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Encyclopedia > Diaeresis
Diacritical marks

accent
A diacritical mark or diacritic, sometimes called an accent mark, is a mark added to a letter to alter a words pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ...

acute accent ( ˊ )
double acute accent ( ˝ )
grave accent ( ˋ )

breve ( ˘ )
caron / háček ( ˇ )
cedilla ( ¸ )
circumflex ( ˆ )
diaeresis ( ¨ )
dot ( · )
The acute accent ( Â´ ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin script. ... The double acute accent ( Ë ) is a diacritic mark of the latin script used primarily in written Hungarian. ... The grave accent ( ` ) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek until 1982 (polytonic orthography), French, Catalan, Welsh, Italian, Vietnamese, Scottish Gaelic, Norwegian, Portuguese, and other languages. ... This article is about the breve breve in music, see double whole note. ... Caron may refer to multiple things. ... Caron may refer to multiple things. ... A cedilla is a hook (Â¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritic mark to modify their pronunciation. ... The circumflex ( Ë† ) is a diacritic mark used in written Esperanto, French, Greek, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovak, Vietnamese, Welsh, and other languages. ... When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the middle dot ·, or to the glyphs combining dot above ̇ and combining dot below ̣ which may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in use in Eastern European languages and Vietnamese. ...

anunaasika ( ˙ )
anusvaara (  ̣ )

hook / dấu hỏi (  ̉ )
macron ( ˉ )
ogonek ( ˛ )
ring / kroužek ( ˚ )
spiritus asper ( ʽ )
spiritus lenis (  ʼ )
umlaut ( ¨ )
Anunaasika is a dot on top of a breve above a letter ( मँ ), used as a diacritic in Sanskrit written in devanagari script to represent vowel nasalization. ... Anusvaara (or anusvaaram) appears in the alphabet of Indian languages like Sanskrit which use the Devanagari script, and in the Dravidian languages. ... For other meanings of hook, see hook (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of hook, see hook (disambiguation). ... A macron (from Gr. ... For the Russian magazine, see Ogonyok Ogonek (Polish for little tail; In Lithuanian it is nosinÄ— which literally means nasal) is a diacritic hook placed under the lower right corner of a vowel in the Latin alphabet used in Polish (letters Ä…, Ä™), Lithuanian Ä…, Ä™, Ä¯, Å³), Navajo, Western Apache, Chiricahua and Tutchone. ... In punctuation, the term ring is usually reserved for the ring above diacritic mark ˚ (looks similar to °). The ring may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets. ... In punctuation, the term ring is usually reserved for the ring above diacritic mark ˚ (looks similar to °). The ring may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets. ... The spiritus asper (rough breathing) or dasy pneuma (Greek: dasu, δασύ) is a diacritical mark used in Greek. ... The spiritus lenis (soft breathing) or psilon pneuma (Greek: psilÃ³n, ÏˆÎ¹Î»ÏŒÎ½) is a diacritical mark used in Ancient Greek. ... Ã„ Ã¤ Ã– Ã¶ Ãœ Ã¼ The term umlaut is used for two closely related notions: a special kind of vowel modification and a particular diacritic mark. ...

Marks sometimes used as diacritics

apostrophe ( )
bar ( | )
colon ( : )
comma ( , )
hyphen ( ˗ )
tilde ( ˜ )
titlo (  ҃ )
An apostrophe An apostrophe (French, from the Greek Î±Ï€Î¿ÏƒÏ„ÏÎ¿Ï†Î¿Ï‚ Ï€ÏÎ¿ÏƒÏ‰Î´Î¹Î±, the accent of elision) ( â€™ ) is a punctuation and sometimes diacritic mark in languages written in the Latin alphabet. ... The bar or stroke can be a diacritic mark, when used with some letters in the Latin or Cyrillic alphabets. ... A colon is a punctuation mark, with one dot above another, e. ... A comma ( , ) is a punctuation mark. ... A hyphen ( -, or â€ ) is a punctuation mark. ... The tilde (~) is a grapheme which has several uses, described below. ... Titlo is an extended diacritic symbol used in old Cyrillic manuscripts, e. ...

In linguistics, a, diaeresis, or dieresis (AE) (from Greek διαιρεῖν (diaerein), to divide) is the modification of a syllable by distinctly pronouncing one of its vowels. The diacritic mark composed of two small dots ( ¨ ) placed over a vowel to indicate this modification is also called a diaeresis. (In the case of an "i", it replaces the original dot.) Broadly conceived, linguistics is the scientific study of human language, and someone who engages in this study is called a linguist. ... American English (AmE) is the form of the English language used mostly in the United States of America. ... Listen to this article Â· (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-07-18, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... A diacritical mark or diacritic, sometimes called an accent mark, is a mark added to a letter to alter a words pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ...

äëïöüẅÿ

In French, Greek, and Dutch, and in English borrowings from them, this is often done to indicate that the second of a pair of vowels is to be pronounced as a separate vowel rather than being treated as silent or as part of a diphthong, as in the word naïve or the names Chloë and Zoë. Welsh also uses the diacritic for this purpose, with the diaeresis usually indicating the stressed vowel. French also uses the diaeresis to indicate syllabification in, for example, Gaëlle and païen. It is called trema or deelteken in Dutch, tréma in French. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... In phonetics, a diphthong (Greek Î´Î¯Ï†Î¸Î¿Î³Î³Î¿Ï‚, diphthongos, literally with two sounds) is a vowel combination usually involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ...

The diaeresis has also occasionally been used in native English words for the above purposes (as in coöperate, reënact, noöne and the surname Brontë), but this usage has become extremely rare since the 1940s. The New Yorker, The Economist and MIT's Technology Review can be noted as some of the few publications that spell coöperate with a diaeresis. // Events and trends The 1940s were seen as a transition period between the radical 1930s and the conservative 1950s, which also leads the period to be divided in two halves: The first half of the decade was dominated by World War II, the widest and most destructive armed conflict in... The New Yorkers first cover, which is reprinted most years on the magazines anniversary. ... The Economist is a weekly news and international affairs publication of The Economist Newspaper Limited in London. ... Technology Review is an innovation and technology magazine affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. ...

In Spanish and Portuguese, it is used over the vowel u to indicate that it is pronounced in places where that vowel would normally be silent. In particular, the u is silent in the letter combinations gue and gui, but in words such as vergüenza ("shame") or pingüino ("penguin"), the u is pronounced, forming a diphthong with the following vowel ([we] and [wi] respectively). Only Brazilian Portuguese uses the diaeresis like Spanish and when the u is not silent in the letter combinations que and qui, in words such cinqüenta ("fifty") and qüinqüênio ("a five-year period"). The diaeresis doesn't exist in the Portuguese of Portugal and its other former colonies. Even in Brazilian usage, it is occasionally omitted. Brazilian Portuguese is a form of the Portuguese language used mostly in Brazil. ...

For instance, in Spanish, ge is pronounced /xe/, gue is pronounced /ge/ and güe is pronounced /gwe/.

In Catalan, diaereses serve two different purposes. Similarly to Spanish, they are used in the groups güe, güi, qüe, and qüi to indicate that the u is in fact pronounced forming a diphthong with the following vowel ([we] and [wi] respectively). For example, aigües ("waters"), qüestió ("matter"). Also, similarly to French, diaereses are used over i or u to indicate that they do not form a diphthong with a preceding vowel. For example, veïna [b@'in@] ("neighbour", feminine), diürn [di'urn] ("diurnal"). Catalan (CatalÃ ) or Valencian (ValenciÃ ) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra and co-official in several regions of Spain. ...

A mixing of uses and letters can be standard for Galician: diaereses is used to mark the pronunciation of u after g (but not after q as Brazilian or Catalan) and also for hiatus (no diphthong) in some words (Mainly tenses for verbs). So, a word can be distinguished by the use (or not) of diaereses. Examples includes saiamos (subjunctive present) and saïamos (imperfect present), and other verbs with infinitives, ended with (oír, "to listen"), -aer (caer, "to fall"), -oer (moer, "mill"), -air (saír, "to go out"), -oir and so on. Galician (Galician: galego) is a language variety of the Western Ibero-Romance branch, spoken in Galicia (in the Galician language, Galicia and also Galiza are used), an autonomous community with the constitutional status of historic nationality located in northwestern Spain, and in areas in the neighbouring autonomous communities of Asturias... Grammatical tense is a way languages express the time at which an event described by a sentence occurs. ... A verb is a part of speech that usually denotes action (bring, read), occurrence (decompose, glitter), or a state of being (exist, stand). Depending on the language, a verb may vary in form according to many factors, possibly including its tense, aspect, mood and voice. ... The subjunctive mood (sometimes referred to as the conjunctive mood) is a grammatical mood of the verb that expresses wishes, commands (in subordinate clauses), and statements that are contrary to fact. ... In grammar, the infinitive is the form of a verb that has no inflection to indicate person, number, mood or tense. ...

Ÿ can be used in transcribed Greek: there it represents the non-diphthong αυ (alpha upsilon), e.g. in the Persian name Artaÿctes at the very end of Herodotus. Ÿ is also rarely found in French in certain proper nouns (for instance, the name of the Parisian suburb of L'Haÿ-les-Roses). In addition, Ÿ occurs in handwritten Dutch as a glyph variant of the letter IJ. In phonetics, a diphthong (Greek Î´Î¯Ï†Î¸Î¿Î³Î³Î¿Ï‚, diphthongos, literally with two sounds) is a vowel combination usually involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ... Bust of Herodotus Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: á¼©ÏÎ¿Î´Î¿Ï„Î¿Ï‚, Herodotos) was an ancient historian who lived in the 5th century BC (484 BC-ca. ... The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... LHaÃ¿-les-Roses is a commune of the Val-de-Marne dÃ©partement, in France, located near Paris. ... IJ is a letter from the Dutch alphabet used to represent the diphthong or . ...

## Similar looks, different functions

### Umlaut

The same diacritic mark is used for a different purpose in German: in this language it marks a variation in the pronunciation of vowels known as umlaut. Although sometimes rendered as two vertical or oblique bars above the letter, in most typescripts it is almost indistinguishable from diaeresis — the only difference being that in well-designed typographical fonts umlaut dots will be very close to the letter's body, while diaeresis dots will be a bit farther up with a bit more of white space between the letter and the dots. In computer screen fonts the difference is usually not noticeable. Ã„ Ã¤ Ã– Ã¶ Ãœ Ã¼ The term umlaut is used for two closely related notions: a special kind of vowel modification and a particular diacritic mark. ... Ã„ Ã¤ Ã– Ã¶ Ãœ Ã¼ The term umlaut is used for two closely related notions: a special kind of vowel modification and a particular diacritic mark. ...

Because of this similarity, a real diaeresis can occur only on the letters e and i in German texts.

The umlaut mark evolved from the ligatures æ and œ via a small 'e' written above the letter (which used to look similar to a pair of bars in blackletter handwriting), to small bars or dots above the letter; the umlauts can be substituted by 'ae', 'oe' and 'ue' if necessary; they should not be substituted by the bare vowels 'a', 'o', and 'u'. Ã†, or Ã¦, is a vowel and a grapheme used in the Icelandic, Danish, Faroese, Norwegian and Ossetian alphabets. ... Å’ Å“ This article is about the ligature, not the simple combination of the letters O and E. For initialisms and the word Oe, see Oe. ... Blackletter in a Latin Bible of AD 1407, on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. ...

The need to distinguish between Umlaut and Trema in Unicode has led to the following recommendation by ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 2/WG 2, for use only in cases where a need to distinguish between umlaut and trema is present: Unicode is an industry standard whose goal is to provide the means by which text of all forms and languages can be encoded for use by computers. ...

• To represent Trema use Combining Grapheme Joiner (CGJ, 034F) + Combining Diaeresis (0308)
• To represent Umlaut use Combining Diaeresis (0308)

### Other evolved ligatures

In Finnish, Estonian, Hungarian, Slovak, Turkish, Icelandic, and Swedish, there are characters that appear similar to German umlauts (ü, ä, and ö), represent sounds similar to the corresponding sounds in German, and have the same origin. Despite this, they are in fact considered letters in their own right, as is å. This is the reason why, unlike in German, it is not correct to replace them with 'ae', 'oe', or 'ue'. This usage of umlauted letters, particularly ü, also occurs in the transcription of languages that do not use the Roman alphabet, such as Chinese. For example, 女 (meaning female) is transcribed as . Ã„ Ã¤ Ã– Ã¶ Ãœ Ã¼ The term umlaut is used for two closely related notions: a special kind of vowel modification and a particular diacritic mark. ... Ãœ, or Ã¼, is a glyph which represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, the letter U with umlaut, or a letter U with diaeresis. ... Ã„, or Ã¤, is a glyph which represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, the letter A with umlaut, or a letter A with diaeresis. ... Ã–, or Ã¶, is a glyph which represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, the letter O with umlaut, or a letter O with diaeresis. ... Ã…, or Ã¥, is a letter, representing a vowel, in the Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Walloon, Chamorro and Finnish alphabets. ...

In Albanian, two dots over 'e' represent a schwa and in Luxembourgish (Lëtzebuergesch), a stressed schwa. Since the Luxembourgish language uses the mark to show stress, it cannot be used to modify the 'u' which therefore has to be 'ue'. Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Luxembourgish or Luxembourgian (French: Luxembourgeois, German: Luxemburgisch, Luxembourgish: LÃ«tzebuergesch) is a West Germanic language spoken in Luxembourg. ...

As such uses do not mark grammatical variation, i.e. of tense or mood, nor syllable modification, they are not properly cases of umlaut. Hence it is improper to call these characters umlauts. Grammatical tense is a way languages express the time at which an event described by a sentence occurs. ... In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood, which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ...

The letter IJ is sometimes written Ÿ/ÿ, but this is not a standard use. Ÿ tends to be used because the "lange IJ" represents a single letter in all cases, for example IJsselmeer. Ĳ/ĳ are the actual single-letter forms, but these are poorly supported in computer systems. IJ is a letter from the Dutch alphabet used to represent the diphthong or . ...

Other evolved ligatures include the letters W ("double U"), æ, and the German ß. W is the twenty-third letter of the modern Latin alphabet. ... Ã†, or Ã¦, is a vowel and a grapheme used in the Icelandic, Danish, Faroese, Norwegian and Ossetian alphabets. ... The ÃŸ â€” Eszett (IPA ) in German or scharfes S (sharp S) if spelled out â€” is a letter used only in the German alphabet. ...

## Diaeresis in Cyrillic

Diaeresis was used in the early Cyrillic alphabet which was used to write Old Church Slavonic. The modern Cyrillic Belarusian and Russian alphabets include the letter Yo (Ё, ё), although in modern Russian it is usually printed without the diaeresis (Е, е) unless doing so would create ambiguity. Since the 1870s, the letter Yi (Ї, ї) has been used in the Ukrainian alphabet. The Early Cyrillic alphabet was a writing system developed in Bulgaria during the 10th century A.D. for the writing of Old Church Slavonic. ... Old Church Slavonic (also called Old Church Slavic, Old Bulgarian, Old Macedonian, and inaccurately Old Slavic) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Solun (Thessaloniki) by 9th century Byzantine missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first letters) is an alphabet used to write six natural Slavic languages (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... The modern Russian alphabet is a variant of the Cyrillic alphabet (ÐšÐ¸Ñ€Ð¸Ð»Ð»Ð¸Ñ†Ð°). It was introduced into Kievan Rus (ÐšÐ¸ÐµÐ²ÑÐºÐ°Ñ Ð ÑƒÑÑŒ) at the time of its conversion to Christianity (988), or, if certain archaelogical finds are... Yo (Ð, Ñ‘) is the seventh letter of the Russian Cyrillic alphabet, invented to replace the recklessly confused Ðµ and o for soft o relatively soon after the introduction of the Civil alphabet. ... Yi (Ї, ї) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, used in the Ukrainian language. ... The Ukrainian Alphabet (Ð£ÐºÑ€Ð°Ñ—ÌÐ½ÑÑŒÐºÐ° Ð°Ð±ÐµÌÑ‚ÐºÐ°, Ukrajinsâ€²ka abetka, or Ð°Ð»Ñ„Ð°Ð²Ñ–ÌÑ‚, alfavit in Ukrainian) is used to write Ukrainian, the official language of Ukraine. ...

The Cyrillic alphabet letters A, O and U (А, О, У) with diaeresis have been used in the Altay, Mari and Keräşen Tatar alphabets for the sounds ä, ö, ü since the 19th century. In the Udmurt language, the diaeresis is also used with the consonant letters Zhe (Ж, ж → Ӝ, ӝ) and Ze (З, з → Ӟ, ӟ). The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first letters) is an alphabet used to write six natural Slavic languages (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... Ð (Ð, Ð°) is the first letter of the Cyrillic alphabet. ... O (О, о) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the vowel /o/. Categories: Cyrillic letters | Substubs ... U (У, у) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the vowel /u/. Categories: Cyrillic letters | Substubs ... The Altay language is a language of the Turkic group of languages. ... The Mari language (Mari: Ð¼Ð°Ñ€Ð¸Ð¹ Ð¹Ñ‹Ð»Ð¼Ðµ, Russian Ð¼Ð°Ñ€Ð¸Ð¹ÑÐºÐ¸Ð¹ ÑÐ·Ñ‹Ðº), spoken by more the 600,000 people, belongs to the Finno-Ugric language group and is part of the Volgaic subgroup of the Finnic languages together with Mordvin. ... Two versions of the Tatar alphabet are currently used for the Tatar language. ... Udmurt (ÑƒÐ´Ð¼ÑƒÑ€Ñ‚ ÐºÑ‹Ð», udmurt kyl) is a Finno-Ugric language spoken by the Udmurts, native of the Russian constituent republic of Udmurtia, where it is co-official with the Russian language. ... Zhe (Ð–, Ð¶) is the letter of Cyrillic alphabet which represents the voiced postalveolar fricative /Z/ (sound file), the same sound which is represented by s in the English word treasure. Zhe is the 7th letter of the Bulgarian and Belarusian alphabets, the 8th letter in the Macedonian, Russian and Serbian alphabets... Ze is a letter in the Cyrillic alphabet that looks like a 3. ...

## How to produce the characters on computers

The ISO 8859-1 character encoding includes the letters ä, ë, ï, ö, ü, and their respective capital forms, as well as ÿ in lower case only (Ÿ was added in the revised edition, ISO 8859-15). Dozens of more letters with the diaeresis are available in Unicode. Unicode also provides the diaeresis as a combining character U+0308. Unicode treats the umlaut as the same diacritic mark as diaeresis, and does not encode separate characters for the same letter with umlaut and with diaeresis. In those cases where umlauts must be distinguished from diaeresis, the special character U+034F COMBINING GRAPHEME JOINER (CGJ) can be used: ISO 8859-1, more formally cited as ISO/IEC 8859-1 or less formally as Latin-1, is part 1 of ISO/IEC 8859, a standard character encoding originally developed by ISO, but later jointly maintained by ISO and IEC. The standard, when supplemented with additional character assignments, is the... Majuscules or capital letters (in the Roman alphabet: A, B, C, ...) are one type of case in a writing system. ... Minuscule, or lower case, is the smaller form (case) of letters (in the Roman alphabet: a, b, c, ...). Originally alphabets were written entirely in majuscule (capital) letters which were spaced between well-defined upper and lower bounds. ... ISO 8859-15 is part 15 of ISO 8859, a standard character encoding defined by ISO. It is also known as Latin-9, and unofficially as Latin-0 but not as Latin-15. ... Unicode is an industry standard whose goal is to provide the means by which text of all forms and languages can be encoded for use by computers. ... Combining diacritical marks are Unicode characters that are intended to modify other characters (see Diacritic). ...

For diaeresis: X + CGJ + COMBINING DIAERESIS (e.g. a͏̈)
For umlauts: X + COMBINING DIAERESIS (e.g. )

It is then up to the user agent and typeface being used to provide meaningful distinction between the two characters. A user agent is the client application used with a particular network protocol; the phrase is most commonly used in reference to those which access the World Wide Web. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

The HTML entities for these characters all end in uml; e.g. &auml; = ä. These entities however use the Unicode diaeresis codepoints when rendered. HTML has been in use since 1991 (note that the W3C international standard is now XHTML), but the first standardized version with a reasonably complete treatment of international characters was version 4. ...

TeX also allows double dots to be placed over letters in math mode, using "ddot{}", or outside of math mode, with the " control sequence: The TeX mascot, by Duane Bibby TEX, written as TeX in plain text, is a typesetting system created by Donald Knuth. ...

$mathrm{ddot{a}ddot{b}ddot{c}ddot{d}ddot{e}ddot{A}ddot{B}ddot{C}ddot{D}ddot{E}}$

However this will give the diaeresis-style dots that are too far above the letter's body for good typographical umlauts. TeX's "german" package should be used if possible: it adds the " control sequence (without backslash) which gives nice umlauts.

On the Apple Macintosh, the diaeresis is produced with the keystroke Option+U, followed by the character to receive the diaeresis. The first Macintosh computer, introduced in 1984. ...

Using Microsoft Word, the diaeresis is produced by pressing Ctrl+Shift+:, then the letter. Microsoft Word is a word processing application from Microsoft. ...

## Time derivatives in mathematics

The derivative with respect to time is often represented as a dot above a variable. Two dots represents the second derivative. In mathematics, the derivative is one of the two central concepts of calculus. ...

${dot{a}} = {mathrm{d} over mathrm{d}t} a$
${ddot{a}} = {mathrm{d} ^2 over mathrm{d} t ^2} a$

This may be contrasted with the more common notation for a derivative using a prime: This article is not about the symbol for the set of prime numbers, ℙ. The prime (′, Unicode U+2032, &prime;) is a symbol with many mathematical uses: A complement in set theory: A′ is the complement of the set A A point related to another (e. ...

$f'(x) = {mathrm{d} over mathrm{d}x} f(x)$
$f''(x) = {mathrm{d}^2 over mathrm{d}x^2} f(x)$

The acute accent ( Â´ ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin script. ... This article is about the breve breve in music, see double whole note. ... The circumflex ( Ë† ) is a diacritic mark used in written Esperanto, French, Greek, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovak, Vietnamese, Welsh, and other languages. ... A diacritic mark or accent mark is an additional mark added to a basic letter. ... The grave accent ( ` ) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek until 1982 (polytonic orthography), French, Catalan, Welsh, Italian, Vietnamese, Scottish Gaelic, Norwegian, Portuguese, and other languages. ... The graphic designer added the umlaut to the cover of MotÃ¶rheads first album for Ã¦sthetic reasons. ... For other meanings of horn, see horn (disambiguation). ... A macron (from Gr. ... In punctuation, the term ring is usually reserved for the ring above diacritic mark ˚ (looks similar to °). The ring may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets. ... The tilde (~) is a grapheme which has several uses, described below. ... i j A tittle is a small distinguishing mark, such as a diacritic or the dot over an i. ... Ã„ Ã¤ Ã– Ã¶ Ãœ Ã¼ The term umlaut is used for two closely related notions: a special kind of vowel modification and a particular diacritic mark. ...

• Diacritics Project — All you need to design a font with correct accents

Results from FactBites:

 Diaeresis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1297 words) In linguistics, a diaeresis or dieresis (AE) (from Greek διαιρεῖν (diaerein), to divide) is the modification of a syllable by distinctly pronouncing one of its vowels. The diaeresis is also occasionally used on native English words for the above purposes (as in "coöperate", "reënact", and the surname "Brontë"), but this usage has become very rare since the 1940s. Diaeresis was used in the early Cyrillic alphabet which was used to write Old Church Slavonic.
 Encyclopedia4U - Diaeresis - Encyclopedia Article (459 words) In linguistics, a diaeresis or dieresis (from Greek diairein, "to divide") is the modification of a syllable by distinctly pronouncing one of its vowels. In French, Greek, and Dutch, and in English borrowings from them, this is often done to indicate that the second of a pair of vowels is to be pronounced as a separate vowel rather than being treated as silent or as part of a diphthong, as in the word naïve or the name Zoë. Similarly to Spanish, diaeresis is used in the groups güe, güi, qüe, and qüi to indicate that the u is in fact pronounced forming a diphthong with the following vowel ([we] and [wi] respectivelly).
More results at FactBites »

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