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Encyclopedia > Diacritic
Diacritical marks

accent

acute accent ( ´ )
double acute accent ( ˝ )
grave accent ( ` )
double grave accent (  ̏ )

breve ( ˘ )
caron / háček ( ˇ )
cedilla ( ¸ )
circumflex ( ^ )
diaeresis / umlaut ( ¨ )
dot ( · )
The acute accent (   ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin and Greek scripts. ... The double acute accent ( ˝ ) is a diacritic mark of the latin script used primarily in written Hungarian. ... The grave accent ( ` ) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek until 1982 (polytonic orthography), French, Catalan, Welsh, Italian, Vietnamese, Scottish Gaelic, Norwegian, Portuguese and other languages. ... The double grave accent is a diacritic used in scholarly discussions of the Serbo-Croatian language complex and sometimes of the Slovenian language. ... A breve (Latin brevis short, brief) is a diacritical mark Ë˜, shaped like a little round cup, designed to indicate a short vowel, as opposed to the macron Â¯ which indicates long vowels. ... For other uses, see Caron (disambiguation). ... A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritical mark to modify their pronunciation. ... The circumflex ( ˆ ) (often called a caret, a hat or an uppen) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek, French, Dutch, Esperanto, Norwegian, Romanian, Slovak, Vietnamese, Japanese romaji, Welsh, Portuguese, Italian, Afrikaans and other languages, and formerly in Turkish [citation needed]. It received its English name from Latin circumflexus (bent... The umlaut mark (or simply umlaut) and the trema or diaeresis mark (or simply diaeresis) are two diacritics consisting of a pair of dots placed over a letter. ... When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the Interpunct ( · ), or to the glyphs combining dot above ( ) and combining dot below ( ) which may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in use in Central European languages and Vietnamese. ...

anunaasika ( ˙ )
anusvara (  ̣ )
chandrabindu (   ँ   ঁ   ઁ   ଁ ఁ )

hook / dấu hỏi (  ̉ )
horn / dấu móc (  ̛ )
macron ( ¯ )
ogonek ( ˛ )
ring / kroužek ( ˚, ˳ )
rough breathing / spiritus asper (  ῾ )
smooth breathing / spiritus lenis (  ᾿ )
Anunaasika is a dot on top of a breve above a letter ( मँ ), used as a diacritic in Sanskrit written in devanagari script to represent vowel nasalization. ... Anusvaara (or anusvaaram) appears in the alphabet of Indian languages like Sanskrit which use the Devanagari script, and in the Dravidian languages. ... This article is about Chandrabindu, the character in several Brahmi derived scripts. ... For other meanings of hook, see hook (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of horn, see horn (disambiguation). ... A macron, from Greek (makros) meaning large, is a diacritic ¯ placed over a vowel originally to indicate that the vowel is long. ... It has been suggested that Ę be merged into this article or section. ... In punctuation, the term ring is usually reserved for the ring above diacritic mark ˚ (looks similar to °). The ring may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets. ... The spiritus asper (rough breathing) or dasy pneuma (Greek: dasu, δασύ) is a diacritical mark used in Greek. ... The spiritus lenis (soft breathing) or psilon pneuma (Greek: psilón, ψιλόν) is a diacritical mark used in Ancient Greek. ...

Marks sometimes used as diacritics

apostrophe ( )
bar ( | )
colon ( : )
comma ( , )
hyphen ( ˗ )
tilde ( ~ )
titlo (  ҃ )
For the prime symbol (′) used for feet and inches, see Prime (symbol). ... The bar or stroke can be a diacritic mark, when used with some letters in the Latin or Cyrillic alphabets. ... This article is about colons in punctuation. ... For other uses, see Comma. ... This article is about the punctuation mark. ... For the baseball player known as the Big Tilde, see Magglio Ordóñez. ... Titlo is an extended diacritic symbol first used in old Cyrillic manuscripts, e. ...

Example of a letter with a diacritic

A diacritic or diacritical mark, also called an accent, is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. The term derives from Greek διακριτικός (diakritikos, "distinguishing"). "Diacritic" is both adjective and noun, whereas "diacritical" is only an adjective. Image File history File links Small_a_with_acute. ... Image File history File links Small_a_with_acute. ... A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ... In linguistics, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ...


A diacritical mark can appear above or below a letter, or in some other position. Its main usage is to change the phonetic value of the letter to which it is added, but it may also be used to modify the pronunciation of a whole word or syllable, like the tone marks of tonal languages, to distinguish between homographs, to make abbreviations, such as the titlo in old Slavic texts, or to change the meaning of a letter, such as denoting numerals in numeral systems like early Greek numerals. It has been suggested that Tonal language be merged into this article or section. ... For the specialised use of homonym in scientific nomenclature, see Homonym (botany) and Homonym (zoology). ... Titlo is an extended diacritic symbol first used in old Cyrillic manuscripts, e. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... This article is about different methods of expressing numbers with symbols. ... Greek numerals are a system of representing numbers using letters of the Greek alphabet. ...


A letter which has been modified by a diacritic may be treated as a new, individual letter, or simply as a letter-diacritic combination, in orthography and collation. This varies from language to language, and in some cases from symbol to symbol within a single language. The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of using a specific writing system to write the language. ... Alphabetical redirects here. ...

Contents

Types of diacritic

Marks that are primarily used as diacritics:

Marks that are sometimes diacritics, but also have other uses: Pitch accent is a kind of accent system employed in many languages around the world. ... It has been suggested that Diacritics (Greek alphabet) be merged into this article or section. ... The acute accent (   ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin and Greek scripts. ... The grave accent ( ` ) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek until 1982 (polytonic orthography), French, Catalan, Welsh, Italian, Vietnamese, Scottish Gaelic, Norwegian, Portuguese and other languages. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The double acute accent ( ˝ ) is a diacritic mark of the latin script used primarily in written Hungarian. ... The double grave accent is a diacritic used in scholarly discussions of the Serbo-Croatian language complex and sometimes of the Slovenian language. ... The apex[1] (plural apices) is a mark with the shape of an acute accent ( ´ ) which is placed over vowels to indicate that they are long by nature. ... Ä ä Ö ö Ãœ ü The umlaut mark (or simply umlaut) and the trema or diaeresis mark (or simply diaeresis) are two diacritics consisting of a pair of dots placed over a letter. ... For other uses, see Caron (disambiguation). ... A breve (Latin brevis short, brief) is a diacritical mark Ë˜, shaped like a little round cup, designed to indicate a short vowel, as opposed to the macron Â¯ which indicates long vowels. ... A macron, from Greek (makros) meaning large, is a diacritic ¯ placed over a vowel originally to indicate that the vowel is long. ... Combining macron below (U+0331) is a Unicode combining diacritical mark used in various orthographies, see the precomposed characters ḇ, ḏ, ẖ, ḵ, ḻ, ṉ, ṟ. Not to be confused are combining minus below (U+0320), combining low line (U+0332) and low line (underscore) _ ). The difference between macron below and low line is that the... In punctuation, the term ring is usually reserved for the ring above diacritic mark ˚ (looks similar to °). The ring may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets. ... A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritical mark to modify their pronunciation. ... It has been suggested that Ę be merged into this article or section. ... When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the Interpunct ( · ), or to the glyphs combining dot above ( ) and combining dot below ( ) which may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in use in Central European languages and Vietnamese. ... Anunaasika is a dot on top of a breve above a letter ( मँ ), used as a diacritic in Sanskrit written in devanagari script to represent vowel nasalization. ... Anusvaara (or anusvaaram) appears in the alphabet of Indian languages like Sanskrit which use the Devanagari script, and in the Dravidian languages. ... i j A tittle is a small distinguishing mark, such as a diacritic or the dot over an i or a j. ... Minuscule, or lower case, is the smaller form (case) of letters (in the Roman alphabet: a, b, c, ...). Originally alphabets were written entirely in majuscule (capital) letters which were spaced between well-defined upper and lower bounds. ... For other meanings of hook, see hook (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of horn, see horn (disambiguation). ...

See also Category:Diacritics and Category:Specific letter-diacritic combinations. For the baseball player known as the Big Tilde, see Magglio Ordóñez. ... For other uses, see Comma. ... Titlo is an extended diacritic symbol first used in old Cyrillic manuscripts, e. ... An apostrophe ( ’ ) is a punctuation and sometimes diacritic mark in languages written in the Latin alphabet. ... The bar or stroke can be a diacritic mark, when used with some letters in the Latin or Cyrillic alphabets. ... This article is about colons in punctuation. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound. ...


Diacritics specific to non-Latin alphabets

Arabic alphabet The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ...

Greek alphabetDiacritics (Greek alphabet) Hamza () is a letter in the Arabic alphabet, representing the glottal stop . ... Fatha redirects here. ... Ù‘ shadda marks the gemination (doubling) of a consonant. ... The Greek alphabet (Greek: ) is an alphabet consisting of 24 letters that has been used to write the Greek language since the late 8th or early 8th century BC. It was the first alphabet in the narrow sense, that is, a writing system using a separate symbol for each vowel... In the Greek alphabet, vowels can carry diacritics, namely accents and breathings. ...

Hebrew alphabet — Niqqud The spiritus asper (rough breathing) or dasy pneuma (Greek: dasu, δασύ) is a diacritical mark used in Greek. ... The spiritus lenis (soft breathing) or psilon pneuma (Greek: psilón, ψιλόν) is a diacritical mark used in Ancient Greek. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... In Hebrew orthography, Niqqud or Nikkud (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; dots) is the system of diacritical signs used to represent vowels or distinguish between alternative pronunciations of letters in the Hebrew alphabet. ...

The dagesh (דגש) is a diacritic used in the Hebrew alphabet. ... The dagesh (דגש) is a diacritic used in the Hebrew alphabet. ... Shin (also spelled Å in or Sheen) is the twenty-first letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic (in abjadi order, 12th in modern order). ... Shin (also spelled Å in or Sheen) is the twenty-first letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic (in abjadi order, 12th in modern order). ...

Non-alphabetic scripts

Some non-alphabetic scripts also employ symbols that function essentially as diacritics.

  • Non-pure abjads (such as Hebrew and Arabic script) and abugidas use diacritics for denoting vowels. Hebrew and Arabic also indicate consonant doubling and change with diacritics; Hebrew and Devanagari use them for foreign sounds. Devanagari and related abugidas also use a diacritical mark called a virama to mark the absence of a vowel. In addition, Devanagari uses the moon-dot chandrabindu ( ).
  • Emoticons are commonly created with diacritic symbols, especially Japanese emoticons on popular boards such as 2chan and the many other imageboards suffixed -chan.

The first five letters of the Phoenician abjad, from right to left An abjad, sometimes also called a consonantary or consonantal alphabet, is a type of writing system in which there is one symbol per consonantal phoneme. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... An inscription of Swampy Cree using Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics, an abugida developed by Christian missionaries for Aboriginal Canadian languages An abugida, alphasyllabary, or syllabics is a writing system in which consonant signs (graphemes) are inherently associated with a following vowel. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari (early 19th century) Devanāgarī (देवनागरी — in English pronounced ) (ISCII – IS13194:1991) [1] is an abugida alphabet used to write several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Kashmiri, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri and Nepali from Nepal. ... Virama is a generic term for the diacritic character in many Brahmic scripts that is used to suppress an inherent vowel sound that occurs with every consonant character. ... This article is about Chandrabindu, the character in several Brahmi derived scripts. ... Hiragana ) is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system, along with katakana and kanji; the Latin alphabet is also used in some cases. ... Katakana ) is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system along with hiragana, kanji, and in some cases the Latin alphabet. ... A syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent (or approximate) syllables, which make up words. ... Dakuten ), colloquially ten-ten (dot dot), is a diacritic sign most often used in the Japanese kana syllabaries to indicate that the consonant of a syllable should be pronounced voiced. ... A voiced consonant is a sound made as the vocal cords vibrate, as opposed to a voiceless consonant, where the vocal cords are relaxed. ... An emoticon, also called a smiley, is a sequence of printable characters such as :) or :-) that is intended to represent a human facial expression and convey an emotion. ... 2chan may refer to: 2channel - a popular japanese discussion forum with the URL http://www. ...

Alphabetization or collation

Main article: Collation

Different languages use different rules to put diacritic characters in alphabetical order. French treats letters with diacritical marks the same as the underlying letter for purposes of ordering and dictionaries. Alphabetical redirects here. ... ABCs redirects here, for the Alien Big Cats, see British big cats. ...


The Scandinavian languages, by contrast, treat the characters with diacritics ä, ö and å as new and separate letters of the alphabet, and sort them after z. Usually ä is sorted as equal to æ (ash) and ö is sorted as equal to ø (o-slash). Also, aa, when used as an alternative spelling to å, is sorted as such. Other letters modified by diacritics are treated as variants of the underlying letter, with the exception that ü is frequently sorted as y.


Languages that treat accented letters as variants of the underlying letter usually alphabetize words with such symbols immediately after similar unmarked words. For instance, in German where two words differ only by an umlaut, the word without it is sorted first in German dictionaries (eg schon and then schön, or fallen and then fällen). However, when names are concerned (eg in phone books or in author catalogues in libraries), umlauts are often treated as combinations of the vowel with a suffixed e; Austrian phone books now treat characters with umlauts as separate letters (immediately following the underlying vowel).


In Spanish, the grapheme ñ is considered a new letter different from n and collated between n and o, as it denotes a different sound from that of a plain n. But the accented vowels á, é, í, ó, ú are not separated from the unaccented vowels a, e, i, o, u as the acute accent in Spanish only modifies stress within the word, not the sound of a letter. In linguistics, stress is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word. ...


For a comprehensive list of the collating orders in various languages, see Alphabets derived from the Latin. Variants of the Latin alphabet are used by the writing systems of many languages throughout the world. ...


Generation with computers

Modern computer technology was developed mostly in the English speaking countries, so data formats, keyboard layouts, etc. were developed with an English bias; a "simple" alphabet without diacritical marks. This has led to fears internationally that the marks and accents may become obsolete to facilitate the worldwide exchange of data.[citation needed] Efforts have been made to create internationalized domain names that further extend the English alphabet, e.g. "pokémon.com". Example of Arabic IDN Example of Chinese IDN An internationalized domain name (IDN) is an Internet domain name that (potentially) contains non_ASCII characters. ...


Depending on the keyboard layout, which differs amongst countries, it is more or less easy to enter letters with diacritics on computers and typewriters. Some have their own keys, some are created by first pressing the key with the diacritic mark followed by the letter to place it on. Such a key is sometimes referred to as a dead key, as it produces no output of its own, but modifies the output of the key pressed after it. A standard Hebrew keyboard showing both Hebrew and English (QWERTY) letters. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Combining character. ...


In modern Microsoft Windows operating systems, the keyboard layout US International allows one to type almost all diacritics directly: "+e gives ë, ~+o gives õ, etc. On Apple Macintosh computers, there are keyboard shortcuts for the most common diacritics; Option-e followed by a vowel places an acute accent, Option-u followed by a vowel gives an umlaut, option-c gives a cedilla, etc. Diacritics can be composed in most X Window System keyboard layouts. The first Macintosh computer, introduced in 1984, upgraded to a 512K Fat Mac. The Macintosh or Mac, is a line of personal computers designed, developed, manufactured, and marketed by Apple Computer. ... In computer science, function composition is an act or mechanism to combine simple functions to build more complicated ones. ... “X11” redirects here. ...


On computers it is also a matter of available code pages, whether you can use certain diacritics. Unicode solves this problem by assigning every known character its own code; if this code is known most modern computer systems provide a method to input it. With Unicode it is also possible to combine diacritical marks with most characters. Code page is the traditional IBM term used for a specific character encoding table: a mapping in which a sequence of bits, usually a single octet representing integer values 0 through 255, is associated with a specific character. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... Combining diacritical marks are Unicode characters that are intended to modify other characters (see Diacritic). ...


Languages with letters containing diacritics

The following languages have letters which contain diacritics.

  • Albanian has two special letters Ç and Ё upper and lowercase. They are placed next to the most similar letters in the alphabet, c and e correspondingly.
  • Azerbaijani includes the distinct Turkish alphabet letters Ç, Ğ, I, İ, Ö, Ş and Ü.
  • Bosnian and Croatian have the symbols ć, č, đ, š and ž, which are considered separate letters and are listed as such in dictionaries and other contexts in which words are listed according to alphabetical order. Bosnian and Croatian also have one digraph including a diacritic, which is also alphabetised independently, and follows d and precedes đ in the alphabetical order. The Serbian Latin alphabet contains the same letters, but the Serbian Cyrillic alphabet has no diacritics.
  • Danish uses additional characters like the ae æ, o-slash ø and the a-circle å. These letters are collated after z, in the order æ, ø, å.
  • Esperanto has the symbols ŭ, ĉ, ĝ, ĥ, ĵ and ŝ, which are included in the alphabet, and considered separate letters.
  • Estonian has a distinct letter õ which contains a tilde. Estonian "dotted vowels" ä, ö, ü are similar to German, but these are also distinct letters, not like German umlauted letters. All four have their own place in the alphabet, between w and x. Carons in š or ž appear only in foreign proper names and loanwords, but may be substituted with sh or zh if and only if it is technically impossible to produce accented letters in the medium. Also these are distinct letters, placed in the alphabet between s and t.
  • Faroese uses acute accents, digraphs, and other special letters. All are considered separate letters, and have their own place in the alphabet: á, ð, í, ó, ú, ý, æ and ø.
  • Finnish uses dotted vowels (ä and ö). As in Swedish and Estonian, these are regarded as individual letters, rather than vowel + umlaut combinations (as happens in German). It also uses the characters å, š and ž in foreign names and loanwords. In the Finnish alphabet, å, ä and ö collate as separate letters after z, the others as variants of their base letter.
  • Galician: as in Spanish, the character ñ is a letter and collated between n and o
  • Hawaiian uses the kahakô or macron over vowels, although there is some disagreement over considering them as individual letters. The kahakô over a vowel can completely change the meaning of a word that is spelled the same but without the kahakô.
  • Hungarian uses the umlaut, the acute and double acute accent (unique to Hungarian): ö ü, á é í ó ú and ő ű. The acute accent indicates the long form of a vowel (in case of i/í, o/ó, u/ú) while the double acute performs the same function for ö and ü. The acute accent can also indicate a different sound (more open, like in case of a/á, e/é). Both long and short forms of the vowels are listed separately in the Hungarian alphabet but members of the pairs a/á, e/é, i/í, o/ó, ö/ő, u/ú and ü/ű are collated in dictionaries as the same letter.
  • Icelandic uses acute accents, digraphs, and other special letters. All are considered separate letters, and have their own place in the alphabet: á, ð, é, í, ó, ú, ý, æ, ö and þ.
  • Latvian has the following letters: ā ē ī ū ŗ ļ ķ ņ ģ š ž č.
  • Lithuanian. In general usage, where letters appear with the caron (č, š and ž) they are considered as separate letters from c, s or z and collated separately; letters with the ogonek (ą, ę, į and ų), the macron (ū) and the superdot (ė) are considered as separate letters as well, but not given a unique collation order.
  • Livonian has the following letters: ā, ä, ǟ, , ē, ī, ļ, ņ, ō, ȯ, ȱ, õ, ȭ, ŗ, š, ț, ū, ž.
  • Maltese uses a C, G, and Z with a dot over them (Ċ, Ġ, Ż), and also has an H with an extra horizontal bar. For uppercase H, the extra bar is written slightly above the usual bar. For lowercase H, the extra bar is written crossing the vertical, like a t, and not touching the lower part (Ħ, ħ). The above characters are considered separate letters. The letter 'c' without a dot has fallen out of use due to redundancy. 'Ċ' is pronounced like the English 'ch' and 'k' is used as a hard c as in 'cat'. The digraph 'għ' (called għajn after the Arabic letter name ʻayn for ع) is considered separate, and sometimes ordered after 'g', whilst in other volumes it is placed between 'n' and 'o' (the Latin letter 'o' originally evolved from the shape of Phoenician ʻayin which was traditionally collated after Phoenician nūn).
  • Norwegian uses additional characters like the ae æ, o-slash ø and the a-circle å. These letters are collated after z, in the order æ, ø, å.
  • Polish has the following letters: ą ć ę ł ń ó ś ź ż. These are considered to be separate letters, each of them is placed in alphabet right after its Latin counterpart (i.e. ą between a and b), ź and ż are placed after z in this order.
  • Romanian uses a breve on the letter a (ă) to indicate the sound schwa /ə/, as well as a circumflex over the letters a (â) and i (î) for the sound /ɨ/. Romanian also writes a comma below the letters s (ș) and t (ț) to represent the sounds /ʃ/ and /ʦ/, respectively.
  • Among the Scandinavian languages, Danish and Norwegian have long used ash (æ, actually a ligature) and o-slash (ø), but have more recently incorporated a-ring (å) after Swedish example. Historically the å has developed from a ligature by writing a small a on top of the letter a; if an å character is unavailable, some Scandinavian languages allow the substitution of a doubled a. The Scandinavian languages collate these letters after z, but have different collation standards. Danish and Norwegian both follow the order æ, ø, å.
  • Slovenian: has the symbols č, š and ž, which are considered separate letters and are listed as such in dictionaries and other contexts in which words are listed according to alphabetical order.
  • Spanish: the character ñ is considered a letter, and collated between n and o.
  • Swedish uses characters identical to a-diaeresis (ä) and o-diaeresis (ö) in the place of ash and o-slash in addition to the a-circle (å). Historically the diaresis for the Swedish letters ä and ö, like the German umlaut, has developed from a small gothic e written on top of the letters. These letters are collated after z, in the order å, ä, ö.
  • Turkish uses a G with a breve (Ğ), two letters with a diaeresis (Ö and Ü, representing two rounded front vowels), two letters with a cedilla (Ç and Ş, representing the affricate /tʃ/ and the fricative /ʃ/), and also possesses a dotted capital İ (and a dotless lowercase ı representing a high unrounded back vowel). In Turkish each of these are separate letters, rather than versions of other letters, where dotted capital İ and lower case i are the same letter, as are dotless capital I and lowercase ı. Typographically, Ç and Ş are often rendered with a subdot, as in ; when a hook is used, it tends to have more a comma shape than the usual cedilla. The new Azerbaijani, Crimean Tatar, and Gagauz] alphabets are based on the Turkish alphabet and its same diacriticized letters, with some additions.
  • Cyrillic alphabets
    • Belarusian has a letter ў.
    • Belarusian, Bulgarian, Russian and Ukrainian have the letter й.
    • Belarusian and Russian have the letter ё. In Russian, this letter is usually replaced in print by е, although it has a different pronunciation. Ё is still used in children's books and in handwriting. A minimal pair is все (vse, "all" pl.) and всё (vsio, "everything" n. sg.). In Belarusian, ё is a distinct letter, and replacement by е is a mistake.
    • Ukrainian has the letter ï.
    • Macedonian has the letters ќ and ѓ.

A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritic mark to modify their pronunciation. ... Yo (Ё, Ñ‘) is the seventh letter of the Russian Cyrillic alphabet, invented to replace the recklessly confused е and o for soft o relatively soon after the introduction of the Civil alphabet. ... The Turkish alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used for writing the Turkish language, consisting of 29 letters, a certain number of which (Ç, Äž, I, Ä°, Ö, Åž, and Ãœ) have been adapted or modified for the phonetic requirements of the language. ... A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritic mark to modify their pronunciation. ... Äž, or ÄŸ, is a letter, known as g-breve in English, used in the Turkish, Azerbaijani and Tatar languages. ... Two distinct versions of the letter I, dotted and dotless, are used in the Turkish alphabet, which is a variant of the Latin alphabet. ... Ö, or ö, is a character used in several extended Latin alphabets, or the letter O with umlaut or diaeresis. ... Åž ÅŸ (S-cedilla) is a letter used in Turkish, Azeri, Tatar, Kurdish and Turkmenian languages. ... Ãœ, or ü, is a character which represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, or the letter U with umlaut or diaeresis. ... The acute accent ( Â´ ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin script. ... ÄŒ in upper- and lowercase ÄŒ is the fourth letter of the Bosnian, Croatian, Czech, Slovak and Slovenian alphabet and the fifth letter of the Lithuanian and Latvian alphabet. ... Ð, Unicode codepoint 208, U+00D0 is: Ð or Eth, a letter used in Old English and present-day Icelandic and Faroese. ... Å  in upper- and lowercase The grapheme Å , Å¡ (Latin S with háček) is used in various contexts, usually denoting the voiceless postalveolar fricative . ... Ž (minuscule: ž) is: the 25th letter of the Slovenian alphabet, the 30th letter of the Serbian; the 42nd letter of the Czech; the 19th letter of the Estonian; the 33rd letter of the Latvian; the 32nd letter of the Lithuanian; the 46th letter of Slovak; the 13th letter of the Turkmen... Digraph has several meanings: directed graph, or digraph Digraph (orthography) Digraph (computing) This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Ç… (lowercase dž) is the seventh letter of the Croatian and Serbian (Latin form) alphabets, after D and before Đ. It is pronounced as . ... For other uses, see D (disambiguation). ... Ð, Unicode codepoint 208, U+00D0 is: Ð or Eth, a letter used in Old English and present-day Icelandic and Faroese. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... Crimean Tatar language (Qırımtatar tili, Qırımtatarca), also known as Crimean (Qırım tili, Qırımca) and Crimean Turkish (Qırım Türkçesi) is the language of the Crimean Tatars. ... The Turkish alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used for writing the Turkish language, consisting of 29 letters, a certain number of which (Ç, Äž, I, Ä°, Ö, Åž, and Ãœ) have been adapted or modified for the phonetic requirements of the language. ... A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritic mark to modify their pronunciation. ... Äž, or ÄŸ, is a letter, known as g-breve in English, used in the Turkish, Azerbaijani and Tatar languages. ... Two distinct versions of the letter I, dotted and dotless, are used in the Turkish alphabet, which is a variant of the Latin alphabet. ... Ö, or ö, is a character used in several extended Latin alphabets, or the letter O with umlaut or diaeresis. ... Åž ÅŸ (S-cedilla) is a letter used in Turkish, Azeri, Tatar, Kurdish and Turkmenian languages. ... Ãœ, or ü, is a character which represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, or the letter U with umlaut or diaeresis. ... Cypriot Turkish is a dialect of Turkish spoken by Turkish Cypriots. ... Ñ and ñ in Arial and Times New Roman, with an example word from Panare Ñ is a letter of the modern Roman alphabet formed by an N with a diacritical tilde. ... Esperanto is written in an alphabet of twenty-eight letters. ... Ŭ or Å­ is a letter in the Belarusian language, when written in the Łacinka alphabet (based on the Latin alphabet), and is also a letter in the Esperanto alphabet. ... Ĉ or ĉ (C circumflex) is a consonant in Esperanto orthography, representing a voiceless postalveolar affricate (either palato-alveolar or retroflex), and is equivalent to or in the IPA. Esperanto orthography uses a diacritic for all four of its postalveolar consonants, as do the Latin-based Slavic alphabets. ... Äœ or ĝ is a consonant in the Esperanto alphabet. ... Ä¥ in different fonts (Code2000, Sylfaen, Pragmatica Esperanto Ĥ, or Ä¥, is a consonant in the Esperanto alphabet. ... Ä´ or ĵ is a consonant in the Esperanto alphabet. ... Åœ or ŝ is a consonant in the Esperanto alphabet. ... Õ, or õ is a composition of the Latin letter O with the diacritic mark tilde. ... A loanword (or a borrowing) is a word taken in by one language from another. ... Ð (capital Ð, lower-case ð) (or eth, eð or edh, Faroese: edd) is a letter used in Old English (Anglo-Saxon) and present-day Icelandic and Faroese. ... The modern Gagauz alphabet is a 32-letter Latin based alphabet modelled on the Turkish. ... The Turkish alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used for writing the Turkish language, consisting of 29 letters, a certain number of which (Ç, Äž, I, Ä°, Ö, Åž, and Ãœ) have been adapted or modified for the phonetic requirements of the language. ... A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritic mark to modify their pronunciation. ... Äž, or ÄŸ, is a letter, known as g-breve in English, used in the Turkish, Azerbaijani and Tatar languages. ... Two distinct versions of the letter I, dotted and dotless, are used in the Turkish alphabet, which is a variant of the Latin alphabet. ... Ö, or ö, is a character used in several extended Latin alphabets, or the letter O with umlaut or diaeresis. ... Åž ÅŸ (S-cedilla) is a letter used in Turkish, Azeri, Tatar, Kurdish and Turkmenian languages. ... Ãœ, or ü, is a character which represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, or the letter U with umlaut or diaeresis. ... Ä, or ä, is a glyph which represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, the letter A with umlaut, or a letter A with diaeresis. ... The circumflex ( ˆ ) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek, French, Esperanto, Norwegian, Romanian, Slovak, Vietnamese, Japanese romaji, Welsh, Portuguese, Italian, and other languages. ... A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritic mark to modify their pronunciation. ... A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritic mark to modify their pronunciation. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Galician (Galician: galego, IPA: ) is a language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch, spoken in Galicia, an autonomous community with the constitutional status of historic nationality, located in northwestern Spain and small bordering zones in neighbouring autonomous communities of Asturias and Castilla y León. ... Ñ and ñ in Arial and Times New Roman, with an example word from Panare Ñ is a letter of the modern Roman alphabet formed by an N with a diacritical tilde. ... The Hungarian alphabet is an extension of the Roman alphabet. ... n. ... Þþ The letter Þ (miniscule: þ), which is also known as thorn or þorn is a letter in the Anglo-Saxon and Icelandic alphabets. ... For other uses, see Caron (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Ę be merged into this article or section. ... A macron, from Greek (makros) meaning large, is a diacritic ¯ placed over a vowel originally to indicate that the vowel is long. ... Anunaasika is a dot on top of a breve above a letter ( मँ ), used as a diacritic in Sanskrit written in devanagari script to represent vowel nasalization. ... Livonian (LÄ«võ kēļ) belongs to the Finnic branch of the Finno-Ugric languages. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... The Phoenician alphabet is a continuation of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, by convention taken to begin with a cut-off date of 1050 BCE. It was used by the Phoenicians to write Phoenician, a Northern Semitic language. ... The IPA symbol for the Schwa In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa can mean: An unstressed and toneless neutral vowel sound in any language, often but not necessarily a mid-central vowel. ... The term comma has various uses; comma is the name used for one of the punctuation symbols: , The term comma is also used in music theory for various small intervals that arise as differences between approximately equal intervals. ... The North Germanic languages (also Scandinavian languages or Nordic languages) is a branch of the Germanic languages spoken in Scandinavia, parts of Finland and on the Faroe Islands and Iceland. ... The Danish and Norwegian alphabet consists of 29 letters: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z, Æ, Ø, Å The letter Å was introduced in Norwegian in 1917, replacing Aa. Similarly, Å was introduced in Danish... n. ... // The Ø (minuscule: ø), is a vowel and a letter used in the Danish, Faroese and Norwegian alphabets. ... Alphabetical redirects here. ... ÄŒ in upper- and lowercase ÄŒ is the fourth letter of the Bosnian, Croatian, Czech, Slovak and Slovenian alphabet and the fifth letter of the Lithuanian and Latvian alphabet. ... Å  in upper- and lowercase The grapheme Å , Å¡ (Latin S with háček) is used in various contexts, usually denoting the voiceless postalveolar fricative . ... Ž (minuscule: ž) is: the 25th letter of the Slovenian alphabet, the 30th letter of the Serbian; the 42nd letter of the Czech; the 19th letter of the Estonian; the 33rd letter of the Latvian; the 32nd letter of the Lithuanian; the 46th letter of Slovak; the 13th letter of the Turkmen... Ñ and ñ in Arial and Times New Roman, with an example word from Panare Ñ is a letter of the modern Roman alphabet formed by an N with a diacritical tilde. ... Äž, or ÄŸ, is a letter, known as g-breve in English, used in the Turkish, Azerbaijani and Tatar languages. ... Ö, or ö, is a character used in several extended Latin alphabets, or the letter O with umlaut or diaeresis. ... Ãœ, or ü, is a character which represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, or the letter U with umlaut or diaeresis. ... A cedilla is a hook (¸) added under certain consonant letters as a diacritic mark to modify their pronunciation. ... Ş ş (S-cedilla) is a letter used in Turkish, Azeri, Tatar, Kurdish and Turkmenian languages. ... İ i are letters used in the Turkish, Azerbaijani, and Tatar languages. ... Two distinct versions of the letter I, dotted and dotless, are used in the Turkish alphabet, which is a variant of the Latin alphabet. ... “Font” redirects here. ... Crimean Tatar language (Qırımtatar tili, Qırımtatarca), also known as Crimean (Qırım tili, Qırımca) and Crimean Turkish (Qırım Türkçesi) is the language of the Crimean Tatars. ... The modern Gagauz alphabet is a 32-letter Latin based alphabet modelled on the Turkish. ... For other meanings of horn, see horn (disambiguation). ... The circumflex ( ˆ ) (often called a caret, a hat or an uppen) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek, French, Dutch, Esperanto, Norwegian, Romanian, Slovak, Vietnamese, Japanese romaji, Welsh, Portuguese, Italian, Afrikaans and other languages, and formerly in Turkish [citation needed]. It received its English name from Latin circumflexus (bent... A breve (Latin brevis short, brief) is a diacritical mark Ë˜, shaped like a little round cup, designed to indicate a short vowel, as opposed to the macron Â¯ which indicates long vowels. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is actually a family of alphabets, subsets of which are used by certain Slavic languages — Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—as well as many other languages of the former Soviet Union... Short U (Ў, ў) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the short semi-vowel /u^/ in the Belarusian language. ... Й, й (Short I) is a letter in the Cyrillic alphabet. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... E or E Oborotnoye (Э, э) is a letter of the Russian alphabet, representing the non-iotated vowel, IPA: or ). Code positions See also Glagolitic alphabet Categories: | ... In phonology, minimal pairs are pairs of words or phrases in a particular language, which differ in only one phone, phoneme, toneme or chroneme and have a distinct meaning. ... Yi (Ї, ї) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, used in the Ukrainian language. ... Kje (Ќ, ќ) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, used in the Macedonian language. ... Gje (Ѓ, Ñ“) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, used in the Macedonian language and sometimes equivalent to Ñ’, mainly in Serbian words. ...

Languages with diacritics that do not produce new letters

The following is a list of languages with letter-diacritic combinations that are not considered independent letters.

  • Afrikaans uses diaeresis to mark vowels that are pronounced separately and not as one would expect where they occur together, for example voel (to feel) as opposed to voël (bird). The circumflex is used in ê, î, ô and û generally to indicate long semi-closed as opposed to semi-open vowels for example in the words wêreld (world) and môre (morning, tomorrow). The acute accent is used to add emphasis in the same way as underlining or writing in bold or italics in English, for example Dit is jóú boek (It is your book). The grave accent is used to distinguish between words that are different only in placement of the stress, for example appel (apple) and appèl (appeal) and in a few cases where it makes no difference to the pronunciation but distinguishes between homophones. The two most usual cases of the latter are the in the sayings òf... òf (either... or) and nòg... nòg (neither... nor) to distinguish them from of (or) and nog (again, still).
  • Aymara uses a diacritical horn over p, q, t, k, ch.
  • Catalan has the following composite characters: à, ç, é, è, í, ï, ó, ò, ú, ü. The acute and the grave accent indicate stress and vowel height, the cedilla marks the result of a historical palatalization, and the diaeresis mark indicates either a hiatus, or that the letter u is pronounced when the graphemes gü, qü are followed by e or i.
  • Chinese has several romanizations that use the umlaut, but only on u (ü). In Hanyu Pinyin, the four tones of Mandarin Chinese are denoted by the macron (First tone), acute (second tone), caron (third tone) and grave (Fourth tone) diacritics. Example: ā, á, ǎ, à.
  • Czech has the following composite characters: á, č, ď, é, ě, í, ň, ó, ř, š, ť, ú, ů, ý, ž.
  • Dutch uses the diaeresis. For example in ruïne it means that the u and the i are separately pronounced in their usual way, and not in the way that the combination ui is normally pronounced. Thus it works as a separation sign and not as an indication for an alternative version of the i. Diacritics can be used for emphasis (érg koud for very cold) or for disambiguation between a number of words that are spelled the same when context doesn't indicate the correct meaning (één appel = one apple, een appel = an apple; vóórkomen = to occur, voorkómen = to prevent). Grave and acute accents are used on a very small number of words, mostly loanwords. The ç also appears in some loanwords.
  • English is one of the few European languages that does not use diacritical marks, except for some borrowings taken unchanged mainly from French, in which case the diacritic is often omitted. The most likely words to keep the diacritic are apparently those containing é, such as café, résumé (especially to distinguish it from the verb "resume"), along with the word naïve (see List of English words with diacritics). English once used the diaeresis as much as Dutch does still (as in words such as "coöperate"), but this has been falling out of use (The New Yorker's house style being one of the few publications to retain this feature). The grave accent was also once used, chiefly in poetry and songs, to modify the pronunciation of words ending in -ed; -èd indicates a separate syllable. This practice has been occasionally retained in texts intended to be read aloud. Nowadays it continues primarily in liturgical texts on the word "blessèd," to distinguish from the pronunciation of "blest," which seems to differentiate between the participle and the past tense of the verb "bless," translating Latin "benedictus" and "benedixit" respectively.
  • Faroese. Non-Faroese accented letters are not added to the Faroese alphabet. These include é, ö, ü, å and recently also letters like š, ł, and ć.
  • Finnish. Carons in š and ž appear only in foreign proper names and loanwords, but may be substituted with sh or zh if and only if it is technically impossible to produce accented letters in the medium. Contrary to Estonian, š and ž are not considered distinct letters in Finnish.
  • French uses the grave accent (accent grave), the acute accent (accent aigu), the circumflex (accent circonflexe), the cedilla (cédille) and the diaeresis (tréma).
  • Galician vowels can bear a grave accent (á, é, í, ó, ú) to indicate stress or difference between two otherwise same written words (é, '(he/she) is' vs. e, 'and'), but trema is only used with ï and ü to show diaeresis in pronunciation. Only in foreign words Galician may use of another diacritics as ç (widely used in the Middle Age) ê or à.
  • German and Swiss German have the Umlaut (¨). This can be used over a, o, or u to indicate vowel modification. For instance: Ofen /'o:fən/; Öfen /'ø:fən/, which in this case makes the difference between singular and plural (“oven”/“ovens”). The sign originated in a superscript e; a handwritten Sütterlin e resembles two parallel vertical lines, like an umlaut.
  • Hebrew has many various diacritic marks known as niqqud that are used above and below script to represent vowels. These must be distinguished from cantillation, which are keys to pronunciation and syntax.
  • Irish uses acute accent to indicate that the vowel is long. It is known as síneadh fada (long sign) or simply fada (long) in Irish.
  • Maltese sometimes uses diacritics on some vowels to indicate stress or long vowels, but this is restricted to pronunciation assistance in dictionaries.
  • Portuguese has the following composite characters: à, á, â, ã, ç, é, ê, í, ó, ô, õ, ú, ü. The acute and the circumflex accent indicate stress and vowel height, the grave accent indicates crasis, the cedilla marks the result of a historical palatalization. In Brazilian Portuguese, the diaeresis mark indicates that the letter u is pronounced when the graphemes gü, qü are followed by e or i.
  • Acute accents are also used in Slavic language dictionaries and textbooks to indicate lexical stress, placed over the vowel of the stressed syllable. This can also serve to disambiguate meaning (e.g., in Russian писа́ть (pisát) means "to write", but пи́сать (písat) means "to piss").
  • Slovak has the acute (á, é, í, ĺ, ó, ŕ, ú, ý), the caron (č, ď, dž, ľ, ň, š, ť, ž), the circumflex (only above o - ô) and the diaeresis (only above a - ä).
  • Spanish uses the acute accent and the diaeresis. The acute is used on a vowel in a stressed syllable in words with irregular stress patterns. It can also be used to "break up" a diphthong as in tío (pronounced /'tio/, rather than /tjo/ as it would be without the accent). Moreover, the acute can be used to distinguish words that otherwise are spelt alike, such as si ("if") and ("yes"), and also to distinguish interrogative and exclamative pronouns from homophones with a different grammatical function, such as donde/¿dónde? ("where"/"where?") or como/¿cómo? ("as"/"how?") The diaeresis is used only over u (ü) so that it be pronounced /w/ in the combinations gue and gui (where u is normally silent), for example ambigüedad. In poetry, the diaeresis may be used on i and u as a way to force a hiatus. Very rarely, the "dotted l" may also be found, especially in loanwords, in order to indicate that the letters "ll" should not be pronounced as the Castilian letter "elle," but rather, as the letter "ele," in much the way that a diaresis might be used to "break" a diphthong in other languages. This is accent mark, however, derives from other Iberian languages.[citation needed]
  • Swedish sometimes uses an optional acute accent to show non-standard stress, like in idé, kafé or resumé.
  • Tamil does not have any diacritics in itself, but uses the Hindu numerals 2, 3 and 4 as diacritics to represent aspirated, voiced, and voiced-aspirated consonants when the Tamil script is used to write to long passages in Sanskrit.
  • Thai has its own system of diacritics derived from Indic numerals, which denote different tones.
  • Vietnamese uses the acute accent (dấu sắc), the grave accent (dấu huyền), the tilde (dấu ngã), the dot below (dấu nặng) and the hook (dấu hỏi) on vowels as tone indicators.
  • Welsh uses the circumflex, diaeresis, acute and grave accents on its seven vowels a, e, i, o, u, w, y. The most common is the circumflex (which it calls to bach, meaning "little roof") to denote a long vowel, usually to disambiguate it from a similar word with a short vowel. The rarer grave accent has the opposite effect, shortening vowel sounds which would usually be pronounced long. The acute accent and diaeresis are also occasionally used, to denote stress and vowel separation respectively. The w-circumflex and the y-circumflex are among the most commonly accented characters in Welsh, but unusual in languages generally, and were until recently very hard to obtain in word-processed and HTML documents.

Look up Wiktionary:Swadesh lists for Afrikaans and Dutch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Aymara is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara of the Andes. ... The Catalan alphabet comes from the Roman alphabet. ... In linguistics, stress is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word. ... In phonetics, vowel height refers to the position of the tongue relative to the roof of the mouth in a vowel sound. ... Palatalization means pronouncing a sound nearer to the hard palate, making it more like a palatal consonant; this is towards the front of the mouth for a velar or uvular consonant, but towards the back of the mouth for a front (e. ... Hiatus in linguistics is the separate pronunciation of two adjacent vowels, sometimes with an intervening glottal stop. ... Languages can be romanized in a variety of ways, as shown here with Mandarin Chinese In linguistics, romanization (or Latinization, also spelled romanisation or Latinisation) is the representation of a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, or a system for doing so, where the original word or language... Pinyin (拼音, Pīnyīn) literally means join (together) sounds (a less literal translation being phoneticize, spell or transcription) in Chinese and usually refers to Hànyǔ Pīnyīn (汉语拼音, literal meaning: Han language pinyin), which is a system of... It has been suggested that Tonal language be merged into this article or section. ... This article is on all of the Northern Chinese dialects. ... The modern English alphabet consists of the 26 letters[1] of the Latin alphabet: The exact shape of printed letters varies depending on the typeface. ... This is a list of loan words adopted into the English language that have letters with diacritical marks. ... For other uses, see New Yorker. ... A publishing companys or periodicals house style is the collection of conventions in its manual of style. ... A loanword (or a borrowing) is a word taken in by one language from another. ... Galician (Galician: galego, IPA: ) is a language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch, spoken in Galicia, an autonomous community with the constitutional status of historic nationality, located in northwestern Spain and small bordering zones in neighbouring autonomous communities of Asturias and Castilla y León. ... The umlaut mark (or simply umlaut) and the trema or diaeresis mark (or simply diaeresis) are two diacritics consisting of a pair of dots placed over a letter. ... In linguistics, a, diaeresis, or dieresis (AE) (from Greek (diaerein), to divide) is the modification of a syllable by distinctly pronouncing one of its vowels. ... Swiss German (Schweizerdeutsch, Schwyzerdütsch, Schwiizertüütsch, Schwizertitsch) is any of the Alemannic dialects spoken in Switzerland. ... Sütterlin example in German The Sütterlinschrift, or Sütterlin for short, is a form of the old German blackletter handwriting (Spitzschrift) that was designed by and named after Ludwig Sütterlin, a German graphical designer and teacher who was commissioned to do so by the Prussian ministry for... Note: This article contains special characters. ... In Hebrew orthography, Niqqud or Nikkud (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; dots) is the system of diacritical signs used to represent vowels or distinguish between alternative pronunciations of letters in the Hebrew alphabet. ... Gen. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound. ... The acute accent (   ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin and Greek scripts. ... The grave accent ( ` ) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek until 1982 (polytonic orthography), French, Catalan, Welsh, Italian, Vietnamese, Scottish Gaelic, Norwegian, Portuguese and other languages. ... Japanese writing Kanji 漢字 Kana 仮名 Hiragana 平仮名 Katakana 片仮名 Uses Furigana 振り仮名 Okurigana 送り仮名 Romaji ローマ字 The title given to this article lacks diacritics because of certain technical limitations. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji The Hepburn romanization system ) is named after James Curtis Hepburn, who used it to transcribe the sounds of the Japanese language into the Latin alphabet in the third edition of his Japanese–English dictionary, published... A macron, from Greek (makros) meaning large, is a diacritic ¯ placed over a vowel originally to indicate that the vowel is long. ... In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound. ... Japanese writing Kanji 漢字 Kana 仮名 Hiragana 平仮名 Katakana 片仮名 Uses Furigana 振り仮名 Okurigana 送り仮名 Romaji ローマ字 Kunrei-shiki (訓令式, Cabinet-ordered system) is a romanization system, that is, a system for transcribing the Japanese language into the Roman alphabet. ... Nihon-shiki or Nippon-shiki (日本式 Japan-style; romanized as Nihon-siki or Nippon-siki in Nippon-shiki itself) is a romanization system for transcribing the Japanese language into the Roman alphabet. ... The circumflex ( ˆ ) (often called a caret, a hat or an uppen) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek, French, Dutch, Esperanto, Norwegian, Romanian, Slovak, Vietnamese, Japanese romaji, Welsh, Portuguese, Italian, Afrikaans and other languages, and formerly in Turkish [citation needed]. It received its English name from Latin circumflexus (bent... The acute accent (   ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin and Greek scripts. ... The grave accent ( ` ) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek until 1982 (polytonic orthography), French, Catalan, Welsh, Italian, Vietnamese, Scottish Gaelic, Norwegian, Portuguese and other languages. ... For the baseball player known as the Big Tilde, see Magglio Ordóñez. ... Pitch accent is a kind of accent system employed in many languages around the world. ... Crasis is the contraction of a vowel or diphthong at the end of a word with a vowel or diphthong at the start of the following word. ... Brazilian Portuguese (português do Brasil in Portuguese) is a group of dialects of Portuguese written and spoken by virtually all the 190 million inhabitants of Brazil and by a couple of million Brazilian emigrants, mainly in the United States, United Kingdom, Portugal, Canada, Japan, and Paraguay. ... The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) comprise the languages of the Slavic peoples. ... In linguistics, stress is the emphasis given to some syllables (often no more than one in each word, but in many languages, long words have a secondary stress a few syllables away from the primary stress, as in the words cóunterfòil or còunterintélligence. ... In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ... The acute accent (   ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin and Greek scripts. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... For other uses, see Arabic numerals (disambiguation). ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The Thai alphabet (Thai: ) (àk-sŏn tai) is used to write the Thai language and other minority languages in Thailand. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ... It has been suggested that Tonal language be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Tonal language be merged into this article or section. ... The modern Welsh alphabet (Yr Wyddor) contains 28 letters, of which eight are digraphs: a, b, c, ch, d, dd, e, f, ff, g, ng, h, i, l, ll, m, n, o, p, ph, r, rh, s, t, th, u, w, y The acute accent, the grave accent, the circumflex...

See also

Variants of the Latin alphabet are used by the writing systems of many languages throughout the world. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... The term Alt codes is used to refer to a number of Unicode input methods that allow characters to be entered by typing a characters code point in concert with the Alt key. ... The heavy metal umlaut, or rock dots, is an umlaut over letters in the name of a heavy metal band, such as Mötley Crüe or Motörhead. ... This is a list of loan words adopted into the English language that have letters with diacritical marks. ... This is a list of U.S. city or municipality names with diacritics. ... Combining diacritical marks are Unicode characters that are intended to modify other characters (see Diacritic). ... In the Greek alphabet, vowels can carry diacritics, namely accents and breathings. ...

External links

The ISO basic Latin alphabet
Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz

  Results from FactBites:
 
Glossary (8703 words)
In the latter case, the diacritic usually represents an independent value (for example, an accent, tone, or some other linguistic information).
A phonological process whereby the tone associated with one syllable in a tonal language influences the realization of a tone associated with a neighboring syllable.
A diacritic or nonspacing mark that represents a phonemic tone.
Nabadwip Diacritic Fonts Info (702 words)
This is a diacritic 'Type 1 Font' for the Mac, also for the PC, please see below.) It is based on 'Times' and includes all characters currently used by us in the transliteration of Sanskrit and Bengali into Roman script.
All the diacritic characters function as letters, thus allowing all the normal functions of selecting whole words, sentences, etc.; and searches, etc., as well as allowing the compilation of diacritic dictionaries in Microsoft Word and some other programmes.
In the "Centenary" family are three separate TrueType files: one for Centenary Plain (28K), one for Centenary Bold (25K), and one for Centenary Italic (27K).
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