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Encyclopedia > Diabetes insipidus
Diabetes insipidus
Classification & external resources
ICD-10 E23.2
ICD-9 253.5
DiseasesDB 3639
MedlinePlus 000377
Central000460
Congenital
000461
Nephrogenic 000511
eMedicine med/543  ped/580

Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of severely diluted urine, which cannot be reduced when fluid intake is reduced. It denotes inability of the kidney to concentrate urine. DI is caused by a deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), also known as vasopressin, or by an insensitivity of the kidneys to that hormone. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following codes are used with International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... // E00-E35 - Endocrine diseases (E00-E07) Disorders of thyroid gland (E00) Congenital iodine-deficiency syndrome (E01) Iodine-deficiency-related thyroid disorders and allied conditions (E02) Subclinical iodine-deficiency hypothyroidism (E03) Other hypothyroidism (E030) Congenital hypothyroidism with diffuse goitre (E031) Congenital hypothyroidism without goitre (E032) Hypothyroidism due to medicaments and other... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... The term disease refers to an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs function. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), or arginine vasopressin (AVP), is a peptide hormone produced by the hypothalamus, and stored in the posterior part of the pituitary gland. ... It has been suggested that Renal anomalies and Renal plasma threshold be merged into this article or section. ...

Contents

Signs and symptoms

Excessive urination and extreme thirst (especially for cold water) are typical for DI. Symptoms of diabetes insipidus are quite similar to those of untreated diabetes mellitus, with the distinction that the urine is not sweet and there is no hyperglycemia (elevated blood glucose). Blurred vision is a rarity. For the disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of very dilute urine, see diabetes insipidus. ... Hyperglycemia or High Blood Sugar is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma. ... In medicine, blood sugar is glucose in the blood. ...


The extreme urination continues throughout the day and the night. In children, DI can interfere with appetite, eating, weight gain, and growth as well. They may present with fever, vomiting, or diarrhea. Adults with untreated DI may remain healthy for decades as long as enough water is drunk to offset the urinary losses. However, there is a continuous risk of dehydration. Human development is the process of growing to maturity. ... An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... Vomiting (also throwing up or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose. ... Types 5-7 on the Bristol Stool Chart are often associated with diarrhea Diarrhea (in American English) or diarrhoea (in British English) is a generally unpleasant condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the Greek word διάρροια; literally meaning through-flowing). Acute infectious diarrhea is a... Dehydration (hypohydration) is the removal of water (hydro in ancient Greek) from an object. ...


Diagnosis

In order to distinguish DI from other causes of excess urination, blood glucose, bicarbonate and calcium need to be tested. Electrolytes can show substantial derangement; hypernatremia (excess sodium levels) are common in severe cases. Urinalysis shows low electrolyte levels, and measurement of urine osmolarity (or specific gravity) is generally low. In medicine, blood sugar is glucose in the blood. ... In inorganic chemistry, a bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid. ... General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 40. ... An electrolyte is a substance containing free ions which behaves as an electrically conductive medium. ... Hypernatremia is an electrolyte disturbance consisting of an elevated sodium level in the blood (compare to hyponatremia, meaning a low sodium level). ... General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 3, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 22. ... A urinalysis (or UA) is an array of tests performed on urine and one of the most common methods of medical diagnosis. ... Osmolality, in biology and chemistry, is a measure of moles of solute per kg of water. ...


A fluid deprivation test helps determine whether DI is caused by:

  1. excessive intake of fluid
  2. a defect in ADH production
  3. a defect in the kidneys' response to ADH

This test measures changes in body weight, urine output, and urine composition when fluids are withheld. Sometimes measuring blood levels of ADH during this test is also necessary. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), or arginine vasopressin (AVP), is a peptide hormone produced by the hypothalamus, and stored in the posterior part of the pituitary gland. ... Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), or arginine vasopressin (AVP), is a peptide hormone produced by the hypothalamus, and stored in the posterior part of the pituitary gland. ...


To distinguish between the main forms, desmopressin stimulation is also used; desmopressin can be taken by injection, a nasal spray, or a tablet. While taking desmopressin, a patient should drink fluids or water only when thirsty and not at other times, as this can lead to sudden fluid accumulation in central nervous system. If desmopressin reduces urine output and increases osmolarity, the pituitary production of ADH is deficient, and the kidney responds normally. If the DI is due to renal pathology, desmopressin does not change either urine output or osmolarity. Desmopressin (DDAVP®, Stimate®, Minirin®) is a synthetic drug that mimics the action of antidiuretic hormone, also known as arginine vasopressin. ...


If central DI is suspected, testing of other hormones of the pituitary, as well as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is necessary to discover if a disease process (such as a prolactinoma, or histiocytosis, syphilis, tuberculosis or other tumor or granuloma) is affecting pituitary function. Located at the base of the skull, the pituitary gland is protected by a bony structure called the sella turcica. ... Magnetic Resonance Image showing a median sagittal cross section through a human head. ... A prolactinoma is a benign tumor (adenoma) of the pituitary gland that produces a hormone called prolactin. ... Though histiocytosis can refer to any of several specific diseases, the term is generally used to refer to a rare blood disease that is caused by an excess of white blood cells called histiocytes. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for Tubercle Bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease that is caused by mycobacteria, primarily Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Tumor or tumour literally means swelling, and is sometimes still used with that meaning. ... H&E section of non-caseasting granuloma seen in the colon of a patient with Crohns disease In medicine (anatomical pathology), a granuloma is a group of epithelioid macrophages surrounded by a lymphocyte cuff. ...


Habit drinking (in its severest form termed psychogenic polydipsia) is the most common imitator of diabetes insipidus at all ages. While many adult cases in the medical literature are associated with mental disorders, most patients with habit polydipsia have no other detectable disease. The distinction is made during the water deprivation test, as some degree of urinary concentration above isosmolar is eventually obtained before the patient becomes dehydrated. Psychogenic polydipsia is a special form of polydipsia, caused by mental disorders. ...


Pathophysiology

Electrolyte and volume homeostasis is a complex mechanism that balances the body's requirements for blood pressure and the main electrolytes sodium and potassium. In general, electrolyte regulation precedes volume regulation. When the volume is severely depleted, however, the body will retain water at the expense of deranging electrolyte levels. Homeostasis is the property of an open system, especially living organisms, to regulate its internal environment to maintain a stable, constant condition, by means of multiple dynamic equilibrium adjustments, controlled by interrelated regulation mechanisms. ... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring blood pressure. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 3, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 22. ... General Name, Symbol, Number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ...


The regulation of urine production is the hypothalamus, which produces antidiuretic hormone (ADH or vasopressin) in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei. After synthesis, the hormone is transported in neurosecretory granules down the axon of the hypothalamic neuron to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland where it is stored for later release. In addition, the hypothalamus regulates the sensation of thirst in the ventromedial nucleus by sensing increases in serum osmolarity and relaying this information to the cortex. The hypothalamus, also known as the master gland, links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland. ... Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), or arginine vasopressin (AVP), is a peptide hormone produced by the hypothalamus, and stored in the posterior part of the pituitary gland. ... The supraoptic nucleus (SON) is a nucleus of magnocellular neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus of the mammalian brain. ... The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is an aggregation of neurons in the hypothalamus, adjacent to the third ventricle. ... The pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea that sits in a small, bony cavity (pituitary fossa) covered by a dural fold (sellar diaphragm) at the base of the brain. ... The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (sometimes referred to as the ventromedial hypothalamus) has four subdivisions: anterior (VMHa), dorsomedial (VMHdm), ventrolateral (VMHvl), and central (VMHc). ... Location of the cerebral cortex Slice of the cerebral cortex, ca. ...


The main effector organ for fluid homeostasis is the kidney. ADH acts by increasing water permeability in the collecting ducts, specifically it acts on proteins called aquaporins which open to allow water into the collecting duct cells. This increase in permeability allows for reabsorption of water into the bloodstream, thus concentrating the urine. A significant fraction of the human body is water. ... It has been suggested that Renal anomalies and Renal plasma threshold be merged into this article or section. ... The collecting duct system of the kidney consists of a series of tubules and ducts that connect the nephrons to the ureter. ... Sideview of Aquaporin 1 (AQP1) Channel Aquaporins are a class of integral membrane proteins or more commonly referred to as a class of major intrinsic proteins (MIP) that form pores in the membrane of biological cells. ...


There are several forms of DI:

  • Central diabetes insipidus is due to damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary due to a tumor, stroke, neurosurgery or some rather rare causes (which include hemochromatosis, sarcoidosis, histiocytosis, diseases that can form masses in the vicinity like a tuberculoma or syphilis and some genetic disorders). If the hypothalamus is damaged, the feeling of thirst may be completely absent.
  • Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is due to the inability of the kidney to respond normally to ADH. There are hereditary causes (90% are due to mutations of the ADH V2 receptor, and 10% mutations of the aquaporin 2 water channel), but these are rare (incidence is around 4 per million live births). Most are male, because V2 receptor mutations are x-linked recessive defects. More common are acquired forms of NDI, which occur as a side-effect to some medications (such as lithium citrate and amphotericin B), as well as in polycystic kidney disease (PKD) and sickle-cell disease, and electrolyte disturbances such as hypokalaemia and hypercalcaemia. In some cases, no cause is found.
  • Dipsogenic DI is due to a defect or damage to the thirst mechanism, which is located in the hypothalamus. This defect results in an abnormal increase in thirst and fluid intake that suppresses ADH secretion and increases urine output. Desmopressin is ineffective, and can lead to fluid overload as the thirst remains.
  • Gestational DI only occurs during pregnancy. While all pregnant women produce vasopressinase in the placenta, which breaks down ADH, this can assume extreme forms in GDI. Most cases of gestational DI can be treated with desmopressin. In rare cases, however, an abnormality in the thirst mechanism causes gestational DI, and desmopressin should not be used.

Tumor or tumour literally means swelling, and is sometimes still used with that meaning. ... A stroke or cerebrovascular accident (CVA) occurs when the blood supply to a part of the brain is suddenly interrupted by occlusion (an ischemic stroke- approximately 90% of strokes), by hemorrhage (a hemorrhagic stroke - less than 10% of strokes) or other causes. ... Insertion of an electrode during neurosurgery for Parkinsons disease. ... Haemochromatosis, also spelled hemochromatosis, is a hereditary disease characterized by improper processing by the body of dietary iron which causes iron to accumulate in a number of body tissues, eventually causing organ dysfunction. ... Though histiocytosis can refer to any of several specific diseases, the term is generally used to refer to a rare blood disease that is caused by an excess of white blood cells called histiocytes. ... It has been suggested that Antituberculant be merged into this article or section. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A genetic disorder or a clinical phenotype. ... Sideview of Aquaporin 1 (AQP1) Channel Aquaporins are a class of integral membrane proteins or more commonly referred to as a class of major intrinsic proteins (MIP) that form pores in the membrane of biological cells. ... Oral medication A medication is any drug taken to cure or reduce the symptoms of an illness or ongoing medical condition. ... Lithium salts are chemical salts of lithium used as mood stabilizing drugs, primarily in the treatment of bipolar disorder, depression, and mania; but also in treating schizophrenia. ... Amphotericin B (Fungilin®, Fungizone®, Abelcet®, AmBisome®, Fungisome®, Amphocil®, Amphotec®) is a polyene antimycotic drug, used intravenously in systemic fungal infections. ... Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a progressive, genetic disorder of the kidneys. ... Sickle-cell disease is a group of genetic disorders caused by sickle hemoglobin (Hgb S or Hb S). ... A pregnant woman near the end of her term Pregnancy is the carrying of one or more embryos or fetuses by female mammals, including humans, inside their bodies. ... The placenta is an ephemeral (temporary) organ present in female placental vertebrates during gestation (pregnancy), but a placenta has evolved independently also in other animals as well, for instance scorpions and velvet worms. ...

Treatment

Central DI and gestational DI respond to desmopressin. In dipsogenic DI, desmopressin is not usually an option. Desmopressin (DDAVP®, Stimate®, Minirin®) is a synthetic drug that mimics the action of antidiuretic hormone, also known as arginine vasopressin. ...


Desmopressin will be ineffective in nephrogenic DI. Instead, the diuretic hydrochlorothiazide (HCT or HCTZ) or indomethacin can improve NDI; HCT is sometimes combined with amiloride to prevent hypokalemia. Again, the patient should be reminded only to drink fluids when thirsty, and not at other times. A diuretic (colloquially called a water pill) is any drug or herb that elevates the rate of bodily urine excretion (diuresis). ... Hydrochlorothiazide (Apo-Hydro®, Aquazide H®, Microzide®, Oretic®), sometimes abbreviated HCT, HCTZ, or HZT is a popular diuretic drug that acts by inhibiting the kidneys ability to retain water. ... Indomethacin (USAN) or indometacin (INN) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug commonly used to reduce fever, pain, stiffness, and swelling. ... Amiloride is an antihypertensive, a potassium-sparing diuretic that was first approved for use in 1967 and helps to treat hypertension and congestive heart failure. ... Hypokalemia is a potentially fatal condition in which the body fails to retain sufficient potassium to maintain health. ...


Sources

  • The public domain document "Diabetes Insipidus", NIH Publication No. 01-4620, December 2000.

The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... NIH can refer to: National Institutes of Health Norwegian School of Sports Sciences: (Norges idrettshøgskole - NIH) Not Invented Here This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Diabetes insipidus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (840 words)
Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of severely diluted urine, which cannot be reduced when fluid intake is reduced.
Symptoms of diabetes insipidus are quite similar to those of severely deranged diabetes mellitus, with the distinction that the urine is not sweet and there is no hyperglycemia (elevated blood glucose).
Central diabetes insipidus is due to damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary due to a tumor, stroke, neurosurgery or some rather rare causes (which include hemochromatosis, sarcoidosis, histiocytosis and some genetic disorders).
The Facts About Diabetes Insipidus (893 words)
It is not possible to diagnose diabetes insipidus until the symptoms of excessive thirst and urination are present.
Diabetes insipidus is caused by the lack of antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin), and sugar diabetes is caused by lack of the hormone insulin.
If a child has diabetes insipidus and is in school, it is important for the teacher and school officials to be aware of this problem and the sometimes "immediate" need to drink water and go to the bathroom.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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