists. ... Standard average European (SAE) is a concept introduced by Benjamin Whorf to distinguish Indo-European and especially West Indo-European languages from languages of other grammatical types. ... The International Auxiliary Language Association that existed from 1924 to 1954 was a notable proponent of international auxiliary languages. ...


Concepts in dialectology

Concepts in dialectology include:


Mutual intelligibility

Some have attempted to distinguish dialects from languages by saying that dialects of the same language are understandable to each other. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Diglossia

Main article: Diglossia

Another problem occurs in the case of diglossia, used to describe a situation where, in a given society, there are two closely-related languages, one of high-prestige, which is generally used by the government and in formal texts, and one of low-prestige, which is usually the spoken vernacular tongue. An example of this is Sanskrit, which was considered the proper way to speak in northern India, but only accessible by the upper class, and Prakrit which was the common (and informal or vernacular) speech at the time. Look up Diglossia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Vernacular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Prakrit (also spelt Pracrit) (Sanskrit: , original, natural, artless, normal, ordinary, usual, i. ... Look up Vernacular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Another example of diglossia are the ancient Egyptian languages Demotic and Hieratic. Demotic script on a replica of the Rosetta stone. ... Development of hieratic script from hieroglyphs; after Champollion. ...


Dialect continuum

Main article: Dialect continuum

A dialect continuum is a network of dialects in which geographically adjacent dialects are mutually comprehensible, but with comprehensibility steadily decreasing as distance between the dialects increases. An example is the Dutch-German dialect continuum, a vast network of dialects with two recognized literary standards. Although mutual intelligibility between standard Dutch and standard German is very limited, a chain of dialects connects them. Due to several centuries of influence by standard languages (especially in Northern Germany, where even today the original dialects struggle to survive) there are now many breaks in intelligibility between geographically adjacent dialects along the continuum, but in the past these breaks were virtually nonexistent. A dialect continuum is a range of dialects spoken across a large geographical area, differing only slightly between areas that are geographically close, and gradually decreasing in mutual intelligibility as the distances become greater. ...


The Romance languages — Portuguese, Spanish, Catalan, , Provençal, French, Occitan, Sardinian, Romansh, Friulian, other Italian dialects, and others — form another well-known continuum, with varying degrees of mutual intelligibility. Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... Provençal (Provençau) is one of several dialects of Occitan spoken by a minority of people in southern France and other areas of France and Italy. ... Occitan, or langue doc is a Romance language characterized by its richness, variability, and by the intelligibility of its dialects. ... The term Sardinian can refer to either: Sardinia the Sardinian language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Romansh (also spelled Rumantsch, Romansch or Romanche) is one of the four national languages of Switzerland, along with German, Italian and French. ... Friulian (friulano in Italian, Furlan in Friulian) is a Romance language belonging to the Rhaetian languages family, spoken in the north-east of Italy (Friuli-Venezia Giulia province) by about 600,000 people. ...


Diasystem

Main article: Diasystem

A diasystem refers to a single genetic language which has two or more standard forms. An example is Hindi-Urdu or Hindustani, which encompasses two main standard varieties, Urdu and Hindi. Another example is Norwegian, with Bokmål having developed closely with Danish and Swedish, and Nynorsk as a partly reconstructed language based on old dialects. Both are recognized as official languages in Norway. In linguistics, a diasystem is a term used in structural dialectology, to refer to a single genetic language which has two or more standard forms. ... // The Relationship between Hindi, Urdu, and Hindustani/Hindi-Urdu Hindustani (or the Hindustani language) is a term used by linguists to describe a closely related series of languages or dialects stretching across the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. ... Hindustani (/ /; ; हिन्दुस्तानी, ہندوستانی), also known as Hindi-Urdu, is a term used by linguists to describe several closely related idioms in the northern, central and northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent and the vernacular blend between its two standardized registers in the form of the official languages of Hindi and Urdu, as... Urdu ( , , trans. ... Hindi ( , Devanagari: or , IAST: , IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is also used for central government administrative purposes , along with English. ... BokmÃ¥l (lit. ... Nynorsk (literally New Norwegian) is one of the two officially sanctioned orthographic standards of the Norwegian language, the other being BokmÃ¥l. ...


Pluricentrism

Main article: Pluricentric language

A pluricentric language is a language with several standard versions: English is such a language. Portuguese too. A pluricentric language is a language with several standard versions. ... A standard language (also standard dialect or standardized dialect) is a particular variety of a language that has been given either legal or quasi-legal status. ...


The Ausbausprache — Abstandsprache — Dachsprache framework

Main article: Ausbausprache - Abstandsprache - Dachsprache

One analytical paradigm developed by linguists is known as the Ausbausprache - Abstandsprache - Dachsprache framework. It has proved popular among linguists in Continental Europe, but is not so well known in English-speaking countries, especially among people who are not trained linguists. Although only one of many possible paradigms, it has the advantage of being constructed by trained linguists for the particular purpose of analyzing and categorizing varieties of speech, and has the additional merit of replacing such loaded words as "language" and "dialect" with the German terms of Ausbausprache, Abstandsprache, and Dachsprache, words that are not (yet) loaded with political, cultural, or emotional connotations. The Ausbausprache - Abstandsprache - Dachsprache framework is a tool developed by sociolinguists, e. ... A language construct, such as a word or a question, is said to be loaded if it carries meaning or implications beyond its strict definition (its denotation). ... An Ausbausprache (also called an ausbau language) is a language which has a standard spelling, a standard grammar and a relatively wide and clear vocabulary (and is thus almost identical with a standard language). ... Abstandsprache (also called abstand language) is a language form that is so different from every other language that it cannot be regarded as a dialect of any another language, whether or not it is itself an Ausbausprache (almost identical with standard language). ... Dachsprache means a language form that serves as standard language for different dialects, mostly in a dialect continuum, even though these dialects may be so different that mutual intellegibility is not possible on the basilectal level between all dialects. ...


Examples from Many Languages

Main article: Ryukyuan languages#Examples in other languages

A useful set of examples of the difficulty of distinguishing languages from dialects may be found in the article cited above. The Ryukyuan languages are spoken in the Ryukyu Islands and in Japans Kagoshima Prefecture, and make up a subfamily of the Japonic language family. ...


Dialects of English (in Great Britain & Ireland)

This is a list of varieties of the English language. ...

Northern

  • [u] butler, cut, some
  • /æ/ dance, grass, path
  • /u:/ cow, down

Southwestern

  • s-> z (six)
  • rhotic 'r'

Welsh

  • /a/ tap, bath

Irish

  • rhotic 'r'
  • monophtongal articulation [e:, o:] take, home

Scottish

  • rhotic 'r' articulated in all positions
  • nondistinctive length lad/lard, fud/ food, cot/caught

The Scots Vowel Length Rule, also known as Aitkens Law after Professor A.J. Aitken who formulated it, describes how vowel length in Scots and Scottish English is conditioned by environment. ...

Selected list of articles on dialects

ÄlvdalsmÃ¥l (English: lit. ... The Arabic language is classified as a Semitic language. ... Connacht Irish is the dialect of the Irish language spoken in the province of Connacht. ... Munster Irish is the dialect of the Irish language spoken in the province of Munster. ... Ulster Irish is the dialect of the Irish language spoken in the province of Ulster. ... This article is about the modern Greek dialect of Cyprus. ... Cypriot Turkish is a dialect of Turkish spoken by Turkish Cypriots. ... There are three primary dialects spoken in Serbia and Montenegro, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and they are named after the word for what: Čakavian (čakavski) uses the word ča Kajkavian (kajkavski), kaj Štokavian (štokavski), što or šta. ... Dialects of the French language are dialects of the French language, which is one of the Oïl languages. ... The Flemish dialects are the regional dialects of Dutch that are spoken in Flanders (Belgium). ... Gutnish (in Swedish gutamål or gutniska) is a language of the eastern branch of the North Germanic languages, spoken on the island of Gotland. ... The Shirazi are Persians from Iran. ... Dari is the language of the Zoroastrians of Iran. ... The Italian people generally indicates as Italian dialects all vernacular idioms spoken in Italy other than Italian and other recognized languages. ... Location of Jämtland in Sweden Jamtlandic, or yah-ahmsk/yahm-skeh (IPA /) in the form of speech described by the article, (jämtska, jämtmÃ¥l or jämtländska in Swedish — the often seen jamska is a Jamtlandic-Swedish form) and is a well-defined group of dialects... // As with any language, Japanese has its share of regional dialects. ... Different dialects calling dragonfly (잠자리). Dialects of Korean Korean is spoken in a number of different dialects around the Korean peninsula. ... The ancient tribes in this List of Assyrian tribes still exist today. ... Geographic distribution of Sinitic language families within the Peoples Republic of China and the Republic of China The following is a list of Chinese dialects and languages. ... This is a list of varieties of the English language. ... Norwegian spoken dialects are not to be confused with BokmÃ¥l and Nynorsk, the two official written variations of the Norwegian language. ... The Portuguese dialects are variants of the Portuguese language that are shared by a substantial number of speakers over several generations, but are not sufficiently distinct from the official norms to be considered a separate language. ... SkÃ¥ne in southern Sweden Scanian ( ) is a closely related group of dialects spoken in SkÃ¥ne (Scania). ... Sicilian (, Italian: ) is a Romance language. ... Spoken Slovenian language has at least 32 main dialects (narečje) (dI) and speeches (govor) (sP). ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Stockholmska is a group of dialects spoken in Stockholm. ... Sri Lankan Tamil dialects is a group of dialects that are distinct from Tamil dialects used in Tamil Nadu and Kerala states of India. ... Ostrobothnian Swedish-speakers are traditionally farmers, and as such, isolation of the communities produces dialectal variations. ... The Arabic language is classified as a Semitic language. ... The Warsaw dialect (jÄ™zyk warsiaski, Polish: ) is a regional dialect of the Polish language spoken in Warsaw. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...

See also

This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A dialect continuum is a range of dialects spoken across a large geographical area, differing only slightly between areas that are geographically close, and gradually decreasing in mutual intelligibility as the distances become greater. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The main purpose of Dialectometry is to discover high levels of structure in geographical dialect networks. ... Look up Diglossia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ethnolect is a variant of a language spoken by a certain ethnic/cultural subgroup and distinguishing them as a mark of social identity. ... Isoglosses on the Faroe Islands An isogloss is the geographical boundary of a certain linguistic feature, e. ... In linguistics, a koiné language (common language) is a standard language or dialect, specifically one that has arisen as a result of language contact much as pidgins or creoles, but where the original dialects are mutually intelligible. ... A prestige dialect is the dialect spoken by the most prestigious people in a speech community large enough to sustain multiple dialects. ... A Sprachbund (German for language bond, also known as a linguistic area, convergence area, diffusion area) is a group of languages that have become similar in some way because of geographical proximity. ...

References

  1. ^ Oxford English dictionary
  2. ^ Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
  3. ^ Note, for example, the use of "dialect" in the following sentence from a biographical portrait of Theodore Roosevelt (The river of doubt: Theodore Roosevelt's darkest journey (2005) by Candice Millard, Doubleday), "... and Rondon, although he knew ten different Indian dialects..." (p. 80). A perusal of current newspaper columns shows the same usage.
  4. ^ Morris, Alice Vanderbilt, General report. New York: International Auxiliary Language Association, 1945.
  5. ^ Gode, Alexander, Interlingua-English Dictionary. New York: Storm Publishers, 1951.
  6. ^ Morris, Alice Vanderbilt, General report. New York: International Auxiliary Language Association, 1945.
  7. ^ Gopsill, F. P., International languages: A matter for Interlingua. Sheffield: British Interlingua Society, 1990.
  8. ^ Gode, Alexander, Interlingua-English Dictionary. New York: Storm Publishers, 1951.
  • Mohsen Farsani. Lamentations chez les nomades bakhtiari d'Iran, Paris. 2003

Alice Vanderbilt Morris (1874 - 1950), born Alice Vanderbilt Shepard, was the daughter of Elliot Fitch Shepard (1833-1893) and Margaret Louisa Vanderbilt (1845-1924). ... Alexander Gottfried Friedrich Gode-von-Aesch or simply Alexander Gode (October 30, 1906 in Bremen - August 10, 1970 in Mount Kisco, New York) was a German-American linguist, translator and the driving force behind the creation of the constructed language Interlingua. ... The Interlingua-English Dictionary (IED), developed by the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA) and published by Storm Publishers in 1951, is the first Interlingua dictionary. ... Alice Vanderbilt Morris (1874 - 1950), born Alice Vanderbilt Shepard, was the daughter of Elliot Fitch Shepard (1833-1893) and Margaret Louisa Vanderbilt (1845-1924). ... Alexander Gottfried Friedrich Gode-von-Aesch or simply Alexander Gode (October 30, 1906 in Bremen - August 10, 1970 in Mount Kisco, New York) was a German-American linguist, translator and the driving force behind the creation of the constructed language Interlingua. ... The Interlingua-English Dictionary (IED), developed by the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA) and published by Storm Publishers in 1951, is the first Interlingua dictionary. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Dialectic (2320 words)
dialectic should be again extended from function to object, from thought to thing; and so, even as early as Plato, it had come to signify the whole science of reality, both as to method and as to content, thus nearly approaching what has been from a somewhat later period universally known as metaphysics.
dialectic, of Aristotle's "Organon"--the science and art of (mainly deductive) reasoning--found its proper application in exploring the domain of purely natural truth, but in the early Middle Ages it began to be applied by some Catholic theologians to the elucidation of the supernatural truths of the Christian Revelation.
dialectic, theology has again been drawing, for a century past, abundant and powerful aid from a renewed and increased attention to the historical and exegetical studies that characterized the earlier centuries of Christianity.
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