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Encyclopedia > Diadochi

In general Diadochi (in Greek Διάδοχοι, transcripted Diadochoi) means "successors", such that the neoplatonic refounders of Plato's Academy in Late Antiquity referred to themselves as diadochi (of Plato). Raphaels portrait of Plato, a detail of The School of Athens fresco An an institution for the study of (usually) higher learning. ...


Specifically, in hellenistic history, the Diadochi were the rival successors to Alexander the Great, and their Wars of the Diadochi followed Alexander's death. This was the beginning of the so-called Hellenistic period of Greek history, the time when many people who were not Greek themselves adopted Greek philosophy and styles, Greek city life and aspects of Greek religion. Alexander the Great (in Greek , transliterated Megas Alexandros) (July 356 BC – June 11, 323 BC), King of Macedon (336–323 BC), is considered one of the most successful military commanders in world history, conquering most of the world known to the ancient Greeks before his death. ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance...

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Death of Alexander, 323 BC

When Alexander the Great died (June 10, 323 BC), he left behind a huge empire which was composed of many essentially independent territories. Alexander's empire stretched from his homeland of Macedon itself, along with the Greek city-states that his father had subdued, to Bactria and some parts of India in the east, including Anatolia, the Levant, Egypt, Babylonia, and Persia. June 10 is the 161st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (162nd in leap years), with 204 days remaining. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 328 BC 327 BC 326 BC 325 BC 324 BC - 323 BC - 322 BC 321 BC 320... The Vergina Sun, a symbol associated with the Macedonian kingdom and today copyrighted by the World Intellectual Property Organization as a Greek emblem of state [1]. Macedon or Macedonia (from Greek ; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most... It has been suggested that Ta-Hsia be merged into this article or section. ... Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... The Levant Levant is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... Babylonia, named for its capital city, Babylon, was an ancient state in the south part of Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... The term Persian Empire refers to a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau. ...


Upon Alexander's death, there was almost immediately a dispute among his generals as to who his successor should be. Meleager and the infantry supported the candidacy of Alexander's half-brother, Arrhidaeus, while Perdiccas, the leading cavalry commander, supported waiting until the birth of Alexander's unborn child by Roxana. A compromise was arranged - Arrhidaeus (as Philip III) should become King, and should rule jointly with Roxana's child, assuming that it was a boy (as it was, becoming Alexander IV). Perdiccas himself would become Regent of the entire Empire, and Meleager his lieutenant. Soon, however, Perdiccas had Meleager and the other infantry leaders murdered, and assumed full control. Meleager (d. ... Philip III (Arrhidaeus) (c. ... Perdiccas (d. ... Roxana (in Bactrian Roshanak, lit. ... Alexander IV Aegus (in Greek Aλεξανδρος Aιγος; 323–309 BC was the posthumous son of Alexander the Great by his wife Roxana, a princess of Bactria. ...


The other cavalry generals who had supported Perdiccas were rewarded by becoming satraps of the various parts of the Empire. Ptolemy received Egypt; Laomedon received Syria and Phoenicia; Philotas took Cilicia; Peithon took Media; Antigonus received Phrygia, Lycia and Pamphylia; Asander received Caria; Menander received Lydia; Lysimachus received Thrace; Leonnatus received Hellespontine Phrygia; and Neoptolemus had Armenia. Macedon and Greece were to be under the joint rule of Antipater, who had governed them for Alexander, and Craterus, Alexander's most able lieutenant, while Alexander's old secretary, Eumenes of Cardia, was to receive Cappadocia and Paphlagonia. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Ptolemy I Soter (367 BC–283 BC) was the ruler of Egypt (323 BC - 283 BC) and founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty. ... Laomedon (in Greek Λαoμέδων; lived 4th century BC), native of Mytilene and son of Larichus, was one of Alexander the Greats generals, and appears to have enjoyed a high place in his confidence even before the death of Philip II, as he was one of those banished by that... Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal plains of what are now Lebanon and Syria. ... Philotas (in Greek Φιλωτας; lived 4th century BC) was a Macedonian officer in the service of Alexander the Great, who commanded one taxis or division of the phalanx during the advance into Sogdiana and India. ... Cilicia as Roman province, 120 AD In Antiquity, Cilicia (Ki-LIK-ya) was a region, and often a political unit, on the southeastern coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey), north of Cyprus. ... Peithon (about 355 BC - about 314 BC) was the son of Crateuas, a nobleman from Eordia in western Macedonia. ... Antigonus I Cyclops or Monophthalmos (the One-eyed, so called from his having lost an eye) (382 BC - 301 BC) was a Macedonian nobleman, general, and satrap under Alexander the Great. ... Location of Phrygia - traditional region (yellow) - expanded kingdom (orange line) In antiquity, Phrygia was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolian highlands, part of modern Turkey, from ca. ... Lycia is a region on the southern coast of Turkey. ... Pamphylia, in ancient geography, was the region in the south of Asia Minor, between Lycia and Cilicia, extending from the Mediterranean to Mount Taurus. ... Asander (in Greek Άσανδρoς; lived 4th century BC) was son of Philotas and brother of Parmenion. ... Location of Caria Caria (Greek Καρία; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was a region of Asia Minor, situated south of Ionia, and west of Phrygia and Lycia. ... Menander (in Greek Mενανδρoς; lived 4th century BC) was an officer in the service of Alexander the Great. ... Lydia (disambiguation) Lydia is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of İzmir and Manisa. ... Lysimachus (c. ... Thrace (Greek Θρᾴκη, Thrákē, Bulgarian Тракия, Trakija, Turkish Trakya; Latin: Thracia or Threcia) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe spread over southern Bulgaria, northeastern Greece (Western Thrace), and European Turkey. ... Leonnatus (356 BC - 322 BC), Macedonian officer of Alexander the Great and one of the diadochi. ... Neoptolemus (in Greek Νεoπτoλεμος; died 321 BC) was a Macedonian officer of Alexander the Great. ... Antipater (in Greek Αντίπατρος; lived c. ... Craterus (c. ... Eumenes of Cardia (c. ... Cappadocia in 188 BC In ancient geography, Cappadocia (spelled Kapadokya in Turkish) (Greek: Καππαδοκία; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was an extensive inland district of Asia Minor (modern Turkey). ... Paphlagonia was an ancient area on the northern central Black Sea coast of Anatolia, situated between Bithynia and Pontus, separated from Galatia by a prolongation to the east of the Bithynian Olympus. ...


In the east, Perdiccas largely left Alexander's arrangements intact - Taxiles and Porus ruled over their kingdoms in India; Alexander's father-in-law Oxyartes ruled Gandara; Sibyrtius ruled Arachosia and Gedrosia; Stasanor ruled Aria and Drangiana; Philip ruled Bactria and Sogdiana; Phrataphernes ruled Parthia and Hyrcania; Peucestas governed Persis; Tlepolemus had charge over Carmania; Atropates governed northern Media; Archon got Babylonia; and Arcesilas ruled northern Mesopotamia. Taxiles (in Greek Tαξιλης; lived 4th century BC) was a prince or king, who reigned over the tract between the Indus and the Hydaspes rivers, in the Punjab at the period of the expedition of Alexander the Great, 327 BC. His real name was Ambhi, and the Greeks appear to... Alexander and Porus by Charles Le Brun, 1673 Porus, the Greek version of the Indian names Puru, Pururava or Purushottama, was the ruler of a Kingdom that was located between what is now known as the Jhelum and the Chenab rivers (in Greek sources called Hydaspes and Acesines) in the... Oxyartes was a Bactrian, father of Roxana, the wife of Alexander the Great. ... Buddhas First Sermon at Sarnath, Kushan Period, ca. ... Sibyrtius (in Greek ΣιβυρτιoÏ‚; lived 4th century BC) was a Macedonian officer in the service of Alexander the Great, who was appointed by him, on his return from India (326 BC), governor of the province of Carmania. ... Arachosia is the ancient name of an area that corresponds to the southern part of today s Afghanistan, around the city of Kandahar. ... Gedrosia is the ancient name of an area that corresponds to the southernwestern part of today s Pakistan, from the Indus River to the areas of Baluchistan and Makran. ... Stasanor (in Greek Στασανωρ; lived 4th century BC) was a native of Soli in Cyprus who held a distinguished position among the officers of Alexander the Great. ... Drangiana (Old Persian: Zranka waterland) was a historical region of the Achaemenid Empire, now part of Afghanistan and Eastern Iran. ... Philip (in Greek ΦιλιππoÏ‚; died 318 BC) was satrap of Sogdiana, to which government he was first appointed by Alexander the Great himself in 327 BC. He retained his post, as did most of the satraps of the more remote provinces, in the arrangements which followed the death of the... It has been suggested that Ta-Hsia be merged into this article or section. ... Sogdiana (Sug`ud,Sug`diyona -Uzbek, Sughd - Tajik, Sugdiane, Old Persian Sughuda, Persian:سغد, Chinese: Kang-Kü) ancient civilization of Iranian peoples, then was a province of the Achaemenian Empire, the eighteenth in the list in the Behistun Inscription of Darius the Great (i. ... Phrataphernes (in Greek Φραταφερνης; lived 4th century BC) was a Persian who held the government of Parthia and Hyrcania, under the king Darius III Codomannus, and joined that monarch with the contingents from the provinces subject to his rule, shortly before the battle of Gaugamela, 331 BC. He afterwards accompanied the... Parthia, or known in their native Iranian language as Ashkâniân [2] (also called the Arsacid Empire) was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. It was the second dynasty of... Gorgan (گرگان); Hyrcania ; Hyrcana (Old Persian Varkâna, land of wolves; modern Persian Gorgan): part of the ancient Persian empire, on the southern shores of the Caspian Sea (present day Golestan, Mazandaran, Gilan and parts of Turkmenistan). ... Peucestas (in Greek Πευκεστας;lived 4th century BC) was son of Alexander, a native of the town of Mieza, in Macedonia, and a distinguished officer in the service of Alexander the Great. ... External links Official website of Fars Governorship Categories: Iran geography stubs | Provinces of Iran ... Tlepolemus (in Greek TληπoλεμoÏ‚; lived 4th century BC) was the son of Pythophanes and one of the etairoi, or body-guard of Alexander the Great, who was joined in the government of the Parthians and Hyrcanii with Amminapes, a Parthian, whom Alexander had appointed satrap of those provinces. ... Kerman is a province rich in historical sites and monuments. ... Atropates (in Greek Aτρoπατης; in Old Persian Atarepata), called Atrapes by Diodorus1, a Persian satrap, apparently of Media, had the command of the Medes, together with the Cadusii, Albani, and Sacesinae, at the battle of Gaugamela, 331 BC. After the death of king Darius III Codomannus (330 BC), he... Archon (ib Greek Aρχων; lived 4th century BC) was a Pellaean appointed satrap of Babylonia after the death of Alexander the Great, 323 BC.1, is probably the same as the son of Cleinias mentioned in the Indian expedition of Alexander. ... Babylonia, named for its capital city, Babylon, was an ancient state in the south part of Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Mesopotamia (Greek: Μεσοποταμία, translated from Old Persian Miyanrudan between rivers; Aramaic name being Beth Nahrain house of rivers) is a region of Southwest Asia. ...


Revolt in Greece, 323-322 BC

Meanwhile, the news of Alexander's death had inspired a revolt in Greece, later known as the Lamian War. Athens and other cities joined together, ultimately besieging Antipater in the fortress of Lamia. Antipater was relieved by a force sent by Leonnatus, who was killed in action, but the war did not come to an end until Craterus's arrival with a fleet to defeat the Athenians at the Battle of Crannon on September 5, 322 BC. This, for the moment, brought an end to Greek resistance to Macedonian domination. Meanwhile, Peithon suppressed a revolt of Greek settlers in the eastern parts of the Empire, and Perdiccas and Eumenes subdued Cappadocia. The Lamian war (323 BC - 322 BC) was a war in Greece between Athens and her allies in Central and Northern Greece and Macedonia. ... Athens (Greek: Αθήνα, Athína (IPA: )) is the capital of Greece and one of the most famous cities in the world, named after goddess Athena. ... Lamia (Greek: Λαμία) is a city in central Greece (population 75,000). ... Leonnatus (356 BC - 322 BC), Macedonian officer of Alexander the Great and one of the diadochi. ... The Battle of Crannon (322 BC), fought between the Macedonian forces of Antipater and Craterus and rebellious south Greek forces led by the Athenians, was the decisive battle of the Lamian war. ... September 5 is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years). ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 327 BC 326 BC 325 BC 324 BC 323 BC - 322 BC - 321 BC 320 BC 319... Cappadocia in 188 BC In ancient geography, Cappadocia (spelled Kapadokya in Turkish) (Greek: Καππαδοκία; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was an extensive inland district of Asia Minor (modern Turkey). ...


Wars of the Diadochi (322-301 BC)

First War of the Diadochi, 322-320 BC

Soon, however, conflict broke out. Perdiccas's marriage to Alexander's sister Cleopatra led Antipater, Craterus, Antigonus, and Ptolemy to join together in rebellion. The actual outbreak of war was triggered by Ptolemy's theft of Alexander's body, and diversion of it to Egypt. Although Eumenes defeated the rebels in Asia Minor, in a battle at which Craterus was killed, it was all for nought, as Perdiccas himself was murdered by his own generals Peithon, Seleucus, and Antigenes while preparing an invasion of Egypt. Cleopatra of Macedonia (c. ... Silver coin of Seleucus. ...


Ptolemy came to terms with Perdiccas's murderers, making Peithon and Arrhidaeus Regents in his place, but soon these came to a new agreement with Antipater at the Treaty of Triparadisus. Antipater was made regent of the Empire, and the two kings were moved to Macedon. Antigonus remained in charge of Phrygia, Lycia, and Pamphylia, to which was added Lycaonia. Ptolemy retained Egypt, Lysimachus retained Thrace, while the three murderers of Perdiccas, Seleucus, Peithon, and Antigenes, were given the provinces of Babylonia, Media, and Susiana respectively. Arrhidaeus, the former Regent, received Hellespontine Phrygia. Antigonus was charged with the task of rooting out Perdiccas's former supporter, Eumenes. In effect, Antipater retained for himself control of Europe, while Antigonus, as leader of the largest army east of the Hellespont, held a similar position in Asia. Arrhidaeus (in Greek Aρριδαιoς or Aριδαιoς; lived 4th century BC), one of Alexander the Greats generals, was entrusted with the conduct of Alexanders funeral to Egypt in 323 BC. On the murder of Perdiccas in Egypt, 321 BC, he and Peithon... In ancient geography, Lycaonia was a large region in the interior of Asia Minor, north of Mount Taurus. ... Elam (Persian: ایلام) is one of the most ancient civilizations on record. ... Hellespont (i. ...


Second War of the Diadochi, 319-315 BC

War soon broke out again, however, following the death of Antipater in 319 BC. Passing over his own son, Cassander, Antipater declared Polyperchon his successor as Regent. A civil war soon broke out in Macedon and Greece between Polyperchon and Cassander, with the latter supported by Antigonus and Ptolemy. Polyperchon allied himself to Eumenes in Asia, but was driven from Macedonia by Cassander, and fled to Epirus with the infant king Alexander IV and his mother Roxane. In Epirus he joined forces with Olympias, Alexander's mother, and together they invaded Macedon again. They were met by an army commanded by King Philip Arrhidaeus and his wife Eurydice, which immediately defected, leaving the king and Eurydice to Olympias's not so tender mercies, and they were killed (317 BC). Soon after, though, the tide turned, and Cassander was victorious, capturing and killing Olympias, and attaining control of both Macedon and the boy king and his mother. Cassander (c. ... Polyperchon (394 - 303 BC) was a Macedonian general who served under Philip II and Alexander the Great, accompanying Alexander throughout his long journeys. ... Epirus (Greek Ήπειρος, Ípiros) is a geographical and historical region of the Balkan peninsula in south-eastern Europe. ... Olympias (Greek: Ολυμπιάς) (c. ... Eurydice (in Greek Eυρυδικη; died 317 BC) was daughter of Amyntas IV, son of Perdiccas III, king of Macedonia, and Cynane, daughter of Philip II. Her real name appears to have been Adea1; at what time it was changed to that of Eurydice we are not...


In the east, Eumenes was gradually driven back into the east by Antigonus's forces. After great battles at Paraitacene in 317 BC and at Gabiene in 316 BC, Eumenes was eventually betrayed and murdered by his own troops in 315 BC, leaving Antigonus in undisputed control of the Asian territories of the Empire. The battle of Paraitacene (317 BC) was a battle in the wars of the successors of Alexander the Great (see diadochi) between Antigonus and Eumenes. ... Battle of Gabiene (316 BC) was a second great battle (after Paraitacene) between Antigonus and Eumenes in the wars of the diadochi (successors of Alexander the Great). ...


Third War of the Diadochi, 314-311 BC

In this war, Antigonus, who had grown too powerful for the other rulers to tolerate him, faced Ptolemy, Lysimachus, and Cassander. Antigonus invaded Syria, under Ptolemy's control, and besieged Tyre for more than a year. Antigonus allied himself to Polyperchon, who still controlled part of the Peloponnese, and proclaimed freedom for the Greeks to get them on his side. But although Cassander was tempted to conclude peace with Antigonus, in Asia the war turned against the one-eyed general, with Ptolemy invading Syria (and defeating Antigonus' son, Demetrius Poliorcetes, in the Battle of Gaza, 312 BC) and Seleucus securing control of Babylon, and thus, of the eastern reaches of Alexander's empire. Although Antigonus now concluded a compromise peace with Ptolemy, Lysimachus, and Cassander, he continued the war with Seleucus, attempting to recover control of the eastern reaches of the Empire. Although he went so far as to besiege Babylon in 309 BC, Antigonus was ultimately defeated by Seleucus and forced to withdraw. For a wheel tyre, see the article under the US English spelling of the word, tire. ... Though Peloponnese is used to refer to the entire peninsula, the periphery with that name includes only part of that landmass. ... Demetrius I (337-283 BC), surnamed Poliorcetes (Besieger), son of Antigonus I Monophthalmus and Stratonice, was a king of Macedon (294 - 288 BC). ... The Battle of Gaza was a battle of the Third war of the Diadochi between Ptolemy (satrap of Egypt) and Demetrius (son of Antigonus I Monophthalmus). ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC Years: 317 BC 316 BC 315 BC 314 BC 313 BC _ 312 BC _ 311 BC... Silver coin of Seleucus. ... Babylon is the Greek variant of Akkadian Babilu, an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq). ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 314 BC 313 BC 312 BC 311 BC 310 BC 309 BC 308 BC 307 BC 306...


At about the same time, Cassander had young King Alexander IV and his mother Roxane murdered, ending the Argead Dynasty which had ruled Macedon for several centuries. For the moment, all of the various generals continued to recognize the dead Alexander as King, since Cassander did not publicly announce the deaths, but it seemed clear that at some point, one or the other of them would claim the Kingship. Argead dynasty were the ruling family of Macedonia, a nation in northern Greece from c. ...


Fourth War of the Diadochi, 308-301 BC

War soon broke out again. Ptolemy had been expanding his power into the Aegean and to Cyprus, while Seleucus went on a tour of the east to consolidate his control of the vast eastern territories of Alexander's Empire. Antigonus resumed the war, sending his son Demetrius to regain control of Greece. In 307 he took Athens, expelling Demetrius of Phaleron, Cassander's governor, and proclaiming the city free again. Demetrius now turned his attention to Ptolemy, invading Cyprus and defeating Ptolemy's fleet at the battle of Salamis. In the aftermath of this victory, Antigonus and Demetrius both assumed the crown, and they were shortly followed by Ptolemy, Seleucus, Lysimachus, and eventually Cassander. The Aegean Sea. ... Demetrius I (337-283 BC), surnamed Poliorcetes (Besieger), son of Antigonus I of Macedon and Stratonice was a king of Macedon ( 294 - 288 BC) . He belonged to the Antigonid dynasty. ... Demetrius Phalereus (died c. ... The naval Battle of Salamis took place in 306 BC near Salamis, Cyprus between the fleets of Ptolemy I of Egypt and Demetrius, two of the diadochi, the successors to Alexander the Great. ...

The kingdoms of Antigonus, Ptolemy, Seleucus, Lysimachus and Cassander.

In 306, Antigonus attempted to invade Egypt, but storms prevented Demetrius's fleet from supplying him, and he was forced to return home. Now, with Cassander and Ptolemy both weakened, and Seleucus still occupied in the East, Antigonus and Demetrius turned their attention to Rhodes, which was besieged by Demetrius's forces in 305 BC (see siege of Rhodes). The island was reinforced by troops from Ptolemy, Lysimachus, and Cassander. Ultimately, the Rhodians reached a compromise with Demetrius - they would support Antigonus and Demetrius against all enemies, save their great ally Ptolemy. Ptolemy took the title of Soter ("Savior") for his role in preventing the fall of Rhodes, but the victory was ultimately Demetrius's, as it left him with a free hand to attack Cassander in Greece. Demetrius returned to Greece, defeated Cassander, and formed a new Hellenic League, with himself as General, to defend the Greek cities against all enemies (and particularly Cassander). Image File history File links The Hellenistic World after the Battle of of Ipsus This work is copyrighted. ... Image File history File links The Hellenistic World after the Battle of of Ipsus This work is copyrighted. ... Rhodes, Greek Ρόδος (pron. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 310 BC 309 BC 308 BC 307 BC 306 BC 305 BC 304 BC 303 BC 302... Combatants Antigonid dynasty Rhodes Ptolemaic dynasty Seleucid Empire Commanders Demetrius ? Strength ? ? Casualties ? ? For siege of Rhodes in 1522, see Siege of Rhodes. ...


In the face of these catastrophes, Cassander sued for peace, but Antigonus rejected the claims, and Demetrius invaded Thessaly, where he and Cassander faced off against each other in inconclusive engagements. But now Cassander called in aid from his allies, and Anatolia was invaded by Lysimachus, forcing Demetrius to leave Thessaly and send his armies to Asia Minor to assist his father. With assistance from Cassander, Lysimachus overran much of western Anatolia, but was soon (301 BC) isolated by Antigonus and Demetrius near Ipsus. Here came the decisive intervention from Seleucus, who arrived in time to save Lysimachus from disaster and utterly crush Antigonus at the Battle of Ipsus. Antigonus was killed in the fight, and Demetrius fled back to Greece to attempt to preserve the remnants of his rule there. Lysimachus and Seleucus divided up Antigonus's Asian territories between them, with Lysimachus receiving western Asia Minor and Seleucus the rest, except Cilicia and Lycia, which went to Cassander's brother Pleistarchus. Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - Decades: 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 306 BC 305 BC 304 BC 303 BC 302 BC 301 BC 300 BC 299 BC 298 BC 297 BC Battle of Ipsus: King... The battle of Ipsus was fought between some of the successors of Alexander the Great in 301 BC near the village of that name in Phrygia. ... Pleistarchus (in Greek Πλεισταρχος; lived 4th century BC) was son of Antipater and brother of Cassander, king of Macedonia. ...


The Struggle over Macedon, 298-285 BC

The events of the next decade and a half were centered around various intrigues for control of Macedon itself. Cassander died in 298 BC, and his sons, Antipater and Alexander, proved weaklings. After quarreling with his older brother, Alexander V called in Demetrius, who had retained control of Cyprus, the Peloponnese, and many of the Aegean islands, and had quickly seized control of Cilicia and Lycia from Cassander's brother, as well as Pyrrhus, the King of Epirus. After Pyrrhus had intervened to seize the border region of Ambracia, Demetrius invaded, killed Alexander, and seized control of Macedon for himself (294 BC). While Demetrius consolidated his control of mainland Greece, his outlying territories were invaded and captured by Lysimachus (who recovered western Anatolia), Seleucus (who took most of Cilicia), and Ptolemy (who recovered Cyprus, eastern Cilicia, and Lycia). Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC Years: 303 BC 302 BC 301 BC 300 BC 299 BC - 298 BC - 297 BC 296 BC... Antipater II was the son of Cassander. ... Alexander V (d. ... Pyrrhus (312-272 BC) (Greek: Πυρρος - the color of fire, red-blonde, Latin Pyrrhus), king of the Molossians (from ca. ... Epirus (Greek Ήπειρος, Ípiros) is a geographical and historical region of the Balkan peninsula in south-eastern Europe. ... Ambracia (more correctly Ampracia) was an ancient Corinthian colony, situated about 7 miles from the Ambracian Gulf in Greece, on a bend of the navigable river Aracthus (or Aratthus), in the midst of a fertile wooded plain. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 299 BC 298 BC 297 BC 296 BC 295 BC 294 BC 293 BC 292 BC 291...


Soon, Demetrius was forced from Macedon by a rebellion supported by the alliance of Lysimachus and Pyrrhus, who divided the Kingdom between them, and, leaving Greece to the control of his son, Antigonus Gonatas, Demetrius launched an invasion of the east in 287 BC. Although initially successful, Demetrius was ultimately captured by Seleucus (286 BC), drinking himself to death two years later. Coin of Antigonus II Gonatas Antigonus II Gonatas (c. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC Years: 292 BC 291 BC 290 BC 289 BC 288 BC - 287 BC - 286 BC 285 BC... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC - 280s BC - 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 291 BC 290 BC 289 BC 288 BC 287 BC 286 BC 285 BC 284 BC 283...


The Struggle of Lysimachus and Seleucus, 285-281 BC

Although Lysimachus and Pyrrhus had cooperated in driving Antigonus Gonatas from Thessaly and Athens, in the wake of Demetrius's capture they soon fell out, with Lysimachus driving Pyrrhus from his share of Macedon.


Dynastic struggles also rent Egypt, where Ptolemy decided to make his younger son Ptolemy Philadelphus his heir rather than the elder, Ptolemy Ceraunus. Ceraunus fled to Seleucus. The eldest Ptolemy died peacefully in his bed in 282 BC, and Philadelphus succeeded him. Head of Ptolemy II Philadelphus (309-246 BC), with Arsinoë II. Ptolemy II Philadelphus (309-246 BC), was of a delicate constitution, no Macedonian warrior-chief of the old style. ... Ptolemy Keraunos (Ceraunus) (? - 279 BC), King of Macedon from 281 BC to 279 BC. He was the eldest son of Ptolemy I Soter (ruler of Egypt) and his third wife Eurydice (daughter of Antipater). ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC - 280s BC - 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 287 BC 286 BC 285 BC 284 BC 283 BC 282 BC 281 BC 280 BC 279...


Soon Lysimachus made the fatal mistake of having his son Agathocles murdered at the say-so of his second wife, Arsinoe (282 BC). Agathocles's widow, Lysandra, fled to Seleucus, who now made war upon Lysimachus. Seleucus, after appointing his son Antiochus ruler of his Asian territories, defeated and killed Lysimachus at the battle of Corupedium in Lydia in 281 BC, but Seleucus did not live to enjoy his triumph for long - he was almost immediately murdered by Ptolemy Ceraunus, for reasons that remain unclear. Agathocles (in Greek Aγαθoκλης; died 284 BC) was the son of Lysimachus by an Odrysian woman who Polyaenus1 calls Macris. ... Head of Ptolemy II Philadelphus (309-246 BC), with Arsinoe II ( 316-270 BC). ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC - 280s BC - 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 287 BC 286 BC 285 BC 284 BC 283 BC 282 BC 281 BC 280 BC 279... Lysandra (in Greek Λυσανδρα; lived 3rd century BC) was daughter of Ptolemy I Soter and Eurydice, the daughter of Antipater. ... Silver coin of Antiochus I. The reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... The Battle of Corupedium (also called Corupedion) is the name of the last battle of the Diadochi, the rival successors to Alexander the Great. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC - 280s BC - 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 286 BC 285 BC 284 BC 283 BC 282 BC 281 BC 280 BC 279 BC 278...


The Gallic Invasions and Consolidation, 280 - 275

Ptolemy Ceraunus was also not to enjoy the rule of Macedon for very long. The death of Lysimachus had left the Danube border of the Macedonian kingdom open to barbarian invasions, and soon tribes of Gauls were rampaging through Macedon and Greece, and invading Asia Minor. Ptolemy Ceraunus was killed by the invaders, and after several years of chaos, none other than Antigonus Gonatas emerged as ruler of Macedon. In Asia, Seleucus's son, Antiochus I, also managed to defeat the Celtic invaders, who settled down in central Anatolia in the part of eastern Phrygia that would henceforward be known as Galatia after them. The Danube bend at Visegrád is a popular destination of tourists The Danube (German: Donau, Slovak: Dunaj, Hungarian: Duna, Slovenian: Donava, Croatian: Dunav, Serbian: Дунав/Dunav, , Bulgarian: Дунав (Dunav), Romanian: Dunăre, Ukrainian: , Latin: Danuvius), all ultimately derived from the PIE *dānu, meaning river or stream, is Europes second... // Greek origin of the term Barbarian comes the French barbarien or Medieval Latin barbarinus, from Latin barbaria, from Latin barbarus, from the ancient Greek word βάρβαρος (barbaros) which meant a non-Greek, someone whose (first) language was not Greek. ... Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (Latin Gallia, Greek Galatia) was the region of Western Europe occupied by present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... A Celtic cross. ... Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... For the Greek name for Gaul, see Gaul Ancient Galatia was an area in the highlands of central Anatolia (now Turkey). ...


Now, at long last, almost fifty years after Alexander's death, some sort of order was restored. Ptolemy ruled over Egypt, southern Syria (known as Coele-Syria), and various territories on the southern coast of Asia Minor. Antiochus ruled the vast Asian territories of the Empire, while Macedon and Greece (with the exception of the Aetolian League), fell to Antigonus. This division was to last for a century, before the Antigonid Kingdom finally fell to Rome, and the Seleucids were harried from Persia by the Parthians. A rump Seleucid kingdom limped on in Syria until finally put to rest by Pompey in 64 BC. The Ptolemies lasted longer in Alexandria: Egypt finally fell to Rome in 30 BC. Coele-Syria, meaning hollow Syria, was the region of southern Syria disputed between the Seleucid dynasty and the Ptolemaic dynasty. ... The Aetolian League was a confederation in ancient Greece centering on the cities of Aetolia in central Greece. ... The Antigonid dynasty was a dynasty of Macedonian kings descended from Alexander the Greats general Antigonus I Monophthalmus (the One-eyed). Antigonus himself ruled mostly over Asia Minor and northern Syria. ... See also Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... The Seleucid Empire was one of several political states founded after the death of Alexander the Great, whose generals squabbled over the division of Alexanders empire. ... Parthia, or known in their native Iranian language as Ashkâniân [2] (also called the Arsacid Empire) was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. It was the second dynasty of... Marble bust of Pompey the Great For the ancient Roman city, see Pompeii. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 69 BC 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61... The Ptolemaic dynasty was a Greek royal family which ruled over Egypt for nearly 300 years, from 305 BC to 30 BC. Ptolemy, a Macedonian and one of Alexander the Greats generals, was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexanders death in 323 BC. In 305 BC he declared... This article needs to be updated. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC 26 BC...


Other historical uses as a title

Aulic rank title

Ironically in the formal 'court' titulature of the hellenistic empires ruled by dynasties we know as Diadochs, the title was not customary for the Monarch, but has actually been proven to be the lowest in a system of official rank titles, known as Aulic titulature, conferred -ex officio or nominatim- to actual courtiers and as an honorary rank (for protocol) to various military and civilian officials. Notably in Lagid Egypt, it was reported as the lowest aulic rank, under Philos, during the reign of Ptolemy V Epiphanes. Aulic titulature is a term, derived from the Greek Aulè and Latin Aula (in the meaning palace) for hierarchic systems of titles specifically in use for court protocol. ... The conquests of Alexander the Great brought Egypt within the orbit of the Greek world for almost 900 years. ... PHILOS (plural PHILOI) is the old Greek word for friend, and sometimes means amateur etc. ... Ptolemy V Epiphanes (reigned 204-181 BCE), son of Ptolemy IV Philopator and Arsinoe III of Egypt, was not more than five years old when he came to the throne, and under a series of regents the kingdom was paralysed. ...


Modern revival

In the modern Kingdom of the Hellenes, established in 1832 after Greece attained independence from the Ottoman empire (1830), under a Bavarian dynasty, the title of Diadochos was 'revived' as particular princely style for the heir to the constitutional royal throne, as unique as dauphin in France (but not linked to any territory). // Treaty of London The history of modern Greece began with the recognition of Greek independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1832 after the Greek War of Independence. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Dauphin (disambiguation). ...


References

  • Wissowa, Georg (editor); Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, (1890–1980) (in German, on all concerning Antiquity)

Pauly-Wissowa is the name commonly used for the Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, 1894ff, a German encyclopedia of classical scholarship. ...

External links

  • Alexander's successors: the Diadochi from Livius.org (Jona Lendering)
  • Wiki Classical Dictionary: "Successors" category and Diadochi entry
  • Pauly-Wissowa (in German, on all concerning Antiquity)
  • T. Boiy, "Dating Methods During the Early Hellenistic Period", Journal of Cuneiform Studies, Vol. 52, 2000 PDF format. A recent study of primary sources for the chronology of eastern rulers during the period of the Diodochi.

Pauly-Wissowa is the name commonly used for the Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, 1894ff, a German encyclopedia of classical scholarship. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Diadochi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2386 words)
In general Diadochi (in Greek Διάδοχοι, transcripted Diadochoi) means "successors", such that the neoplatonic refounders of Plato's Academy in Late Antiquity referred to themselves as diadochi (of Plato).
Specifically, in hellenistic history, the Diadochi were the rival successors to Alexander the Great, and their Wars of the Diadochi followed Alexander's death.
Third War of the Diadochi, 314-311 BC In this war, Antigonus, who had grown too powerful for the other rulers to tolerate him, faced Ptolemy, Lysimachus, and Cassander.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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