FACTOID # 3: South Carolina has the highest rate of violent crimes and aggravated assaults per capita among US states.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Dhyana" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Dhyana
Dhyana
Sanskrit Name
Romanization Dhyāna
Devanāgarī ध्यान
Pali Name
Romanization Jhāna
Devanāgarī झान
Sinhala ඣාන
Chinese Name
Hanyu Pinyin Chán
Wade-Giles Ch'an
Cantonese IPA sɪm4
Cantonese Jyutping sim
Hanzi
Jiantizi
Korean Name
Revised Romanization Seon
McCune-Reischauer Sŏn
Hangul
Hanja
Japanese Name
Romaji Zen
Kanji
Vietnamese Name
Quốc ngữ Thiền

Dhyāna is a term in Sanskrit which refers to a type or aspect of meditation. It is a key concept in Hinduism and Buddhism. Equivalent terms are jhāna in Pāli, "chán" in Chinese, "seon" in Korean, and "zen" in Japanese. Sanskrit ( संस्कृतम्) is an Indo-European classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ... In linguistics, romanization (or Latinization, also spelled romanisation or Latinisation) is the representation of a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, or a system for doing so, where the original word or language uses a different writing system. ... DevanāgarÄ« (Sanskrit: —, pronounced , in English pronounced ) is an abugida writing system used to write, either along with other scripts, or exclusively, several North Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri, Nepali from Nepal and sometimes Kashmiri and Romani. ... For the town and district in Rajasthan, see Pali, Rajasthan For the Ganapati temple of pali and place in Maharastra, see Ballaleshwar Pali Pāli (Devanagari पालि) is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... In linguistics, romanization (or Latinization, also spelled romanisation or Latinisation) is the representation of a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, or a system for doing so, where the original word or language uses a different writing system. ... DevanāgarÄ« (Sanskrit: —, pronounced , in English pronounced ) is an abugida writing system used to write, either along with other scripts, or exclusively, several North Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri, Nepali from Nepal and sometimes Kashmiri and Romani. ... The Sinhala script is used to write the Sinhala language. ... Pinyin (拼音, Pīnyīn) literally means join (together) sounds (a less literal translation being phoneticize, spell or transcription) in Chinese and usually refers to Hànyǔ Pīnyīn (汉语拼音, literal meaning: Han language pinyin), which is a system of romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration to roman script) for Standard Mandarin used in the... Chán is a major school of Chinese Mahāyāna Buddhism. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... This article is on all of the Yue dialects. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... This article is on all of the Yue dialects. ... Jyutping (Traditional Chinese: 粵拼; Simplified Chinese: 粤拼; pinyin: yuèpÄ«n; Yale: yuhtpÄ«ng; Jyutping: jyut6ping3; sometimes spelled Jyutpin) is a romanization system for Standard Cantonese developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK) in 1993. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Chinese Pinyin 简体字 (Jian3ti3zi4) Simplified Chinese character see also Fantizi Hanzi Hanyu Zhongwen Putonghua Guoyu Huayu ... The Revised Romanization of Korean (Korean: 국어의 로마자 표기법; 國語의 로마字 表記法) is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea. ... The Seon school is a Korean branch of Buddhism that shares its origins and many characteristics with Chinese Chan and whose influence originated aspects of Japanese Zen. ... McCune-Reischauer romanization is one of the two most widely used Korean language romanization systems, along with the Revised Romanization of Korean, which replaced (a modified) McCune-Reischauer as the official romanization system in South Korea in 2000. ... Hangul also refers to a word processing application widely used in Korea. ... It has been suggested that Sino-Korean be merged into this article or section. ... Japanese writing Kanji 漢字 Kana 仮名 Hiragana 平仮名 Katakana 片仮名 Uses Furigana 振り仮名 Okurigana 送り仮名 Romaji ローマ字 The title given to this article lacks diacritics because of certain technical limitations. ... Bodhidharma, woodcut print by Yoshitoshi, 1887. ... Japanese writing Kanji 漢字 Kana 仮名 Hiragana 平仮名 Katakana 片仮名 Uses Furigana 振り仮名 Okurigana 送り仮名 Rōmaji ローマ字 Kanji ( (help· info)) are the Chinese characters (Hanzi) that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名) and the Roman alphabet. ... The Vietnamese alphabet (quốc ngữ or national script) is the current writing system for the national language of Vietnam. ... Sanskrit ( संस्कृतम्) is an Indo-European classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ... Meditation is the practice of focusing the mind, often formalized into a specific routine. ... Hinduism (Sanskrit/Hindi —, hindi , and ) is a religion originating in the Indian subcontinent, based on the Vedas, and among the oldest religious traditions still practiced today. ... Buddhism (Pāli Buddhadhamma or Sanskrit Buddhadharma) is a religion and philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, who lived in the 5th century BCE. Buddhism spread throughout the ancient Indian sub-continent in the five centuries following his death, and propagated into Central, Southeast, and... For the town and district in Rajasthan, see Pali, Rajasthan For the Ganapati temple of pali and place in Maharastra, see Ballaleshwar Pali Pāli (Devanagari पालि) is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... Chán is a major school of Chinese Mahāyāna Buddhism. ... The Seon school is a Korean branch of Buddhism that shares its origins and many characteristics with Chinese Chan and whose influence originated aspects of Japanese Zen. ... Bodhidharma, woodcut print by Yoshitoshi, 1887. ...

Contents


Dhyāna in Buddhism

In the Pali Canon the Buddha describes eight progressive states of absorption meditation or Jhana. The first four are connected to the physical realm and the last four only with the mental realm (i.e. there is no experience of the body in the four higher Jhanas). It must be noted that these states are not the final goal that the Buddha taught since they are all still in the field of mind and matter. The final goal of Nibbana (Sanskrit:Nirvana) is the experience beyond mind and matter.
Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is one the earliest existing scripture collections of the Buddhist tradition. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Meditation is the practice of focusing the mind, often formalized into a specific routine. ... The following article is about the term Nirvana in the context of Buddhism. ... In the Indian religions Buddhism, Jainism and Hinduism, nirvāna (from the Sanskrit निर्वाण, Pali: Nibbāna -- Chinese: 涅槃; Pinyin: niè pán), literally extinction and/or extinguishing, is the culmination of the yogis pursuit of liberation. ...


In East Asia, several schools of Buddhism were founded that focused on dhyana, under the names Chan, Zen, and Seon. According to tradition, Bodhidharma brought Dhyana to the Shaolin temple in China, where it came to be transliterated as "chan" ("seon" in Korea, and then "zen" in Japan).
Geographic scope of East Asia East Asia is a subregion of Asia that can be defined in either geographical or cultural terms. ... Chán is a major school of Chinese Mahāyāna Buddhism. ... Bodhidharma, woodcut print by Yoshitoshi, 1887. ... The Seon school is a Korean branch of Buddhism that shares its origins and many characteristics with Chinese Chan and whose influence originated aspects of Japanese Zen. ... Bodhidharma, woodblock print by Yoshitoshi, 1887. ... Main gate of the Shaolin temple in Henan. ... Chán is a major school of Chinese Mahāyāna Buddhism. ... The Seon school is a Korean branch of Buddhism that shares its origins and many characteristics with Chinese Chan and whose influence originated aspects of Japanese Zen. ... Bodhidharma, woodcut print by Yoshitoshi, 1887. ...


Jhanas are normally described by the way of the mental factors which are present in these states


1. Initial application Vitakka
2. Sustained application Vicara
3. Joy Piti
4. Happiness Sukkha
5. One-pointedness Ekaggata
Vitakka (pāli) , both in hinduist yoga and buddhist meditation , means the action of taking care of any object : God, ones body, the Self, a color, any sensation. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... In Buddhist meditation, Sukkha is a type of emotion and one of the factors of Jhana. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and make it more accessible to a general audience, this article may require cleanup. ...

As the meditator reaches this first Jhana, he can meditate without being disturbed by any thought or desire, though thoughts are still there.
Vitakka (pāli) , both in hinduist yoga and buddhist meditation , means the action of taking care of any object : God, ones body, the Self, a color, any sensation. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... In Buddhist meditation, Sukkha is a type of emotion and one of the factors of Jhana. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and make it more accessible to a general audience, this article may require cleanup. ...

All intellectual processes cease. There is only rapture, happiness, and the object. The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... In Buddhist meditation, Sukkha is a type of emotion and one of the factors of Jhana. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and make it more accessible to a general audience, this article may require cleanup. ...

Joy disappears. In Buddhist meditation, Sukkha is a type of emotion and one of the factors of Jhana. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and make it more accessible to a general audience, this article may require cleanup. ...

Even happiness disappears, leading to a state with neither pleasure nor suffering. The Buddha described the Jhanas as "the footsteps of the tathagata".
Traditionally, this fourth Jhana is seen as the beginning of attaining psychic powers.
The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and make it more accessible to a general audience, this article may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Tathāgata (Sanskrit; Pali The one thus-come or The one thus-gone; Chinese: 如來; Pinyin: Rú lái; Japanese: nyorai) This is traditionally interpreted as one who comes and goes in the same way (as the previous Buddhas). Tathāgata is the name which the historical Buddha Sakyamuni (Siddhattha Gotama...


These four are rupajhanas, material jhanas. An additional four arupajhanas still consist in the two factors of Upekkha and Ekaggata.
Arupajhanas are non-material jhanas and are described by their mental object :
In Buddhism, rūpajhāna is meditation in which the mind is focused on a material object: it is a word used in Pāli scriptures. ... In Buddhism, the arūpajhānas are four successive levels of meditation on non-material objects. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and make it more accessible to a general audience, this article may require cleanup. ...

Usually Jhanas are exposed as part of Samatha's practice, as opposed to Vipassana. But Vipassana jhanas are also mentioned. When the awareness of the arising and passing of physical sensations is maintained during the first four Jhanas they are Vipassana Jhanas.
Infinity is a word carrying a number of different meanings in mathematics, philosophy, theology and everyday life. ... Space has been an occupation for philosophers and scientists for much of human history, and hence it is difficult to provide an uncontroversial and clear definition outside of specific defined contexts (except scientific definition of space in physics and mathematics - see below). ... Infinity is a word carrying a number of different meanings in mathematics, philosophy, theology and everyday life. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise such key features as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... For the mathematics of nothing, see zero. ... Samatha (Pāli; Sanskrit: śamatha), Tranquility or concentration meditation. ... Vipassanā is a Pali word meaning insight. ... Vipassana jhanas are steps that describe the evolution of Vipassanas practice. ...


Dhyāna in Hinduism

According to the Hindu Yoga Sutra dhyana is one of the eight methods of Yoga, (the other seven methods are Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharana, and Samadhi). This article is in need of attention. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Yanluo be merged into this article or section. ... The Niyamas are codified as the observances in numerous scriptures including the Shandilya and Varuha Upanishads, Hatha Yoga Pradipika by Gorakshanatha, the Tirumantiram of Tirumular and the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. ... Eka-Pada-Rajakapotasana or Single Legged Pidgeon Asana is Sanskrit for seat. It is no accident that this word be chosen to describe the posture of Yoga. ... Pranayama is the fourth limb of Raja Yoga expounded in the Yoga Sutras of Patañjali. ... Pratyahara is the fifth among the Eight steps of Patanjalis Ashtanga Yoga. ... Dharana (Pronounced Dhaaranaa, with a voiced, aspirated dh) is the sixth of the eight steps of Patanjalis Ashtanga Yoga. ... Samadhi is a term used in Hindu and Buddhist yogic meditation. ...


In the Ashtanga Yoga of Patanjali, the stage of meditation preceding dhyāna is called dharana. In Dhyana, the meditator is not conscious of the act of meditation (i.e. is not aware that s/he is meditating) but is only aware that s/he exists (consciousness of being), and aware of the object of meditation. Dhyana is distinct from Dharana in that the meditator becomes one with the object of meditation and is able to maintain this oneness for 144 inhalations and expirations. For the system of yoga taught by Sri K. Pattabhi Jois, see Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga. ... Patañjali, is the compiler of the Yoga Sutra, a major work containing aphorisms on the practical and philosophical wisdom regarding practice of Raja yoga. ... Dharana (Pronounced Dhaaranaa, with a voiced, aspirated dh) is the sixth of the eight steps of Patanjalis Ashtanga Yoga. ... Dharana (Pronounced Dhaaranaa, with a voiced, aspirated dh) is the sixth of the eight steps of Patanjalis Ashtanga Yoga. ...


The Dhyana Yoga system is specifically described by Sri Krishna in chapter 6 of the famous Bhagavad Gita, wherein He explains the many different Yoga systems to His friend and disciple, Arjuna. Krishna (कृष्ण in Devanagari, IAST ) is according to common Hindu tradition the eighth avatar of Vishnu. ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ... A Disciple (from the Latin discipulus, a pupil) is one who receives instruction from another; a scholar; a learner; especially, a follower who has learned to believe in the truth of the doctrine of his teacher, and implies that the pupil is under the discipline of, and understands, his teacher... Krishna to Arjuna: Behold My mystic opulence! Artwork © courtesy of The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust Arjuna (Sanskrit: अर्जुन, arjuna) is one of the heroes of the epic Hindu Mahabharata. ...


See also

In Buddhism, rūpajhāna is meditation in which the mind is focused on a material object: it is a word used in Pāli scriptures. ... In Buddhism, the arūpajhānas are four successive levels of meditation on non-material objects. ... For the system of yoga taught by Sri K. Pattabhi Jois, see Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga. ... Samadhi is a term used in Hindu and Buddhist yogic meditation. ... Buddhist meditation, meditation used in the practice of Buddhism, includes any method of meditation that has Enlightenment as its ultimate aim (Kamalashila 1996). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

External links

Buddhism Portal
Terms and concepts History Schools and sects People By region and country
List of topics Timeline Temples Texts Culture

  Results from FactBites:
 
Moksha Journal - Yoga and Meditation (Dhyana) - by Georg Feuerstein (2774 words)
The Sanskrit word dhyana, derived from the verbal root dhyai ("to contemplate, meditate, think"), is the most common designation both for the meditative state of consciousness and the yogic techniques by which it is induced.
The term dhyana is widely used to refer to the contemplative process that prepares the ground for the ecstatic state (samadhi), though occasionally the term is also employed to signify that superlative state of consciousness.
In the oldest Upanishads, dhyana is not yet recognized as a formal component of the spiritual path.
Yoga, Ashtanga Yoga, Dhyana, meditation, worship, religious meditation, contemplation, dharana, Yoga Sutra, yoga as a ... (331 words)
Dhyana is the seventh limb of Ashtanga Yoga.
During dhyana, the consciousness is further unified by combining clear insights into distinctions between objects and between the subtle layers of veils that surround intuition.
In dhyana, the consciousness of the practitioner is in one flow; it is no longer fixed on one subject as in dharana.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m