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Encyclopedia > Diabetes mellitus type 1
Diabetes mellitus type 1
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 E10
ICD-9 250.x1, 250.x3
OMIM 222100
DiseasesDB 3649
MedlinePlus 000305
eMedicine med/546 
MeSH D003922

Diabetes mellitus type 1 (Type 1 diabetes, Type I diabetes, T1D, T1DM, IDDM, juvenile diabetes) is a form of diabetes mellitus. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that results in the permanent destruction of insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. Type 1 is lethal unless treatment with exogenous insulin via injections replaces the missing hormone, or a functional replacement for the destroyed pancreatic beta cells is provided (such as via a pancreas transplant). The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... For the disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of very dilute urine, see diabetes insipidus. ... Autoimmune diseases arise from an overactive immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body. ... Not to be confused with inulin. ... Beta cells are a type of cell in the pancreas in areas called the islets of Langerhans. ... The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine systems of vertebrates. ... Injection has multiple meanings: In mathematics, the term injection refers to an injective function. ... For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ...


Type 1 diabetes (formerly known as "childhood", "juvenile" or "insulin-dependent" diabetes) is not exclusively a childhood problem: the adult incidence of Type 1 is noteworthy — many adults who contract Type 1 diabetes are misdiagnosed with Type 2 due to the misconception of Type 1 as a disease of children — and since there is no cure, all children with Type 1 diabetes will grow up to be adults with Type 1 diabetes. Diabetes mellitus type 2 or Type 2 Diabetes (formerly called non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM), obesity-related diabetes, or adult-onset diabetes) is a metabolic disorder that is primarily characterized by insulin resistance, relative insulin deficiency, and hyperglycemia. ...


There is currently no preventive measure that can be taken against type 1 diabetes. Most people affected by type 1 diabetes are otherwise healthy and of a healthy weight when onset occurs, but they can lose weight quickly and dangerously, if not diagnosed in a relatively short amount of time. Diet and exercise cannot reverse or prevent type 1 diabetes. Although there are clinical trials ongoing that aim to find methods of preventing or slowing its development, so far none have proven successful, at least on a permanent basis.


The most useful laboratory test to distinguish Type 1 from Type 2 diabetes is the C-peptide assay, which is a measure of endogenous insulin production since external insulin (to date) has included no C-peptide. However, C-peptide is not absent in Type 1 diabetes until insulin production has fully ceased, which may take months.[citation needed] The presence of anti-islet antibodies (to Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase, Insulinoma Associated Peptide-2 or insulin), or lack of insulin resistance, determined by a glucose tolerance test, would also be suggestive of Type 1. As opposed to that, many Type 2 diabetics still produce some insulin internally, and all have some degree of insulin resistance. C-peptide is a peptide which is made when proinsulin is split into insulin and C-peptide. ... L-Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is an enzyme necessary for the synthesis of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA in GABAergic nerve endings. ... Insulin resistance is the condition in which normal amounts of insulin are inadequate to produce a normal insulin response from fat, muscle and liver cells. ... A glucose tolerance test in medical practice is the administration of glucose to determine how quickly it is cleared from the blood. ...


Testing for GAD 65 antibodies has been proposed as an improved test for differentiating between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes.

Diabetes mellitus
Types of Diabetes
Diabetes mellitus type 1
Diabetes mellitus type 2
Gestational diabetes

Pre-diabetes:
Impaired fasting glycaemia
Impaired glucose tolerance For the disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of very dilute urine, see diabetes insipidus. ... Diabetes mellitus type 2 or Type 2 Diabetes (formerly called non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM), obesity-related diabetes, or adult-onset diabetes) is a metabolic disorder that is primarily characterized by insulin resistance, relative insulin deficiency, and hyperglycemia. ... Gestational diabetes is a form of diabetes found in pregnant women. ... Impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG) is a pre-diabetic state of dysglycemia, associated with insulin resistance and increased risk cardiovascular pathology, although of lesser risk than Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). ... Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) is a pre-diabetic state of dysglycemia, that is associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of cardiovascular pathology. ...

Disease Management
Diabetes management:
Diabetic diet
•Anti-diabetic drugs
Conventional insulinotherapy
Intensive insulinotherapy
Other Concerns
Cardiovascular disease

Diabetic comas:
Diabetic hypoglycemia
Diabetic ketoacidosis
Nonketotic hyperosmolar This article is about the management of diabetes mellitus. ... The diet recommended for people who suffer from diabetes mellitus is one that is high in dietary fibre, especially soluble fibre, but low in fat (especially saturated fat) and sugar. ... An anti-diabetic drug or oral hypoglycemic agent is used to treat diabetes mellitus. ... Conventional insulinotherapy is a therapeutic regimen for diabetes mellitus treatment. ... Intensive insulinotherapy is a therapeutic regimen for diabetes mellitus treatment. ... Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins). ... Diabetic coma is a medical emergency in which a person with diabetes mellitus is comatose (unconscious) because of one of three acute complications of diabetes: Severe diabetic hypoglycemia Advanced diabetic ketoacidosis advanced enough to result in unconsciousness from a combination of severe hyperglycemia, dehydration and shock, and exhaustion Hyperosmolar nonketotic... Diabetic hypoglycemia describes low blood glucose (hypoglycemia) occurring in a person with diabetes mellitus. ... Diabetic ketoacidosis(DKA) is a life-threatening complication in patients with untreated diabetes mellitus (chronic high blood sugar or hyperglycemia). ... Nonketotic hyperosmolar coma is a type of diabetic coma associated with a high mortality seen in diabetes mellitus type 2. ...


Diabetic myonecrosis
Diabetic nephropathy
Diabetic neuropathy
Diabetic retinopathy Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Diabetic nephropathy (nephropatia diabetica), also known as Kimmelstiel-Wilson syndrome and intercapillary glomerulonephritis, is a progressive kidney disease caused by angiopathy of capillaries in the kidney glomeruli. ... Diabetic neuropathies are neuropathic disorders that are associated with diabetes mellitus. ... Diabetic retinopathy is retinopathy (damage to the retina) caused by complications of diabetes mellitus, which could eventually lead to blindness. ...


Diabetes and pregnancy For women with diabetes mellitus, pregnancy can present some particular challenges for both mother and child. ...

Blood tests
Blood sugar
Fructosamine
Glucose tolerance test
Glycosylated hemoglobin

Contents

In medicine, blood sugar is a term used to refer to levels of glucose in the blood. ... Fructosamine, also known as Glycated Serum Protein (GSP) or Glycated Albumin, is used primarily to identify the plasma glucose concentration over time and so assess diabetic control . ... A glucose tolerance test in medical practice is the administration of glucose to determine how quickly it is cleared from the blood. ... Glycosylated (or glycated) hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1c, Hb1c , HbA1c or HgA1c) is a form of hemoglobin used primarily to identify the plasma glucose concentration over time. ...

Pathophysiology

The cause of Type 1 diabetes is still not fully understood. Some theorize that Type 1 diabetes could be a virally induced autoimmune response. Autoimmunity is a condition where one's own immune system "attacks" structures in one's own body either destroying the tissue or decreasing its functionality. In the proposed scenario, pancreatic beta cells in the Islets of Langerhans are destroyed or damaged sufficiently to abolish endogenous insulin production. This etiology makes type 1 distinct from type 2 diabetes mellitus. It should also be noted that the use of insulin in a patient's diabetes treatment protocol does not render them as having type 1 diabetes, the type of diabetes a patient has is determined only by disease etiology. The autoimmune attack may be triggered by reaction to an infection, for example by one of the viruses of the Coxsackie virus family or German measles, although the evidence is inconclusive. Beta cells are a type of cell in the pancreas in areas called the islets of Langerhans. ... A porcine islet of Langerhans. ... Not to be confused with inulin. ... Autoimmune diseases arise from an overactive immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body. ... Coxsackie B4 virus is a virus which can trigger an autoimmune reaction which results in destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas, which is one of several different etiologies of diabetes mellitus. ...


This vulnerability is not shared by everyone, for not everyone infected by these organisms develops Type 1 diabetes. This has suggested a genetic vulnerability[1] and there is indeed an observed inherited tendency to develop Type 1.[citation needed] It has been traced to particular HLA genotypes, though the connection between them and the triggering of an auto-immune reaction is poorly understood. Wide-scale genetic studies have shown links between genetic vulnerabilities for type 1 diabetes and Multiple Sclerosis and Crohn's Disease.[citation needed] HLA region of Chromosome 6 The human leukocyte antigen system (HLA) is the name of the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC). ... Multiple sclerosis (abbreviated MS, also known as disseminated sclerosis or encephalomyelitis disseminata) is an autoimmune condition in which the immune system attacks the central nervous system (CNS), leading to demyelination. ... Crohns disease (also known as regional enteritis) is a chronic, episodic, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and is generally classified as an autoimmune disease. ...


Some researchers believe that the autoimmune response is influenced by antibodies against cow's milk proteins.[2] A large retrospective controlled study published in 2006 strongly suggests that infants who were never breastfed had a risk for developing Type 1 diabetes twice that of infants who were breastfed for at least three months. The mechanism, if any, is not understood. No connection has been established between autoantibodies, antibodies to cow's milk proteins, and Type 1 diabetes. A subtype of Type 1 (identifiable by the presence of antibodies against beta cells) typically develops slowly and so is often confused with Type 2. In addition, a small proportion of Type 1 cases have the hereditary condition maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) which can also be confused with Type 2. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A glass of cows milk Milk most often means the nutrient fluid produced by the mammary glands of female mammals. ... An autoantibody is an antibody (a type of protein) manufactured by the immune system that is directed against one or more of the individuals own proteins. ... Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) refers to any of several rare hereditary forms of diabetes mellitus due to dominantly inherited defects of insulin secretion. ...


Vitamin D in doses of 2000 IU per day given during the first year of a child's life has been connected in one study in Northern Finland (where intrinsic production of Vitamin D is low due to low natural light levels) with an 80% reduction in the risk of getting Type 1 diabetes later in life. Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ...


Some suggest that deficiency of Vitamin D3 (one of several related chemicals with Vitamin D activity) may be an important pathogenic factor in Type 1 diabetes independent of geographical latitude.


Some chemicals and drugs specifically destroy pancreatic cells. Vacor (N-3-pyridylmethyl-N'-p-nitrophenyl urea), a rodenticide introduced in the United States in 1976, selectively destroys pancreatic beta cells, resulting in Type 1 diabetes after accidental or intentional ingestion. Vacor was withdrawn from the U.S. market in 1979. Zanosar is the trade name for streptozotocin, an antibiotic and antineoplastic agent used in chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer, that kills beta cells, resulting in loss of insulin production. Streptozotocin (STZ, Zanosar) is a drug used in treating cancer of the pancreas. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... herbs that have the specific action of inhibiting and combating the development of tumors. ... Pancreatic cancer is a malignant tumor of the pancreas. ...


Other pancreatic problems, including trauma, pancreatitis or tumors (either malignant or benign), can also lead to loss of insulin production. The exact cause(s) of Type 1 diabetes are not yet fully understood, and research on those mentioned, and others, continues. Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas. ...


In December 2006, researchers from Toronto Hospital for Sick Children revealed research that shows a link between type 1 diabetes and the immune and nervous system. Using mice, the researchers discovered that a control circuit exists between insulin-producing cells and their associated sensory (pain-related) nerves.[3] It's being suggested that faulty nerves in the pancreas could be a cause of type 1 diabetes. The Hospital for Sick Children, also known as SickKids, is a world-renowned childrens hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ...


Treatment

Main article: Diabetes management

Type 1 is treated with insulin replacement therapy — usually by injection or insulin pump, along with attention to dietary management, typically including carbohydrate tracking, and careful monitoring of blood glucose levels using Glucose meters. This article is about the management of diabetes mellitus. ... Insulin pump attached to its user with an infusion set. ... In medicine, blood sugar is glucose in the blood. ... Four generations of blood glucose meter, c. ...


Untreated Type 1 diabetes can lead to one form of diabetic coma, diabetic ketoacidosis, which can be fatal. At present, insulin treatment must be continued for a lifetime; this will change if better treatment, or a cure, is discovered. Continuous glucose monitors have been developed which can alert patients to the presence of dangerously high or low blood sugar levels, but the lack of widespread insurance coverage has limited the impact these devices have had on clinical practice so far.


In more extreme cases, a pancreas transplant can help restore proper glucose regulation. However, the surgery and accompanying immunosuppression required is considered by many physicians to be more dangerous than continued insulin replacement therapy and is therefore often used only as a last resort (such as when a kidney must also be transplanted or in cases where the patient's blood glucose levels are extremely volatile). Experimental replacement of beta cells (by transplant or from stem cells) is being investigated in several research programs and may become clinically available in the future. Thus far, beta cell replacement has only been performed on patients over age 18, and with tantalizing successes amidst nearly universal failure.


Pancreas transplantation

Pancreas transplants are generally recommended if a kidney transplant is also necessary. The reason for this is that introducing a new kidney requires taking immunosuppressive drugs anyway, and this allows the introduction of a new, functioning pancreas to a patient with diabetes without any additional immunosuppressive therapy. However, pancreas transplants alone can be wise in patients with extremely labile type 1 diabetes mellitus. Major function-filter blood. ... For a list of immunosuppressive drugs, see the transplant rejection page. ...


Artificial Pancreas

Main article: Artificial pancreas

The artificial pancreas is a technology in development to help diabetic persons automatically control their blood glucose level by providing the substitute endocrine functionality of a healthy pancreas. ...

Islet cell transplantation

Less invasive than a pancreas transplant, islet cell transplantation is currently the most highly used approach in humans to temporarily cure type 1 diabetes. Microscopic image of an islet of Langerhans (lighter area) surrounded by exocrine pancreas tissue (darker staining) Islet transplantation is the transplantation of islets from a donor pancreas and into another person. ...


In one variant of this procedure, islet cells are injected into the patient's liver, where they take up residence and begin to produce insulin. The liver is expected to be the most reasonable choice because it is more accessible than the pancreas, and the islet cells seem to produce insulin well in that environment. The patient's body, however, will treat the new cells just as it would any other introduction of foreign tissue. The immune system will attack the cells as it would a bacterial infection or a skin graft. Thus, the patient also needs to undergo treatment involving immunosuppressants, which reduce immune system activity. The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Immunosuppressive drugs or immunosuppressants are drugs that are used in immunosuppressive therapy to inhibit or prevent activity of the immune system. ...


Recent studies have shown that islet cell transplants have progressed to the point that 58% of the patients in one study were insulin independent one year after the operation.[4] Ideally, it would be best to use islet cells which will not provoke this immune reaction, but investigators are also looking into placing islets into a protective coating which enables insulin to flow out while protecting the islets from white blood cells.


Prevalence

It is estimated that about 5%–10% of North American diabetes patients have type 1. The fraction of type 1 in other parts of the world differs; this is likely due to both differences in the rate of type 1 and differences in the rate of other types, most prominently type 2. Most of this difference is not currently understood. Variable criteria for categorizing diabetes types may play a part.


Research foundations

The Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF) is the major charitable organization in the USA and Canada devoted to type 1 diabetes research. JDRF's mission is to cure type 1 diabetes and its complications through the support of research. Since its founding in 1970, JDRF has contributed more than $1.16 billion to diabetes research, including more than $137 million in FY 2007. In FY2007, the Foundation funded 700 centers, grants and fellowships in 20 countries. The Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF) is the leading charitable funder and advocate of type 1 (juvenile) diabetes research worldwide. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized...


The International Diabetes Federation is a worldwide alliance of over 160 countries to address diabetes research and treatment. The American Diabetes Association funds some work on type 1 but devotes much of its resources to type 2 diabetes due to the increasing prevalence of the latter type. Diabetes Australia is involved in promoting research and education in Australia on both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The Canadian Diabetes Association is also involved in educating, researching, and sustaining sufferers of Type 1 Diabetics in Canada. Pacific Northwest Diabetes Research Institute conducts clinical and basic research on type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) is the global advocate for more than 230 million people with diabetes worldwide. ... The American Diabetes Association, or the ADA, is an American health organization providing diabetes research, information and advocacy. ... See diabetes mellitus for further general information on diabetes. ... The Canadian Diabetes Association is an organization whose mission is to promote the health of Canadians through diabetes research, education, service, and advocacy. ...


Cure

As of 2008, there is no known cure for diabetes mellitus type 1 used by modern medical institutes or hospitals.[5] There is ongoing research on various approaches to curing diabetes type 1. 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Cure (disambiguation). ... Biomedical research (or experimental medicine), in general simply known as medical research, is the basic research or applied research conducted to aid the body of knowledge in the field of medicine. ...


Diabetes type 1 is caused by the destruction of sufficient beta cells in the body; these cells, which are found in the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, produce and secrete insulin, the single hormone responsible for allowing glucose to enter from the blood into cells, and also the hormone amylin, another hormone required for glucose homeostasis, as well as the counterregulatory hormone glucagon which is secreted by the alpha cells. Hence, the phrase "curing diabetes type 1" means "causing a maintenance or restoration of the endogenous ability of the body to produce insulin in response to the level of blood glucose" and full restoration of the counterregulatory function. This section does not deal with approaches other than that (for instance, closed-loop integrated glucometer/insulin pump products), which could potentially increase the quality-of-life for some who have diabetes type 1, and may by some be termed "artificial pancreas". Instead, it only deals with such approaches for thoroughly curing the underlying condition of diabetes type 1, by enabling the body to endogenously, in vivo, produce insulin in response to the level of blood glucose. Beta cells are a type of cell in the pancreas in areas called the islets of Langerhans. ... A porcine islet of Langerhans. ... The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine systems of vertebrates. ... Not to be confused with inulin. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... For other uses, see Blood (disambiguation). ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... Amylin, or Islet Amyloid Polypeptide (IAPP), is a 37-residue peptide hormone secreted by pancreatic β-cells at the same time as insulin (in a roughly 100:1 ratio). ... Look up Endogenous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Reversion

Encapsulation approach

The Bio-artificial pancreas: this diagram shows a cross section of bio-engineered tissue with encapsulated islet cells which deliver endocrine hormones in response to glucose.
The Bio-artificial pancreas: this diagram shows a cross section of bio-engineered tissue with encapsulated islet cells which deliver endocrine hormones in response to glucose.

A biological approach to the artificial pancreas is to implant bioengineered tissue containing islet cells, which would secrete the amounts of insulin, amylin and glucagon needed in response to sensed glucose. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1093x762, 116 KB) mbbradford I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1093x762, 116 KB) mbbradford I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering and materials methods, and suitable biochemical and physio-chemical factors to improve or replace biological functions. ... A porcine islet of Langerhans. ... The endocrine system is a control system of ductless endocrine glands that secrete chemical messengers called hormones that circulate within the body via the bloodstream to affect distant organs. ... The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine systems of vertebrates. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering and materials methods, and suitable biochemical and physio-chemical factors to improve or replace biological functions. ... A porcine islet of Langerhans. ... Amylin, or Islet Amyloid Polypeptide (IAPP), is a 37-residue peptide hormone secreted by pancreatic β-cells at the same time as insulin (in a roughly 100:1 ratio). ... Glucagon ball and stick model A microscopic image stained for glucagon. ...


When islet cells have been transplanted via the Edmonton protocol, insulin production (and glycemic control) was restored, but at the expense of immunosuppression. Encapsulation of the islet cells in a protective coating has been developed to block the imBARTSmune response to transplanted cells, which relieves the burden of immunosuppression and benefits the longevity of the transplant.[6] The Edmonton Protocol is a method of implantation of pancreatic islets for the treatment of diabetes. ... Immunosuppression is the medical suppression of the immune system. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ...


One concept of the bio-artificial pancreas uses encapsulated islet cells to build an islet sheet which can be surgically implanted to function as an artificial pancreas.[7]


This islet sheet design consists of:

  • an inner mesh of fibers to provide strength for the islet sheet;
  • islet cells, encapsulated to avoid triggering a proliferating immune response, adhered to the mesh fibers;
  • a semi-permeable protective layer around the sheet, to allow the diffusion of nutrients and secreted hormones;
  • a protective coating, to prevent a foreign body response resulting in a fibrotic reaction which walls off the sheet and causes failure of the islet cells.

Islet sheet with encapsulation research is pressing forward with large animal studies at the present, with plans for human clinical trials within a few years. A semipermeable membrane is a membrane which will allow certain molecules to pass through it by diffusion (sometimes facilitated diffusion). The rate of passage depends on the pressure, concentration and temperature of the molecules (or solutes) on either side, as well as the permeability of the membrane to each kind. ... diffusion (disambiguation). ...


Islet cell regeneration approach

Research undertaken at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston Masschusetts from 2001 and 2003 demonstrated a protocol to reverse type 1 diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice (a frequently used animal model of type 1 diabetes mellitus).[8] Three other institutions have had similar results, published in the March 24, 2006 issue of Science. A fourth study by the National Institutes of Health further confirmed the approach, and also sheds light on the biological mechanisms involved.[9] Science is the academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and is considered one of the worlds most prestigious scientific journals. ... National Institutes of Health Building 50 at NIH Clinical Center - Building 10 The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is an agency of the United States Ministry of Health and Human Services and is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and health-related research. ...


Other researchers, most notably Dr. Aaron I. Vinik of the Strelitz Diabetes Research Institute of Eastern Virginia Medical School and a former colleague, Dr. Lawrence Rosenberg (now at McGill University in Montreal, Canada) discovered in a protein they refer to as INGAP, which stands for Islet Neogenesis Associated Protein back in 1997. INGAP is a gene that is responsible for regenerating the islets that make insulin and other important hormones in the pancreas.


INGAP has something of a checkered history as far as commercialization is concerned. Although it appears promising, the rights to commercialize it have traded hands a repeatedly over, having once been owned by Procter & Gamble Pharmaceuticals, but P&G later dropped it. The rights were then acquired by GMP Companies. More recently, Kinexum Metabolics, Inc. has since sublicensed INGAP Peptide from GMP Companies for further clinical trials. Kinexum has continued development under the guidance of Dr. G. Alexander Fleming, a well-known authority on metabolic drug development, who headed diabetes drug review at the FDA for over a decade. As of 2008, the protein had undergone Phase 2 Human Clinical Trials, and the developers were investigating the results. At the American Diabetes Association's 68th Annual Scientific Sessions in San Francisco, Kinexum announced a Phase 2 human clinical trial with a combination therapy, consisting of DiaKine's Lisofylline (LSF) and Kinexum's INGAP peptide, which is expected to begin in late 2008.[10] The trial will be unique in that patients who are beyond the 'newly diagnosed' period will be included in the study. Most current trials seeking to treat people with type 1 diabetes do not include those with established disease.


Stem cells approach

Research is being done at several locations in which islet cells are developed from stem cells. Mouse embryonic stem cells with fluorescent marker. ...


In January 2006, a team of South Korean scientists has grown pancreatic beta cells, which can help treat diabetes, from stem cells taken from the umbilical cord blood of newborn babies.


In April 2007, it was reported by the Times Online that 15 young Brazilian patients diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes were able to naturally produce insulin once again after undergoing mild chemotherapy to temporarily weaken their immune systems and then injection of their own stem cells. This allowed the pancreatic beta cells to produce insulin. Since white blood cells were blocking the pancreas from producing insulin, Dr. Voltarelli and colleagues killed the immune cells, allowing the pancreas to secrete insulin once more.


However, there were no control subjects, which means that all of the processes could have been completely or partially natural. Secondly, no theory for the mechanism of cure has been promoted. It is too early to say whether the results will be positive or negative in the long run.[11]


Gene therapy approach

Gene therapy: Designing a viral vector to deliberately infect cells with DNA to carry on the viral production of insulin in response to the blood sugar level.
Gene therapy: Designing a viral vector to deliberately infect cells with DNA to carry on the viral production of insulin in response to the blood sugar level.

Technology for gene therapy is advancing rapidly such that there are multiple pathways possible to support endocrine function, with potential to practically cure diabetes.[12] Gene therapy using an Adenovirus vector File links The following pages link to this file: Gene therapy Categories: National Institutes of Health images ... Gene therapy using an Adenovirus vector File links The following pages link to this file: Gene therapy Categories: National Institutes of Health images ... Gene therapy is the insertion of genes into an individuals cells and tissues to treat a disease, and hereditary diseases in which a defective mutant allele is replaced with a functional one. ... Viral vectors are a tool commonly used by biologists to deliver genetic material into cells inside a living organism or cultured in vitro. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Not to be confused with inulin. ... Gene therapy is the insertion of genes into an individuals cells and tissues to treat a disease, and hereditary diseases in which a defective mutant allele is replaced with a functional one. ...

  • Gene therapy can be used to manufacture insulin directly: an oral medication, consisting of viral vectors containing the insulin sequence, is digested and delivers its genes to the upper intestines. Those intestinal cells will then behave like any viral infected cell, and will reproduce the insulin protein. The virus can be controlled to infect only the cells which respond to the presence of glucose, such that insulin is produced only in the presence of high glucose levels. Due to the limited numbers of vectors delivered, very few intestinal cells would actually be impacted and would die off naturally in a few days. Therefore by varying the amount of oral medication used, the amount of insulin created by gene therapy can be increased or decreased as needed. As the insulin producing intestinal cells die off, they are boosted by additional oral medications.[13]
  • Gene therapy might eventually be used to cure the cause of beta cell destruction, thereby curing the new diabetes patient before the beta cell destruction is complete and irreversible.[14]
  • Gene therapy can be used to turn duodenum cells and duodenum adult stem cells into beta cells which produce insulin and amylin naturally. By delivering beta cell DNA to the intestine cells in the duodenum, a few intestine cells will turn into beta cells, and subsequently adult stem cells will develop into beta cells. This makes the supply of beta cells in the duodenum self replenishing, and the beta cells will produce insulin in proportional response to carbohydrates consumed.[15]

Yonsei University study

Scientists in the South Korean university of Yonsei have, in 2000, succeeded in reversing diabetes in mice and rats. Using a viral vector, a DNA encoding the production of an insulin analog was injected to the animals, which remained non-diabetic for at least the eight months duration of the study.[16] For other places with the same name, see Korea (disambiguation). ... Yonsei University is a private university located in Seoul, South Korea. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Mice may refer to: An abbreviation of Meetings, Incentives, Conferencing, Exhibitions. ... This article is about rats. ...


Nanotechnology approach

Under the nanotechnological approach to curing diabetes type 1, many "nanobots" would be injected into the patient's bloodstream. These nanobots would be able to synthesize insulin, and to secrete it according to the level of glucose they would sense.[17] Nanotechnology refers to a field of applied science and technology whose theme is the control of matter on the atomic and molecular scale, generally 100 nanometers or smaller, and the fabrication of devices that lie within that size range. ... A nanobot is a nanotechnological robot nanomachine, also called a nanite, which is a mechanical or electromechanical device whose dimensions are measured in nanometres (millionths of a millimetre, or units of 10-9 metrer). ... Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are present in the blood and help carry oxygen to the rest of the cells in the body Blood is a circulating tissue composed of fluid plasma and cells (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets). ... Synthesis (from the Greek words syn = plus and thesis = position) is commonly understood to be an integration of two or more pre-existing elements which results in a new creation. ...


Prevention

"Immunization" approach

If a biochemical mechanism can be found that prevents the immune system from attacking beta cells, it may be administered to prevent commencement of diabetes type 1. The way several groups are trying to achieve this is by causing the activation state of the immune system to change from Th1 state (“attack” by killer T Cells) to Th2 state (development of new antibodies). This Th1-Th2 shift occurs via a change in the type of cytokine signaling molecules being released by regulatory T-cells. Instead of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the regulatory T-cells begin to release cytokines that inhibit inflammation.[18] This phenomenon is commonly known as "acquired immune tolerance". Cytokines are a category of less-widely-known signalling proteins and glycoproteins that, like hormones and neurotransmitters, are used extensively in cellular communication. ... Immune or immunological tolerance is the process by which the immune system does not attack an antigen. ...


DiaPep277

A substance designed to cause lymphocyte cells to cease attacking beta cells, DiaPep277 is a peptide fragment of a larger protein called HSP60. Given as a subcutaneous injection, its mechanism of action involves a Th1-Th2 shift. Clinical success has been demonstrated in prolonging the "honeymoon" period for people who already have type 1 diabetes.[19] The product is currently being tested in people with latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA). Ownership of the drug has changed hands several times over the last decade. In 2007, Clal Biotechnology Industries (CBI) Ltd., an Israeli investment group in the field of life sciences, announced that Andromeda Biotech Ltd., a wholly owned subsidiary of CBI, signed a Term Sheet with Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. to develop and commercialize DiaPep277.[20] Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is a genetically-linked, hereditary autoimmune disorder that results in the body mistaking the pancreas as foreign and responding by attacking and destroying the insulin-producing beta islet cells of the pancreas. ... Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. ...


Intra-nasal insulin

There is pre-clinical evidence that a Th1-Th2 shift can be induced by administration of insulin directly onto the immune tissue in the nasal cavity. This observation has led to a clinical trial, called INIT II, which began in late 2006, based in Australia and New Zealand.


Denise Faustman research

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, or TNF-a, is part of the immune system. It helps the immune system discern between self and non-self. People with type 1 diabetes are deficient in this substance. Dr. Faustman theorizes that giving Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), an inexpensive drug, would have the same impact as injecting diabetic mice with Freund's Adjuvant, which stimulates TNF-a production. TNF-a kills the white blood cells responsible for destroying beta cells, and thus prevents, or reverses diabetes.[21] She has reversed diabetes in laboratory mice with this techniqe, but was only able to receive funding for subsequent research from The Iaccoca Foundation, founded by Lee Iacocca in honor of his late wife, who died from diabetes complications. Human trials are set to begin in 2008. In medicine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα, cachexin or cachectin) is an important cytokine involved in systemic inflammation and the acute phase response. ... Dr. Denise Faustman Denise Faustman, is a U.S. physician and medical researcher. ... An apparatus (4-5 cm length, with nine short needles) used for BCG vaccination in Japan. ... Freunds adjuvant is an antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil, used as an immunopotentiator (booster of the immune system). ... Lido Anthony Lee Iacocca (born October 15, 1924) is an American industrialist most commonly known for his revival of the Chrysler Corporation in the 1980s[1], serving as President and CEO from 1978 and additionally as chairman from 1979, until his retirement at the end of 1992. ...


Diamyd

Diamyd is the name of a vaccine being developed by Diamyd Medical. Injections with GAD65, an autoantigen involved in type 1 diabetes, has in clinical trials delayed the destruction of beta cells for at least 30 months, without serious adverse effects. Patients treated with the substance showed higher levels of regulatory cytokines, thought to protect the beta cells. Phase III trials are under way in the USA and in Europe.[22][23] L-Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is an enzyme necessary for the synthesis of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA in GABAergic nerve endings. ...


Entities involved in research

This section is an incomplete list of mainly commercial companies but also other entities, namely governmental institutions and individual persons, actively involved in research towards finding a cure to diabetes type 1.
It does not list research funds, hospitals in which research is undertaken, etc., but only the industrious, actual developers of such products. Look up Commercial in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Corporation (disambiguation). ...


Entities are listed alphabetically along with their status of research in that field, so that also entities which ceased research into finding a cure to diabetes type 1 may be listed.

  • Amylin Pharmaceuticals – is working toward finding a cure, and has a drug on the market called Symlin (pramlintide acetate) that helps in treating Type 1 diabetes
  • Cerco Medical [1] – Present status: Unknown
  • Denise Faustman [2] – Present status: Working on immune modification
  • DeveloGen [3] – Present status: Developing DiaPep 277
  • Diamyd Medical [4] – Present status: Developing GAD65-based vaccine (phase III application approved by the FDA)
  • Encelle [5] – Present status: On hold, awaiting decision on moving forward into encapsulated beta cell transplantation.[citation needed]

Amylin Pharmaceuticals is a biopharmaceutical company based in San Diego, CA that was founded in 1987. ... Dr. Denise Faustman Denise Faustman, is a U.S. physician and medical researcher. ... L-Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is an enzyme necessary for the synthesis of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA in GABAergic nerve endings. ...

Further reading

  • National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) - Diabetes in America Textbook (PDFs)

References

  1. ^ "Donner", "Horst"; "Harald Rau, Paul G. Walfish, Jens Braun, Thorsten Siegmund, Reinhard Finke, Jürgen Herwig, Klaus H. Usadel and Klaus Badenhoop" ("2007"). "CTLA4 Alanine-17 Confers Genetic Susceptibility to Graves’ Disease and to Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus". "The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Vol. 82, No. 1 143-146". "The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism". Retrieved on 2008-02-06.
  2. ^ content.nejm.org
  3. ^ Canadian scientists reverse diabetes in mice. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  4. ^ Islet cell transplant: Experimental treatment for type 1 diabetes - MayoClinic.com. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  5. ^ Without the use of large doses of immunosuppressants, that causes a multitude of other medical issues.
  6. ^ Cerco Medical: Science: Methods
  7. ^ Cerco Medical: Company: Islet Sheet Research
  8. ^ November 13, 2003 Regeneration of insulin-producing islets may lead to diabetes cure. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  9. ^ Faustman DL, Tran SD, Kodama S, et al (2006). "Comment on papers by Chong et al., Nishio et al., and Suri et al. on diabetes reversal in NOD mice". Science 314 (5803): 1243; author reply 1243. doi:10.1126/science.1129811. PMID 17124308. 
  10. ^ DiaKine Therapeutics and Kinexum Metabolics to Develop Novel Combination Treatment to Type 1 Diabetes
  11. ^ Voltarelli JC, Couri CE, Stracieri AB, et al (2007). "Autologous nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus". JAMA 297 (14): 1568–76. doi:10.1001/jama.297.14.1568. PMID 17426276. 
  12. ^ Gene Therapy Approaches to Diabetes
  13. ^ Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. - Cookie absent
  14. ^ hopkinsbayview.org
  15. ^ Engene Inc
  16. ^ Gene Therapy for Diabetes: Scientific American
  17. ^ IEEE Xplore - Login
  18. ^ jci.org
  19. ^ interscience.wiley.com
  20. ^ medicalnewstoday.com
  21. ^ Shinichiro Ryu, Shohta Kodama, Kazuko Ryu, David A. Schoenfeld & Denise L. Faustman. 2001. Reversal of established autoimmune diabetes by restoration of endogenous β cell function. J. Clin. Invest. 108(1): 63-72.
  22. ^ Further Evidence for Lasting Immunological Efficacy of Diamyd Diabets Vaccine
  23. ^ Diamyd Announces Completion of Type 1 Diabetes Vaccine Trial with Long Term Efficcacy Demonstrated at 30 Months

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Immunosuppression is the medical suppression of the immune system. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

Established in 1997 by The Endocrine Society as its public education affiliate, The Hormone Foundation serves as a resource for physicians, patients, and the public by promoting the prevention, treatment and cure of hormone-related conditions through outreach and education. ... The Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF) is the leading charitable funder and advocate of type 1 (juvenile) diabetes research worldwide. ... The American Diabetes Association, or the ADA, is an American health organization providing diabetes research, information and advocacy. ... Endocrinology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the endocrine system and its specific secretions called hormones. ... A renal cell carcinoma (chromophobe type) viewed on a hematoxylin & eosin stained slide Pathologist redirects here. ... Among the hundreds of endocrine diseases (or endocrinological diseases) are: Adrenal disorders: Adrenal insufficiency Addisons disease Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (adrenogenital syndrome) Mineralocorticoid deficiency Conns syndrome Cushings syndrome Pheochromocytoma Adrenocortical carcinoma Glucose homeostasis disorders: Diabetes mellitus Hypoglycemia Idiopathic hypoglycemia Insulinoma Metabolic bone disease: Osteoporosis Osteitis deformans (Pagets... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the medical term. ... Congenital hypothyroidism (CHT) is a condition of thyroid hormone deficiency present at birth. ... A goitre (BrE), or goiter (AmE) (Latin struma), also called a bronchocele, is a swelling in the neck (just below Adams apple or larynx) due to an enlarged thyroid gland. ... Myxedema (English: myxoedema) is a skin and tissue disorder usually due to severe prolonged hypothyroidism. ... Hyperthyroidism (or overactive thyroid gland) is the clinical syndrome caused by an excess of circulating free thyroxine (T4) or free triiodothyronine (T3), or both. ... Graves disease is a thyroid disorder characterized by goiter, exophthalmos, orange-peel skin, and hyperthyroidism. ... Toxic multinodular goitre (also known as toxic nodular goitre, toxic nodular struma) is a form of hyperthyroidism - where there is excess production of thyroid hormones. ... Look up teratoma in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A teratoma is a type of tumor that derives from pluripotent germ cells. ... de Quervains thyroiditis, is also known as subacute granulomatous thyroiditis or subacute thyroiditis; usually occurs in women between 30 and 50 years of age. ... Hashimotos thyroiditis or chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis is an autoimmune disease where the bodys own antibodies attack the cells of the thyroid. ... Riedels thyroiditis, also called Riedels struma is a chronic form of thyroiditis. ... Euthyroid sick syndrome is a thyroid hormone disorder where the levels of T3 and/or T4 are at unusual levels, but the thyroid gland does not appear to be dysfunctional. ... Thyroid hormone resistance describes a rare syndrome where the thyroid hormone levels are elevated but the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level is not suppressed, or not completely suppressed as would be expected. ... The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine systems of vertebrates. ... For the disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of very dilute urine, see diabetes insipidus. ... Diabetes mellitus type 2 or Type 2 Diabetes (formerly called non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM), obesity-related diabetes, or adult-onset diabetes) is a metabolic disorder that is primarily characterized by insulin resistance, relative insulin deficiency, and hyperglycemia. ... Diabetic coma is a medical emergency in which a person with diabetes mellitus is comatose (unconscious) because of one of three acute complications of diabetes: Severe diabetic hypoglycemia Advanced diabetic ketoacidosis advanced enough to result in unconsciousness from a combination of severe hyperglycemia, dehydration and shock, and exhaustion Hyperosmolar nonketotic... Angiopathy is a disease of the blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries) that occurs when someone has diabetes for a long time. ... Diabetic ketoacidosis(DKA) is a life-threatening complication in patients with untreated diabetes mellitus (chronic high blood sugar or hyperglycemia). ... Diabetic nephropathy (nephropatia diabetica), also known as Kimmelstiel-Wilson syndrome and intercapillary glomerulonephritis, is a progressive kidney disease caused by angiopathy of capillaries in the kidney glomeruli. ... Diabetic neuropathies are neuropathic disorders that are associated with diabetes mellitus. ... Diabetic retinopathy is retinopathy (damage to the retina) caused by complications of diabetes mellitus, which could eventually lead to blindness. ... Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) refers to any of several rare hereditary forms of diabetes mellitus due to dominantly inherited defects of insulin secretion. ... Hypoglycemia (hypoglycaemia in British English) is a medical term referring to a pathologic state produced by a lower than normal level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. ... Hyperinsulism or hyperinsulinemia is a condition in which the bodys cells do not respond properly to insulin, the hormone that functions to control blood sugar levels. ... Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is a disorder where increased levels of the hormone gastrin are produced, causing the stomach to produce excess hydrochloric acid. ... The four human parathyroid glands are adjacent to the thyroid. ... In medicine (endocrinology), hypoparathyroidism is decreased function of the parathyroid glands, leading to decreased levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH). ... Pseudohypoparathyroidism is a condition that mimics hypoparathyroidism, but is due to a resistance to parathyroid hormone, rather than a lack of the hormone (akin to the distinction between Type 1 diabetes and Type 2 diabetes. ... Hyperparathyroidism is overactivity of the parathyroid glands resulting in excess production of parathyroid hormone (PTH). ... Primary hyperparathyroidism causes hypercalcemia (elevated blood calcium levels) through the excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH), usually by an adenoma (benign tumors) of the parathyroid glands. ... Secondary hyperparathyroidism refers to the excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) by the parathyroid glands in response to hypocalcemia (low blood calcium levels) and associated hypertrophy of the glands. ... Tertiary hyperparathyroidism is a state of excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) after a long period of secondary hyperparathyroidism and resulting in hypercalcemia. ... | Latin = hypophysis, glandula pituitaria | GraySubject = 275 | GrayPage = 1275 | Image = Gray1180. ... Hyperpituitarism is the result of an overactive pituitary gland producing too much of the bodies natural growth hormones. ... Acromegaly (from Greek akros high and megas large - extremities enlargement) is a hormonal disorder that results when the pituitary gland produces excess growth hormone (hGH). ... Prolactin is a hormone secreted by lactotropes in the adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary gland) which is made up of 199 amino acids with a molecular weight of about 23,000 daltons. ... The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is a condition commonly found in the hospital population, especially in patients being hospitalized for central nervous system (CNS) injury. ... Hypopituitarism is a medical term describing deficiency (hypo) of one or more hormones of the pituitary gland. ... Simmonds disease (also Simmonds syndrome) refers to panhypopituitarism caused by the destruction of the pituitary gland due to infiltrative processes (e. ... Sheehan syndrome, also known as postpartum hypopituitarism or postpartum pituitary necrosis, is hypopituitarism (decreased functioning of the pituitary gland), caused by necrosis due to blood loss and hypovolemic shock during and after childbirth. ... Kallmann syndrome is an example of hypogonadism (decreased functioning of the sex hormone-producing glands) caused by a deficiency of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which is created by the hypothalamus. ... Growth Hormone Deficiency is the medical condition of inadequate production of growth hormone (GH) and its effects on children and adults. ... Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of severely diluted urine, which cannot be reduced when fluid intake is reduced. ... Adiposogenital dystrophy is a medical condition. ... Empty sella syndrome (abbreviated ESS) is a disorder that involves the sella turcica, a bony structure at the base of the brain that surrounds and protects the pituitary gland. ... Apoplexy () derives from the Greek word for seizure, in the sense of being struck down. ... In mammals, the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are the triangle-shaped endocrine glands that sit on top of the kidneys; their name indicates that position (ad-, near or at + -renes, kidneys). They are chiefly responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of corticosteroids and catecholamines... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Pseudo-Cushings syndrome is a medical condition in which patients display the signs, symptoms, and abnormal hormone levels seen in Cushings syndrome. ... Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) refers to any of several autosomal recessive diseases resulting from defects in steps of the synthesis of cortisol from cholesterol by the adrenal glands. ... Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia refers to an uncommon form of CAH resulting from defects in the earliest stages of adrenal cortisol synthesis: the transport of cholesterol into the mitochondria of the cells of the adrenal cortex and the conversion to pregnenolone. ... 3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase II deficient congenital adrenal hyperplasia (3βHSD CAH) is an uncommon form of CAH resulting from a defective gene for one of the key enzymes in cortisol synthesis by the adrenal glands. ... 11β-Hydroxylase deficient congenital adrenal hyperplasia (11β-OH CAH) is an uncommon form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia resulting from a defect in the gene for the enzyme which mediates the final step of cortisol synthesis in the adrenal. ... Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 17α-hydroxylase deficiency is an uncommon form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia resulting from a defect in the gene for the enzyme CYP17A1, which mediates several key transformations in the synthesis of both cortisol and sex steroids. ... Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, in all its forms, accounts for about 95% of diagnosed cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and CAH in most contexts refers to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. ... Conns syndrome is overproduction of the mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone by the adrenal glands. ... Bartter syndrome is a rare genetic disease characterized by low potassium levels (hypokalemia), decreased acidity of blood (alkalosis), and normal to low blood pressure. ... In medicine, adrenal insufficiency (or hypocortisolism) is the inability of the adrenal gland to produce adequate amounts of cortisol in response to stress. ... Addisons disease(also known as chronic adrenal insufficiency, hypocortisolism or hypocorticism) is a rare endocrine disorder in which the adrenal gland produces insufficient amounts of steroid hormones (glucocorticoids and often mineralocorticoids). ... In medicine (endocrinology), hypoaldosteronism refers to decreased levels of the hormone aldosterone. ... The gonad is the organ that makes gametes. ... Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (abbreviated PCOS or POS), also known clinically as Stein-Leventhal syndrome, is an endocrine disorder that affects approximately 10% of all women . ... Premature Ovarian Failure (POF) is the cessation of menstrual periods and ovulation in women under the age of 40. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Guevedoche. ... 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency is a rare disorder of sexual development which can produce impaired virilization (traditionally termed male pseudohermaphroditism) of genetically male infants and children and excessive virilization of female adults. ... -1... Puberty is described as delayed when a boy or girl has passed the usual age of onset of puberty with no physical or hormonal signs that it is beginning. ... Precocious puberty means early puberty. ... Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS, or Androgen resistance syndrome) is a set of disorders of sexual differentiation that results from mutations of the gene encoding the androgen receptor. ... In medicine, autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes are a heterogenous group of rare diseases characterised by autoimmune activity against more than one endocrine organs, although non-endocrine organs can be affected. ... Carcinoid syndrome refers to the array of symptoms that occur secondary to carcinoid tumors. ... Anna Haining Bates with her parents Greek gigas, gigantus (giant) is a condition characterized by excessive height growth and bigness. ... People who are shorter have short stature. ... Laron syndrome is a disorder characterized by an insensitivity to growth hormone, caused by a variant of the growth hormone receptor. ... Psychogenic dwarfism, Psychosocial dwarfism or Stress dwarfism is a growth disorder that is observed between the ages of 2 and 15, caused by extreme emotional deprivation or stress. ... Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) (or multiple endocrine adenomas, or multiple endocrine adenomatosis -- MEA) consists of three syndromes featuring tumors of endocrine glands, each with its own characteristic pattern. ... Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is part of a group of disorders that affect the endocrine system. ... Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 is part of a group of disorders that affect the endocrine system. ... Progeria (Greek, old age) refers specifically to Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria syndrome. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Diabetes mellitus type 1 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (354 words)
Type 1 diabetes (formerly known as "childhood" or "juvenile" diabetes or "insulin dependent" diabetes) is most commonly diagnosed in children and adolescents, but can occur in adults as well.
A subtype of type 1 (identifiable by the presence of antibodies against beta cells) develops slowly and so is often confused with Type 2.
The fraction of type 1 diabetics in other parts of the world differs; this is likely due to both differences in the rate of type 1 and differences in the rate of other types, most prominently type 2.
Diabetes mellitus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5135 words)
Early symptoms of type 1 diabetes are often polyuria (frequent urination) and polydipsia (increased thirst, and consequent increased fluid intake).
Diabetes is often detected when a person suffers a problem frequently caused by diabetes, such as a heart attack, stroke, neuropathy, poor wound healing or a foot ulcer, certain eye problems, certain fungal infections, or delivering a baby with macrosomia or hypoglycemia.
Diabetes is a chronic disease with no cure (except experimentally in type 1 diabetics) as of 2005.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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